Which relationship diagram below best represents the following hypothesis? “Conventional gauze dressings cause fewer skin changes in wound sites than do hydrocolloid or hydroactive dressings.”
Type of dressing ® skin changes
Which of the following responses best describes the relational statement that is diagrammed below? Pain perception ¬ (+) ® anxiety
Pain perception and anxiety are positively related to one another.
Select the correct pair: Attitudes of practicing nurses toward HIV-positive patients — (+)® care behavior As attitudes of practicing nurses become more (positive or negative), their care behavior toward patients (increases or decreases).
Which of the following links most closely to middle range theory?
Critiquing a framework that includes both a conceptual model and a theory is:
complex because definitions are required for both constructs and concepts.
Which of the following questions should a reviewer ask when critiquing a study’s framework?
How are the concepts defined?
A researcher theorizes that walking three times per week will minimize the likelihood of premature labor in at-risk pregnant women. The researcher initiates a research program to test this theory. This research study is attempting to validate what aspect of theory?
Strategies for controlling outcomes
When critiquing a study, the following statement is noted: “Women will experience less anxiety while undergoing a mammogram after the proposed educational program.” Which type of statement is it?
What is the best skill to use in distinguishing statements expressed as propositions from hypotheses?
use of critical thinking
Which of the following techniques can a reviewer use for assistance when critiquing a published study in the area of theory and research frameworks?
Creating a conceptual map of the concepts as described in the study.
“Abstract” is defined in research as:
not well defined and general
The framework and conceptual map for a study:
often must be inferred by the reader from the text of the report.
Which of the following represents the most concrete term?
Conceptual definitions are important to include in a research report because conceptual definitions:
may differ in their meaning of terms depending on the study framework.
In the research report, what can the reader expect in a theoretical statement? A theoretical statement:
would only be discussed in the framework section; may be implied.
A research design is best described as a:
blueprint for conducting the study
At the beginning and end of a 10-week exercise program the subjects have their lung vital capacity measured by the researchers. The readings are plotted on a graph and then the results are recorded. Which of the following can pose a threat to the internal validity in this study?
Internal validity would be of most concern in which of the following study designs?
The term “internal validity” refers to the degree to which the:
independent variable can be interpreted as being responsible for the effects on the dependent variable.
Which will help avoid the external validity of a study?
representativeness of the sample
The one-group pretest-posttest design is an example of what type of design?
A dependent and independent variable would be used in which type of study?
RNs in a HTN clinical have found that pt do not comply with their treatment regimen. They designed an intervention based on Bandura’s social cognitive theory and wanted to study the effect of this intervention in a convenience sample. Which of the following designs would be best suited?
When a researcher defines the variables in a study both conceptually and operationally, selects instruments with good validity, and attempts to make the data collection procedures the same for all subjects, what is the goal?
protect against bias
In critiquing a comparative descriptive study design, which of the following would be cited as a deficit of a study? The:
instrument used in the study was created by the researcher specifically for the project.
A well documented case study detailed the experience of caring for an autistic child and suggested some very credible ways to intervene into the child’s world. A nurse reading the report thinks this intervention will work with other children. Best way it EBP?
Develop a research project using the intervention.
A researcher has predicted that adolescents will follow the advice of an instructor he or she will see on an individual basis more than any other category of adult. Which term or word denotes that this study is not a typical descriptive design?
A hypothesized causal model has been proposed. How would another researcher go about testing the model?
Identify all paths expressing relationships between concepts.
A possible reason that nurses have not been involved in conducting clinical trials until recently is that:
funding in the amount needed had not been available.
A problem for nurses conducting quasi-experimental or experimental research is that many times a patient cannot ethically be left without a treatment. What is the best solution for this problem?
Ensure all patients receive the standard of care.
Probability in research is associated with which kind of causality?
A researcher is looking at the relationship btwn sleep and use of meditation in RNs who work the night shift...a RN on nt shift is a speaker on meditation techniques. The researcher must now address what specific issue related to her study design?
Matching of one subject with another and the use of random selection of subjects are examples of:
Study on effect of peer support on CABG pts....randomly assigns some patients to a group who will receive support from a recovered CABG patient and some patients to a group who receive no formal support from another CABG patient. This process would be an example of which of the following?
In experimental research, the researcher’s control of the “treatment” is referred to as:
Which of the following types of sampling is considered to be the weakest?
Which of the following samples is least likely to be representative of the overall population?
An advantage of convenience sampling is:
ease of obtaining subjects
Which of the following study types would require the largest sample size?
The sample size needed for a study increases when:
the number of variables in the study increases.
Which of the following is true about network sampling?
Subjects who have knowledge of a situation, often sensitive or not socially acceptable, are identified by others in the same type of situation.
Which is the largest group from among this list?
Which of the following statements is true about sampling plans?
A sampling plan outlines strategies used to obtain a sample for a study.
Subjects who participate in a study of patients with inflammatory bowel disease are described as the:
In a study investigating Rns attitudes toward taking care of respiratory disease pts who had a long hx of smoking...If the researcher also selected the sample by randomly selecting nurses who smoke and those who do not, what sampling technique is being used?
Which of the following sets of terms represents an appropriate pairing of a probability sampling method and a corresponding nonprobability sampling one?
Stratified random sampling—quota sampling
Which of the following is true about sample size?
An adequate sample size is particularly important to detect differences when they do in fact exist.
To detect a significant difference between two groups when the effect size is small, what should the researcher do?
Increase the sample size.
Which of the following types of studies would need the largest sample size?
The Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of America referred the interested researcher to a local chapter of the organization, who sent out letters inviting potential subjects to contact the researcher if they are willing to participate in a study. Potential subjects are the:
Which of the following is true about sample size in a qualitative study?
Sample size is deemed to be adequate when the researcher is detecting no new knowledge from additional subjects.
Which of the following factors do not influence saturation of data and therefore sample size in a qualitative study?
Randomization of the sample
The adequacy of a sample would be primarily based on which of the following criteria?
Representativeness of the population
Which of the following can be measured using direct measures?
Age, gender, height, and weight
Data characteristics that can be ranked are measured on which scale?
What is the problem with the following example? Age: under 18 18 to 25 25 to 40 40 to 65 over 65 The categories are not:
What level of measurement does this scale represent? (1) less than $10,000 (2) $10,001 to $25,000 (3) $25,001 to $40,000 (4) greater than $40,000
What level of measurement is represented by the following? For families of three children, indicate where the male child is in the birth order. _______ (1) Oldest _______ (2) Middle _______ (3) Youngest
Which level of measurement is indicated when referring to a temperature of 70° F?
Which of the following scales has an absolute zero point?
A researcher studying time and motion measures how long it takes the nurse to do a particular task. The time is recorded in minutes for comparison with other subjects. This is an example of which type of measurement?
Which uses the higher level of measurement: temperature in Fahrenheit degrees or weight in kilograms?
Which of the following represents the same idea for physiological instruments as reliability does for psychosocial instruments?
Consistency is associated with:
Cronbach’s alpha is used in tool development to determine:
One limitation of observation as a data collection technique is that observation is:
Which of the following is true about Likert scales?
Scores from individual items can be summed for a total score.
Which of the following is an advantage of observational methods of data collection?
These directly capture a record of events and behaviors.
Which of the following is an example of random error in measurement?
Occasional discussion of questions with some subjects during completion of the measurement tool
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