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a temperamentally based style of responding characterized by the tendency to be particularly fearful and restrained when dealing with novel or stressful situations
extensively discussing and self-disclosing emotional problems with another person
a theory about emotions, held by Tomkins, Izard, and others, in which emotions are viewed as innate and discrete from one another from very early in life, and each emotion is believed to be packaged with a specific and distinctive set of bodily and facial reactions
a social group’s informal norms about when, where, and how much one should show emotions and when and where displays of emotion should be suppressed or masked by displays of other emotions
emotion is characterized by neural and physiological responses, subjective feelings, cognitions related to those feelings, and the desire to take action
a set of abilities that contribute to competence in the social and emotional domains
the process of initiating, inhibiting, or modulating internal feeling states and related physiological processes, cognitions, and behaviors
a theory of emotion, proposed by Campos and others, that argues that the basic function of emotions is to promote action toward achieving a goal. In this view, emotions are not discrete from one another and vary somewhat based on the social environment.
the degree to which an individual’s temperament is compatible with the demands and expectations of his or her social environment
a perseverative focus on one’s own negative emotions and on their causes and consequences, without engaging in efforts to improve one’s situation
emotions such as guilt, shame, embarrassment, and pride that relate to our sense of self and our consciousness of others’ reactions to us
feelings of distress that children, especially infants and toddlers, experience when they are separated, or expect to be separated, from individuals to whom they are emotionally attached
the ability to achieve personal goals in social interactions while simultaneously maintaining positive relationships with others
smiles that are directed at people. They first emerge as early as 6 to 7 weeks of age.
the process through which children acquire the values, standards, skills, knowledge, and behaviors that are regarded as appropriate for their present and future role in their particular culture
constitutionally based individual differences in emotional, motor, and attentional reactivity and self-regulation that demonstrate consistency across situations, as well as relative stability over time
working models of attachment in adulthood that are believed to be based on adults’ perceptions of their own childhood experiences—especially their relationships with their parents—and of the influence of these experiences on them as adults
an emotional bond with a specific person that is enduring across space and time. Usually, attachments are discussed in regard to the relation between infants and specific caregivers, although they can also occur in adulthood.
a type of insecure attachment in which infants or young children have no consistent way of coping with the stress of the Strange Situation. Their behavior is often confused or even contradictory, and they often appear dazed or disoriented.
individuals’ sense of belonging to an ethnic or racial group, including the degree to which they associate their thinking, perceptions, feelings, and behavior with membership in that group
a category of identity status in which the individual is not engaged in any identity experimentation and has established a vocational or ideological identity based on the choices or values of others
an integration of various aspects of the self into a coherent whole that is stable over time and across events
an incomplete and sometimes incoherent sense of self that often occurs in Erikson’s stage of identity versus identity confusion
the psychosocial stage of development, described by Erikson, that occurs during adolescence. During this stage, the adolescent or young adult either develops an identity or experiences an incomplete and sometimes incoherent sense of self.
a category of identity status in which, after a period of exploration, the individual has achieved a coherent and consolidated identity based on personal decisions regarding occupation, ideology, and the like. The individual believes that these decisions were made autonomously and is committed to them.
a category of identity status in which the individual does not have firm commitments and is not making progress toward them
the belief, stemming from adolescent egocentrism, that everyone else is focused on the adolescent’s appearance and behavior
a type of insecure attachment in which infants or young children seem somewhat indifferent toward their caregiver and may even avoid the caregiver. In the Strange Situation, they seem indifferent toward their caregiver before the caregiver leaves the room and indifferent or avoidant when the caregiver returns. If the infant gets upset when left alone, he or she is as easily comforted by a stranger as by a parent.
a type of insecure attachment in which infants or young children are clingy and stay close to their caregiver rather than exploring their environment. In the Strange Situation, insecure/resistant infants tend to get very upset when the caregiver leaves them alone in the room. When their caregiver returns, they are not easily comforted and both seek comfort and resist efforts by the caregiver to comfort them.
a category of identity status in which the individual is in the phase of experimentation with regard to occupational and ideological choices and has not yet made a clear commitment to them
an important factor contributing to the security of an infant’s attachment. Parental sensitivity can be exhibited in a variety of ways, including responsive caregiving when an infant is distressed or upset and engaging in coordinated play with the infant.
a form of adolescent egocentrism that involves beliefs in the uniqueness of one’s own feelings and thoughts
a time-out during which the adolescent is not expected to take on adult roles and can instead pursue activities that may lead to self-discovery
a pattern of attachment in which infants or young children have a high-quality, relatively unambivalent relationship with their attachment figure. In the Strange Situation, a securely attached infant, for example, may be upset when the caregiver leaves but may be happy to see the caregiver return, recovering quickly from any distress. When children are securely attached, they can use caregivers as a secure base for exploration.
refers to the idea that the presence of a trusted caregiver provides an infant or toddler with a sense of security that makes it possible for the child to explore the environment
a person’s preference in regard to males or females as objects of erotic feelings
young people who experience same-sex attractions
the process of comparing aspects of one’s own psychological, behavioral, or physical functioning to that of others in order to evaluate oneself
a procedure developed by Mary Ainsworth to assess infants’ attachment to their primary caregiver
refers to whether children are motivated by learning goals, seeking to improve their competence and master new material, or by performance goals, seeking to receive positive assessments of their competence or to avoid negative assessments
the second stage in Freud’s theory, lasting roughly from + to × years of age, in which the primary source of pleasure comes from defecation
a syndrome that involves difficulty in sustaining attention
a form of therapy based on principles of operant conditioning in which reinforcement contingencies are changed to encourage more adaptive behavior
intentional abuse or neglect that endangers the well-being of anyone under the age of 18
in the bioecological model, historical changes that influence the other systems
in psychoanalytic theory, the second personality structure to develop. It is the rational, logical, problem-solving component of personality.
Freud’s term for the conflict experienced by girls in the phallic stage when they develop unacceptable romantic feelings for their father and see their mother as a rival. (The complex is named after a figure in Greek mythology who arranged for the murder of her mother.)
a general tendency to attribute success and failure to enduring aspects of the self and to give up in the face of failure
in Freud’s theory, areas of the body that become erotically sensitive in successive stages of development
the study of the evolutionary bases of behavior
in the bioecological model, environmental settings that a person does not directly experience but that can affect the person indirectly
the fifth and final stage in Freud’s theory, beginning in adolescence, in which sexual maturation is complete and sexual intercourse becomes a major goal
in Dodge’s theory, the tendency to assume that other people’s ambiguous actions stem from a hostile intent
in psychoanalytic theory, the earliest and most primitive personality structure. It is unconscious and operates with the goal of seeking pleasure.
a general tendency to attribute success and failure to the amount of effort expended and to persist in the face of failure
inconsistent response to the behavior of another person, for example, sometimes punishing an unacceptable behavior and sometimes ignoring it
the process of adopting as one’s own the attributes, beliefs, and standards of another person
the fourth stage in Freud’s theory, lasting from age 6 to age 12, in which sexual energy gets channeled into socially acceptable activities
in the bioecological model, the larger cultural and social context within which the other systems are embedded
: in the bioecological model, the immediate environment that an individual personally experiences
Freud’s term for the conflict experienced by boys in the phallic period because of their sexual desire for their mother and their fear of retaliation by their father. (The complex is named for the king in Greek mythology who unknowingly murdered his father and married his mother.)
a theory that stresses the evolutionary basis of many aspects of parental behavior, including the extensive investment parents make in their offspring
an individual’s beliefs about how effectively he or she can control his or her own behavior, thoughts, and emotions in order to achieve a desired goal
the third stage in Freud’s theory, lasting from age × to age 6, in which sexual pleasure is focused on the genitalia
Freud’s term for the collection of biologically based instinctual drives that he believed fuel behavior, thoughts, and feelings
Bandura’s concept that child–environment influences operate in both directions; children are affected by aspects of their environment, but they also influence the environment
being aware of the perspective of another person, thereby better understanding that person’s behavior, thoughts, and feelings
active process during development whereby children’s cognitions lead them to perceive the world and to act in accord with their expectations and beliefs
in psychoanalytic theory, the third personality structure, consisting of internalized moral standards
a form of therapy based on classical conditioning, in which positive responses are gradually conditioned to stimuli that initially elicited a highly negative response. This approach is especially useful in the treatment of fears and phobias.
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