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· Presence of disturbed behavior for at least 6 months, including at least 1 month of active symptoms
· Have some type of delusion—may have one type, or several
· person thinks things in the environment refer to them. Ex.-like watching tv, reading a magazine or textbook and thinking everything refers to “me”
· believe that certain objects or persons are controlling them. Ex.-guy thought CIA had implants in his cheeks and were controlling what he said
Content of thoughts
-Better adjustment prior to onset
-Positive symptoms—something that is present that shouldn’t be there (hallucinations and delusions)
-Poor adjustment prior to onset
-Negative symptoms—anhedonia (unable to feel happy) and lack of energy
The psychological state of being male or female. Generally consistent with one’s genitals.
Attraction to and erotic fantasies about men, women, or both
-Heterosexuality, Homosexuality, Bisexuality
-Could have a M who thinks he’s an F who thinks she’s an M
The types of persons, parts of the body, and situations that are the objects of sexual fantasies, arousal, and preferences
-A strong persistent identification with the other gender
-A strong persistent sense of discomfort with one's anatomic gender or with the behaviors that typify the gender role of that gender
-AKA: Transsexualism, Transgender
-Can see it in childhood, sometimes goes away during adolescence
-Males are twice as likely as women to have this
-Often anxious, depressed and suicidal because they don't feel accepted
-Hypothalamus seems to be different structure
-Psychotherapy ineffective in resolving gender conflict
-Sex reassignment treatment:
-Counseling and psychological evaluation for acceptability to this arduous treatment
-Hormonal treatment--lifelong thing
-Living the life of the desired gender for one to two years before surgery
· Recurrent, intense, sexual urges to unusual or bizarre objects or situations
· Behavior has to continue for at least 6 months
the display of genitals to an involuntary observer
-1/10 will go on to become a rapist
-Do this when they are very stressed usually
o May masturbate while doing it or later on with the thought of it
o Like the chance of being caught
· recurrent intense sexual urges and fantasies about sexual activity with a child
o Victim is under the age of 13
o Poor social skills
o Misinterpret a child’s behavior, a hug isn’t sexual!
o Victims may be male or female—2/3 are female
· rubbing up against strangers
o Some are looking for old people
o Some are looking for amputees b/c they want to rub up against the amputated limb
· a fetish involving a male wearing women’s clothing
o Also known as cross dressing
o Aroused by the clothes not the partner
o Not gender identity disorder, straight man wearing female’s clothingUsually starts in adolescence and is hard on families
o Central element is the infliction of pain
o Sadist wants to hurt people
o Masochist wants to be hurt
sexually arousing urges and fantasies involving acts that cause physical or psychological suffering to another person
-Extreme sadist could kill people--serial killer
-Can start in early childhood--Jeffrey Dahmer
-Paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders
-Symptoms similar to those of schizophrenia
-Deep suspicion or mistrust of others--"why are you talking to me, what do you want from me?...etc."
-Although inaccurate, the suspicion is usually not "delusional"
-Often avoid relationships due to mistrust
-Men are more at risk, but it's hard to tell b/c they don't seek out help
-0.2% of the pop.
· Chronic lack of interest in and avoidance of interpersonal relationships, emotional coldness towards others.
· Role their head back and forth, don’t look at you, constantly look bored
· Chronic patterns of inhibited or inappropriate emotion and social behavior, aberrant cognitions, disorganized speech
· More serious than paranoids and shizoids
· Want to be with people but kind of scared of them, superstitious behaviors, some disorganized speech, really close to schizophrenia
· Histrionic, narcissistic, antisocial, and borderline personality disorders
· Manipulative, volatile, and uncaring in social relationships. Impulsive, sometimes violent behavior.
· Rapidly shifting moods, unstable relationships, and intense need for attention and approval; dramatic and seductive behavior.
· No gender difference; men and women are equally likely to have this
· That loud person who is very showy and has to make an entrance and flirts w/everyone around
-Grandiose thoughts of their feelings/words; oblivious to others' needs
-Sense of entitlement
-Believes they're unique/special
-Mostly men, very arrogant, need lots of attention, related to acheivement
-The "one-uppers"; they take credit for others work, will take advantage of other around them
-"why should I wait in line?"
-"I shouldn't have to follow the rules, it's me"
-If you threaten them and say "well you didn't really work on that project" they can become very hostile and aggressive with you
-Rapidly shifting/unstable mood, unstable self-concept, unstable intense relationships; impulsive behavior that is self-damaging, suicidal behavior
-Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment
-Self-injure, multiple suicide attempts, violent and aggressive towards themselves and others
-Long-term psychotherapy as a treatment
-1% of population, vast majority of them are women
-Swing between intense chronic boredom and anger, difficult time feeling joy and don't feel like they can connect with others
-Change who they are based on who they're with, don't really know who they are, lack of sense of self
-Meet someone and fall in love with them right away and then the fighting starts because they have a fear of intimacy
-Sometimes they want to die and sometimes they're just doing it for attention
-Usually have multiple relationships and it's really hard for them to engage in relationships
-Pervasive pattern of criminal, impulsive, callous or ruthless behavior; disregard for the rights of others; no respect for social norms
-Also called "psychopath and sociopath"
-3-4% have this disorder
-Don't perceive people as having feelings
-Birth trauma-deprived of oxygen, cord wrapped around their neck
-Sensation seeking-lower pulse rate, looking for activities that will excite them
-Family dynamics-grow up in very abusive homes sometimes, learning from others or TV/videogames, GTA
-Modeling & media-movies, saw, hostile, Dexter. Bad to show to little kids bc they can't distinguish b/w reality and fantasy and they become intertwined
· Avoidant, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Dependent Personality Disorders
· Extremely concerned about being criticized and abandoned by others and thus have dysfunctional relationships with them.
· Pervasive anxiety, a sense of inadequacy, and a fear of being criticized, which leads to the avoidance of social interactions and nervousness.
· Avoidant Personality Disorder--Social Relationships vs. Social Phobia--Social situations circumstances
· Men are more likely to have thisOften seek treatment and approval of therapist, but they have to trust you
· Pervasive rigidity in one’s activities and interpersonal relationships, including extreme perfectionism, and anxiety about even minor disruption in one’s routine.
· Set high standards for themselves and others
· Often turn in things late because they worry it isn’t perfect enough
· 2-5% of the population have this
· White, Educated, Married, Employed, Male
· Men are twice as likely as women to have this disorder
· One way Dr. Haberyan tells someone has it is when they walk in and fix her crooked hanging picture on the wall.
· Doesn’t change over time, most won’t seek treatment
· Sometimes spouses will come in and seek treatment because they marry them and think that they’re going to be able to change them over time
-Pervasive selfless, need to be cared for, fear of rejection, leading to total dependence on the submission to others
-Could easily be taken advantage of
-2% of pop.
-Men more likely to get it
-Separation is extremely hard for them
-They could be horrifically beaten and still go back to their spouse because they're so scared of being alone
· Inappropriate Affect—the emotions you see on their face aren’t consistent or congruent with what’s happening in the environment—the Joker from Batman
· Bland or Flat Affect—stoic, no emotion, like a mannequin
· Apathy—disinterested in the environment
-Sense of self
Echolalia—repeat what other people say. Echo or mimic (when you mock-kids do it)
Echopraxia—mimic other peoples movements (doctor with clipboard & limp)
Identification/imitation—take on qualities of someone in their environment
Anergia—lack of energy
Waxy Flexibility—can be put in positions (close closet & hide patient)
Posturing—put themselves in an awkward position
Pacing & Rocking
Men 14-25 and women 24-35
Subtypes of Schizophrenia
Paranoid—give them a lot space. Don’t be overly complementary
Catatonic—unresponsive. Just there.
Undifferentiated—does not meet criteria of previous 3 ^^^^
-Genetic Factors—appear to be genetic
Not consistent with generations
-Viral infection—virus in which fetus is exposed prenatally (flu)
-Demographic & socioeconomic status—drifting. Downward drift theory.
-Communication & expressed emotion—mixed comm. & cause problems with brain
-Brain chemistry & structure—
By the DSM-IV-TR classification system, personality disorders are disorders on which axis?
Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is most common among:
According to the diathesis-stress model of schizophrenia:
-people with a biological predisposition for schizophrenia will develop it if certain psychosocial stressors are also present
One reason that the personality disorders are difficult to treat is that the afflicted individuals:
Civil commintment is for a person who:
-refuses treatment others think he or she needs
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