3 Reasons: 1) Fragmented political/governmental system in the US 2)Complexities of the world, economy 3)Facilitative leadership is more common than directive leadership
What does Fragmented political/governmental system in the US mean?
-Power is spread in many spots --> congress, courts, executive, states, etc -Presidents can't push things through and have it automatically be law
What are the Complexities of the world, economy?
-All presidents have goals and different ideas on fopo -world too complex - president can't impact every part of the economy, the global market -can push on the economy, but doesn't move the way he wants it to go
Facilitative leadership more common than directive leadership
Facilitative - leadership where's some consensus to do something; the president acts to get that thing done Directive - the president tries to get people to act the opposite way they want to move
What are the Keys to Leadership?
Public approval, public relationship
Describe public approval and public relationship
-Idea is that if the president's approval rating is high, people think he/she is doing well, meaning politicians are less likely to obstruct the president's goals b/c/ they don't want to hinder a popular president -most presidents start with a high level of support
What is Party ID?
Dems approve more of dem presidents. etc.
President Approval --> Economy?
Economy - single most imortant determinant of pres approval
President Approval --> Rally events?
Rally events - int'l incident - rally around the flag/president effect. tends to boost presidential approval ratings; doesn't tend to stick
President Approval --> Policy?
What the president has done.
President Approval --> Going public?
The president gives speeches, goes to rallies, press conferences, etc.
President Approval --> Visibility
Being with the people in some way; increasing in SQ.
President Approval --> Personal preferences.
Come to office with goals in mind - work harder and more energized on these issues.
President Approval --> Persuasion skills
Includes veto threats and how good of a speaker they are. -convince people to go along with your oration -convince people to go along with you by threatening them -must convince people he's working with that they're all on the same page, have the same goals; tries to be bipartisan.
President Approval --> Perceived mandate.
Voters have sent a clear signal in the policy direction they want the president to take
President Approval --> Unique periods, windows of opportunity
President comes in with the plan to reorganize a troubled sector of the economy
President Approval --> Media Attention
-Has the power to get media attention in a way that no other media figure can -Can get the message out - always a good story to interview the president
President Approval --> Political Party
-If majority in congress is the same as the president's party, then the president has the brand name that will help him do well. -Same party members want the president to do well - incentive to cooperate.
President Approval --> Bypass opposition with executive agreements and executive orders
Agreements - agreements between heads of gov't (US + Britain) - Dont require changes in US law; can be done unilaterally without Congerssional approval - Ex: trade deals - basic laws in place; the president can negotiate a deal with a particular country
Orders - directives or proclamations by the president that have the force of law - apply to the executive branch and it's employees - typically routine/organized; but can be implement public policy -EX: affirmative action laws = XO -SC could overturn an XO; Congress could refuse to appropriate funds -EX: Internment of Japanese Americans, Stem-Cell Research guidelines; participation in faith-based organization programs
Independent Regulatory Commission examples.
Federal Reserve - Money Supply Federal Trade Commission - Business Practices Consumer Product Safety Commission - Product safety, recalls SEC - Stock Market (not football) Federal Election Commission - Election laws FCC - Media
Departments of the Cabinet
State, treasury, defense, justice, health and human services, labor, commerce, homeland security, transportation, energy, housing and urban development, veterans affairs, agriculture, interior education
President worries that the heads of these departments become captured by the departments - they spout what the department's bureaucrats want instead of what the president wants.
Next level in to the president - Executive Office of the President
-Designed to give the president policy advice -His people - They don't implement programs; very small programs -Create Policy options for the president on specific issues -Gives the president more of an independent perspective. -EX: USA Freedom Corps, Office of National Drug Control Policy; Council on Environmental Quality
Closest White House Staff to the President
-Press secretary, legislative affairs, cabinet liaison -Political arm of the presidecy -figure out political strategies for the president to get things done -Tell him/her the consequences of the president's actions in the political sense -EX: if you do this policy, you lose this much support, etc
Leadership in time
-What times are best suited for a president? Some times are more inviting for strong leadership. -Perhaps successful leadership differs systematically across time and policy area?
What is Political Time
Political circumstances under which a president came to power.
What is a Dominant coalition
majority party; at different points in time there tends to be a different ideological/policy direction
The policy priorities of the president's part are in disarray, and the party itself is internally fighting over the correct action. President may try to hold the policy, but eventually decides to deviate from the party --> opposition. -Almost always end up as one term presidency -A reconstructive presidency tends to follow -EX: Hoover, Carter
Comes to power in a time when the policies of the other party (not the president's) are dominant. Attempts to find a new way to bring new policies - tries to bring his policy with the current dominant agenda.
What is the Two Presidents theory?
Foreign Policy President and Domestic Policy President. -Presidents should be more successful in the former rather than the latter.
Evidence behind the Two Presidents theory?
Presidents not automatically more successful in passing foreign polc proposals. - Challenges to the president have increased lately.
Works better for actual military conflicts and crises. As opposed to an economic crisis.
True/False: President is important but not king?
True/False: Courts in US play a more prominent role than anywhere else?
Where do SC cases come from?
2/3 rds come from federal track, cases involving state law.
how many SC cases come from the state track?
They involve state law/the US Constitution.
How much of the Court system is up to Congress?
the entire court system is determined by congress, none of the lower court are dictated by the constitution.
What is Judicial Review?
Supreme Court as 'final' interpreter of the meaning of the constitution means it can: -declare laws of congress, states and localities unconstitutional -declare laws of states and localities inconsistent with federal law -declare acts of the executive branch unconstitutional or unawful
True/False: 140 laws declared unconstitutional by the SC
True/False: 1300 state laws declared unconstitutional
how is the SC a prevention of power?
forces congress to be sensitive to what the SC defines as constitutional or unconstitutional.
Who was William Marbury?
Justice of Peace, appointed by John Adams. Adams appointed him JOP just before Thomas Jefferson became Pres.
SC --> Statutory Interpretation
-determining what a law means -interpreting and applying legislation -EX: what does "accommodate" mean?
SC --> prestige
- Uses this as a resource to get people to accept its decisions - Partly based on the Court's perception of being nonpolitical - deciding cases on principle, not on self-interests
How does the SC provided lee way to politicians?
The SC makes decisions on tough calls, allowing the suits to escape the blame
How does the SC decide to hear cases?
they must have at least 4 justices say yes to hear it.
After the SC decides to hear a case they..
the justices write briefs, then have oral arguments and a conference (where they try to decide what stance they will have). Then they end with their opinion. Majority of the opinions win.
What are class action lawsuits?
When some entity/group represents everyon that falls within a particular category. They increase the SC's power so they (SC) can make sweeping decisions that impact large groups.
More lenient interpretation in the 1960s, more strict in the '90s
SC --> Limits on power
Lacks an ultimate enforcement power -no sword, purse: SC depends on cooperation from other brances
President can check the federal courts through appointments. -judges nominated by pres, approved by the senate. -tend to nominate/appoint people consistent with their point of view -90% are from pres's party
True or False: The SC is inferior to the other brances?
False, it used to be cautious and make few decisions b/c its the most undemocratic
Choosing goals and tools to achieve goals
P.Policy --> Tragedy of the commons
-Refers to the things we care for, share -personal incentive for me to shirk paying for the commons -risk: overusing and undersupporting resource -refers to the dilemma - hold something in common - tendency to overuse and abuse
P.Policy --> Moral hazards
-providing an incentive to people to take undesirable behavior bc you are protecting them from thecosts of such behavior
P.Policy -->crowding out
-when gov't gets involved in something, is the gov't pushing out another part of society that otherwise would have provided that service?
P.Policy --> unintentional disincentives to good behavior
-people want to do the right thing but we're providing disincentives to do the right thing - EX: welfare
P.Policy --> switching costs/path dependency
refers to the cost of changing people from one thing to another. if we are doing x now, but y would be better in the long run. why dont we switch? bc switching to y is way to expensive or hard. EX: HS education, students would be better off is school i year round but it is to costly to switch
a representative looks for the overall interest of the institution, not his constituent
when a representative, reps his constituent. guided by public opinion
trade off between representation and the making law
small groups get stuff done fast but have few voices
larger groups take longer but have more voices
-when a MC helps another MC to build a future debt. -help the president -help your party
getting out of BD
-muddle through -avoid the decision -dont vote on it
consider intensity/if it has legs -how long with the public care -will it follow you to election time
EX: Iraq war had lots of legs = very intense
Why does being the majority party matter?
bc you elect the house speaker, senate majority leader
control the number of ppl in committees
control the flow
Congressional organization sometimes bad, why?
-many steps in making the law -many failure (veto) risks -lotsa committees
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