p: initial state in which one begins and a goal state that is to be attained, plus a route taken through "problem space" to achieve goal state
o: actions that can change the current state into a new state
Kinds of Problems
Well-defined: where criteria for whether one has achieved the goal state are well-specified
ill-defined: where it is less obvious when a goal has been reached (ie writing a novel)
Difference Reduction (aka Hill-Climbing Strategy)
-for any particular state the operation that moves you closer to the final state is the one that is carried out
-use of subgoals
-break down current diff betw initial state and goal into subgoals w/subdiff. Choose most imp diff and find operator to reduce it
-v. similar to means-end except transformations of the goal state are considered first instead of transformations of initial state
-look at goal and work backwards
-some problems easier to solve in concrete terms, others in abstract
-ex: checkerboard thing and monk climbing up and down mountain (use a graph)
General Problem Solver (GPS)
Newell and Simon
-computer program that uses means-end analysis
-made same errors as people do
-steps it took are good predictor of the steps a human would take to solve the same problem
tendency to focus on only one potential function of an object
-problem of representation
what factors contribute to recognition of useful analogies?
what are the basic steps in analogic reasoning?
-analogies help in understanding of new concepts
-Duncker tumor problem
fail to see connection
analogies help but the link must be clearly made b4 they are used
When are analogies bad for us?
develop rigid strategy for solving problems based on past experiences (functional fixedness)
Principles that underlie phenomenon of expertise?
-experts notice crucial aspects of situation rather than superficial ones
- experience drives expertise
-no qualitatively diff ways of thinking, just benefit from exp
-articulations affected by more than one sound at a time
-each sound becomes more like the sound before and after it
Motor Theory of Speech Perception
Liberman and Mattingly: speech is percieved in terms of gestures
born with ability to intuitively know how they are using motor articulators to speak
- identification predicts discrimination( if Pp cant tell the difference they say its the same sound)
-boundaries must be learned
Kuhl expt with chinchillas
JND is proportional to magnitude of the stimulus
Motor Theory view of categories
MT: there are invariants and they are gestural (NATURE)
A: speech perception is grounded in general auditory and learning mechanisms (NURTURE)
no acoustic invariants
categories are multiply specified
integration of probabilistic cues
Why is speech learning hard?
-lack of variance
-no clear indicators of word boundaries
What is talker normalization?
-freq at which harmonics are amplified (formants) are dependent on length of vocal tract
-longer vocal tract = lower freq formants
-makes children's formants much diff than adult's
Theories of language production?
B: sentences constructed from transitional probabilities between words and correct behavior and sentences in response are reinforced
C: language is innate
Why study language?
-may be one way humans are different
-has become major battleground for nature vs nurture and learning vs cognition
-of all areas of cog psych, has easiest application
What is language?
-system of symbols and rules for generating verbal communications
Behaviorist View of Language
-by the time are competent adult, have learned complex chains
-a lot of work done with animals (shaping and habits)
Chomskyan View of Language
-learning principles cannot explain language
-language is hierarchical
-language is a syntactic structure and a grammar
The Cognitive Approach
-language competence: knowledge of language rules, can figure out what are nouns, verbs, etc, to tell between active and passive sentences, statements and questions, and negation, and need transformation rules
-language starts with a message you intend to convey (deep structure of the message)
-use grammar to create "kernal" struture
-any further req transformations (active, ?, negation) are done
-end up wit surface structure
Why is Chomsky believed to have been wrong?
-few of his predictions worked out
-he didnt consider potential learning algorithms
-humans are much better learners than he gave them credit for
What about Chomsky's predictions dont work?
complexity vs frequency
-deep structure -> kernal -> surface
-should take more time and be more diff to read passive negated questions
modular vs interactive
-structure and meaning are interacting at the same time, not one without the other
ambiguoussentences follow word probabilities not syntactic regularities
How are infants (humans) smarter than we thought?
have to learn:
sounds of own language
words and word segmentation
How do we learn meanings?
What are the inferential rules to learn words?
-whole object constraint
-mutual exclusivity bias
What are gestures?
spontaneous body movements produced when speaking
-most produced with hands and arms
-most closely synchronized with speech
Two kinds of gestures?
socially agreed upon form and meaning
often used in place of speech
spontaneously created when speaking
so not have standards of form
used to indicate, convey info, emphasize, and regulate interaction
Types of Gestures
depict semantic content of speech
related to speech metaphorically or iconically
motorically simple gestures linked to rhythm of speech
used to refer to objects or locations
used metaphorically or literally
When do people gesture?
-whenever they talk
conversation, narrative monologue, problem explanation, instructional settings
How do gestures support communication?
1. facilitate language comprehension
help most when speech is ambiguous
speakers intend them to be seen
expt: children learning about symmetry
2. can reveal ideas no contained in speech
child pointing at bottle saying baby = baby's bottle
Are gestures always for the listener?
-communicative effects are minimal
-gesture even when listeners cant see our hands
-even the blind gesture
What do gestures do for the speaker?
-help learners keep mental images activated/ decay more slowly
-lightens demands on working memory
-may increase or decrease cognitive load
-when speech and gesture do not overlap
-ex: conservatione expt and equivalence problems
-simultaneous activation of multiple ideas -> instability -> openness/readiness for learning
-info expressed in gesture is accessible only to gesture not to speech
Gesture as simulated action
Tower of Hanoi expt
gesture grounds thought in action
Broca's area aphasia
-Broca's area controls speech production
-cant speak with apahsia but can still understand
-aka productive aphasia
Wernicke's area aphasia
-loss of ability to understand speech
-can speak but not sensibly
-aka receptive aphasia
Link between aphasia and agnosia?
aphasia is to language as agnosia is to vision
Verbal STM may be nothing more than hijacking the speech system to hold words
expt with TMS of MTG and pSTG
MTG (Wernicke) = nonword reading
pSTG = word reading
shifts of attention may be nothing more than motor plans
stimulated same circuits that monkey use to move eyes and it just shifted attention
-apex of cognitive control
-perhaps just a more complex version of motor control
-can think in terms of perception and action as varying degrees of abstraction
Abstract Levels of Motor Function
-maybe cog psych is really about perception and action
The Basal Ganglia
acts as a gate that allows motor responses to go through and reach threshold
-cognitive controls when this gate opens and closes (selects which actions to engage in)
objective of perception?
to guide adaptive behaviors?
perception only exists to guide movements
The role of attention?
attention - motor preparation
-role of acting on environment seems to be critical for consciousness
-subthreshold intent to make a movement produces a shift in attention
cortical color blindness
-cannot experience color in any way
-has not lost full consciousness, only a piece
Same as with Clive losing sense of continuity
pattern discrimination protocol
activity in cortex predicts percept
-increased in activity with yes and false alarms
TMS of V1 and V5
V1 saw stationary phosphene
V5 saw moving phosphene
need to stimulate V1 second to block motion caused by stimulating V5
person falling asleep expt
awake: TMS -> activation bounces around
asleep: TMS -> activation stays in the one spot
it is the activations that create conscious awareness
How do infants learn to segment words and determine their meanings?
-stress of syllables
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