Last Modified: 2011-10-26
Related Textbooks:LOOSE-LEAF BIOLOGY
something that creates it's own energy
Arsenic - affects pyruvate breakdown - stops Acetyl and CoA from coming together
Mercury - affects oxidative phosphorylation - interferes the ETC
CO - affects oxidative phosphorylation - interfere with the oxygen and ATP production
Cyanide - affects oxidative phosphorylation - interfere with the oxygen and ATP production
1. Carbon fixation
3. Regeneration of the CO2 acceptor (RuBP)
substrate level phosphorylation
Occurs in cytosol
- glucose (6-c) broke down to 2 pyruvate (3-C each)
- Net gain 2 ATP and 2 NADH
made via substrate level phosphorylation
substrate level phosphorylation
phenolitic compounds- flavinoids, lignins and Anthocyanins
alkaloids - caffine, morphine, atropine
polyketides - poisons
- Glycolysis and citric acid cycle
- Glucose (substrate)
- proteins added into the reaction as pyruvate, as Acytl-CoA and in citric acid cycle
- Lipids can be added to pyruvate and Acytl - CoA phases and create more energy than carbohydrates
- light harvesting complexes -->takes electron from pigment and sends through electron transport chain -->
Makes more ATP and oxydizes NADH
oxygen is a byproduct
- Electron excited by light --->cycles through electron transport chain ---> hydrogen to ATP syntase --> ATP is made
only makes ATP!!!
usually inorganic ion that temporarily binds to enzyme
- enzyme "helpers"
1) Vitamin C - muscle formation (collagen)
2) Vitamin B3 - fxns in the coenzymes NAD and NADP
- CO2 is fixed in thin-walled mesophyll cells by PEP
- The 4-carbon acid is actively pumped into bundle sheath cell where it is split to CO2 and a 3-carbon compound.
- CO2 then enters the Calvin cycle in a chloroplast of the bundle sheath cell and produces G3P and sucrose
- NO PHOTORESPIRATION!
- use ONLY Calvin Cycle for fixing carbon dioxide
- non-cyclic electron transport in thylakoid membrane
- Occurs in chloroplasts
C6H12O6 + 6O2 <----> 6CO2+6H2O (respiration)
- results in breakdown and are exergonic rxns
6CO2+12H2O <----> C6H12O6+6O2 (photosynthesis)
promotes synthesis and are endergonic
- must be coupled to exergonic rxn
Starts with = glucose, 2 ATP
ends with = 2 pyruvate, 2 NADH, 4ATP
these plants open stomata at night for the C4 cycle as to not loose water
Calvin cycle during the day
starts with = 2 pyruvate, CoA, NAD
ends with = 2 CO2, 2 Acetyl, 2 NADH
starts with = 2 Acetyl, CoA, 3 NAD, FAD, ADP
ends with = 4Co2, 6NADH, 2FADH, 2ATP
started with = light
ends with = ATP, NADPH, O2
starts with = ATP, NADPH, CO2
ends with = carbohydrates
Ae- + B -----> A + Be-
A - has been oxidized
- electron removed
B - has been reduced
- electron added
where the enzyme is saturated with substrate (plateau)
substrate concentration where velocity = half max. value
- increase Km req. increase substrate conc. to achieve a rxn.
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