Because actions made without conscious awareness may later be given a conscious explanation by the actor.
James-Lange Theory of Emotion
Feelings of autonomic arousal cause emotions.
"I feel afraid because I tremble."
Commonsense Theory of Emotion
Conscious feelings of fear cause autonomic arousal.
"I tremble because I feel afraid."
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
Thalamus sends signals simultaneously to the cortex (where we feel emotions of fear) and to the autonomic nervous system.
"The dog makes me tremble AND feel afraid."
Schachter's Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
People infer emotion from autonomic arousal and then label it in accordance with their cognitive explanation for the arousal.
"I label my trembling as fear because I appraise the situation as dangerous."
Regarding meditation, what area in the brain is associated with focused activity and control?
Frontal Lobe (executive control).
Regarding meditation, what area in the brain is associated with a sense of time & place?
Chemical substances that modify mental, physical, emotional, or behavioral functioning.
Narcotics - Pain relief
Sedatives - "Downers"
Stimulants - Increased activation in CNS
Hallucinogens - Distorted perceptions/sensations
MDMA - Ecstasy
Jonathan Heidt's Rider on the Elephant Metaphor
Elephant is seen as the huge, powerful unconscious. Rider is seen as consciousness, one partial control over the elephant.
A larger hypothesis comprised of simpler ideas (in psychology).
The ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure.
The measurement consistency of a test.
Adoption of the simplest assumption in the formulation of a theory/idea.
Motives that originate from bodily needs.
Motives originating in social experiences.
The need to master difficult challenges, to outperform others, and to meet high standards of excellence.
Need for relationships with others.
Need to have power and wield more influence than others.
Gender Differences in Sexual Activity
Males think about sex and initiate sex more often than females.
Males are more willing to engage in casual sex and have more partners than females.
Gender Differences in Mate Preferences
Males place more emphasis on youthfulness and attractiveness.
Females place more emphasis on intelligence and financial prospects.
Parental Investment Theory
The sex that makes the smaller investment in offspring will compete for mating opportunities with the sex that makes the larger investment, which will be more discriminating in selecting partners.
Characteristics of people who score high in the need for achievement:
Tend to work harder.
Tend to be more persistent.
Tend to delay gratification more often than others.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
A projective test that requires subjects to respond to vague, ambiguous stimuli in ways that may reveal personal motives and traits.
Paul Ekman's 6 Basic Emotions
How is emotion measured?
Relevant psychological activity
What evidence suggests emotions are innate?
Studies using the fear-potentiated startle.
Facial Feedback Hypothesis
Inputs to subcortical centers automatically evoke facial expressions associated w/ certain emotions, and the facial muscles then feed signals to the cortex that help it recognize the emotion that one is experiencing.
Philosophic View of Emotion
A human centered-view. Tends to promote a distinction between cognition and emotion.
Behavioral/Biological Science View of Emotion
Emphasizes the functional, evolutionary significance of emotions and motivated behaviors.