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Biology with MasteringBiology? (8th Edition)
Study Card for Campbell-Reece Biology Seventh Edition
controls the contraction and expansion of the gastrovascular cavity.
the axons of multiple nerve cells are often bundled together forming these.
the body's automatic responses to certain stimuli.
the cavity of the nerve cord gives rise to this narrow part of the spinal cord.
formed in the brain by filtration of arterial blood.
consists of mainly neuron cell bodies, dendrites, and unmyelinated axons.
consists of bundled axons that have myelin sheaths, which give the axons a whitish appearance.
consists of neurons that carry signals to skeletal muscles.
autonomic nervous system
generally involuntary regulation of smooth and cardiac muscles.
the nerve cells that transfer information within the body.
central nervous system
includes the brain and a longitudinal nerve cord.
peripheral nervous system
the neurons that carry information into and out of the CNS.
transmit information from eyes and other sensors that detect external stimuli or internal conditions.
for the local circuits connecting neurons in the brain.
transmit signals to muscle cells, causing them to contract.
where most of a neuron's organelles are located.
numerous highly branched extensions in a neuron.
an extension that transmits signals to other cells.
the branched end of an axon that transmits information to another cell.
chemical messengers that pass information from the transmitting neuron to the receiving cell.
nourish neurons, insulate the axons of neurons, and regulate the extracellular fluid surrounding neurons.
the change in difference or voltage of potential energy.
the membrane potential of a resting neuron.
pores formed by clusters of specialized proteins that span the membrane.
the magnitude of the membrane voltage at equilibrium for a particular ion.
gated ion channels
ion channels that open or close in response to stimuli.
makes the inside of the membrane more negative.
a reduction in the magnitude of the membrane potential.
a shift that has a magnitude that varies with the strength of the stimulus, with a larger stimulus causing a greater change in the membrane potential.
a massive change in membrane voltage.
voltage gated ion channels
opening or closing when the membrane potential passes a particular level.
action potentials occur whenever a depolarization increases the membrane voltage to a particular value.
the downtime when a second action potential cannot be initiated.
the electrical insulation that surrounds vertebrate axons.
glia in the CNS.
glia in the PNS.
the mechanism for action potential propagation.
ligand gated ion channel
the receptor protein that binds and responds to neurotransmitters.
excitatory postsynaptic potential
a depolarization brings the membrane potential toward threshold.
inhibitory postsynaptic potential
a hyperpolarization is produced.
when the EPSP's add together.
when EPSP's produced by different synapses on the sam postsynaptic neuron add up.
a common neurotransmitter in both invertebrates and vertebrates.
the most common neurotransmitter.
the neurotransmitter at most inhibitory synapses in the brain.
synthesized from amino acids and include norepinephrine, which is made from tyrosine.
relatively short chains of amino acids.
decrease pain perception.
a severe mental disturbance characterized by psychotic episodes in which patients have a distorted perception of reality.
major depressive disorder
when once enjoyable activities provide no pleasure and provoke no interest.
involves swings of mood from high to low and affects about 1%of the world's population.
a mental deterioration characterized by confusion and memory loss.
a motor disorder, include muscle tremors, poor balance, a flexed posture, and a shuffling gait.
a hormone that stimulates the growth of adult cells, the programmed death of larval cells, and even the behaviors that bring about the motionless pupal stage.
one of the two basic systems of communication and regulation throughout the body.
a network of neurons that transmit signals along dedicated pathways.
molecules that act over short distances and reach their target cells solely by diffusion.
target cells lie near the secreting cell.
the target cell is the secreting cell itself.
diffuse a very short distance to bind to receptors on the target cells.
molecules that travel the bloodstream to target cells.
chemicals that are released into the external environment.
endocrine cells that are grouped in ductless organs.
the series of changes in cellular proteins that converts the extracellular chemical signal to a specific intracellular response.
a hormone also known as adrenaline.
a gland located behind the stomach.
a neurohormone stored in the posterior pituitary gland.
a loop in which the response reduces the initial stimulus.
reinforces a stimulus.
triggers uptake of glucose from the blood into body cells, decreasing the blood glucose concentration.
promotes the release of glucose into the blood from energy stores increasing the blood glucose concentration.
plays a central role in integrating the endocrine and nervous systems.
a gland located at the base of the hypothalamus.
an extension of the hypothalamus.
an endocrine gland that synthesizes and secretes hormones in response to signals from the hypothalamus.
they regulate the function of other endocrine cells or glands.
regulates both physiology and behavior.
has activities that include stimulating milk production.
an organ consisting of two lobes on the ventral surface of the trachea.
associated with the kidneys.
known as noradrenaline.
a class of amine hormones synthesized from the amino acid tyrosine.
when ACTH reaches the adrenal cortex via the bloodstream, it stimulates the endocrine cells to synthesize and secrete a family of steroids.
have a primary effect on glucose metabolism.
a key component of the circuitry that regulates appetite over the long term.
enables an animal to avoid or limit many infections.
a defense that is active immediately upon infection and is the same whether or not the pathogen has been encountered previously.
a defense found only in vertebrates.
an enzyme that breaks down bacterial cell walls and further protects the insect digestive system.
the cellular ingestion and digestion of bacteria and other foreign substances.
toll like receptor
binds to fragments of molecules characteristic of a set of pathogens.
circulate in the blood and are attracted by signals from infected tissues and then engulf and destroy the infecting pathogens.
larger phagocytic cell.
mainly populate tissues that contact the environment.
natural killer cells
these cells circulate through the body and detect the abnormal array of surface proteins characteristic of some virus infected and cancerous cells.
proteins that provide innate defense by interfering with viral infectins.
consists of roughly 30 proteins in blood plasma.
the changes brought about by signaling molecules released upon injury or infection.
is stored in the granules of mast cells that are found in connective tissue.
signaling molecules that enhance an immune response.
t cells and b cells.
an organ in the thoracic cavity above the heart.
lymphocytes mature into these.
lymphocytes that remain and mature in the bone marrow.
any substance that elicits a response from a b cell or a t cell.
is specific enough to bind to just one part of one molecule from a particular pathogen.
the accessible portion of an antigen that binds to an antigen receptor.
has the same y shaped organization as b cell antigen receptors, but are secreted rather than membrane bound.
the host protein that displays the antigen fragment on the cell surface.
the display of the antigen fragment in an exposed groove of the MHC protein.
short lived cells that take effect immediately against the antigen and any pathogens producing that antigen.
long lived cells that can give rise to effector cells if the same antigen is encountered later in the animal's life.
the proliferation of a lymphocyte into a clone of cells in response to binding an antigen.
primary immune response
the production of effector cells from a clone of lymphocytes during the first exposure to an antigen.
secondary immune response
if an individual is exposed again to the same antigen, the response is faster, of greater magnitude, and more prolonged.
humoral immune response
occurs in the blood and lymph.
cell mediated immune response
specialized t cells destroy infected host cells.
helper t cell
triggers both the humoral and cell mediated immune responses.
antigen presenting cell
an antigen must be displayed on the surface of this.
cytotoxic t cells
the effector cells.
memory b cells and antibody secreting cells.
the defenses that arise when a pathogen infects the body and prompts a primary or secondary immune response.
the antibodies provided by the mother guard against pathogens that have never infected the newborn.
active immunity can develop from the introduction of antigens into the body through this.
produced by such a culture are identical and specific for the same epitope on an antigen.
an action carried out by muscles under control of the nervous system in response to a stimulus.
the study of the ecological and evolutionary basis for animal behavior.
fixed action pattern
a sequence of unlearned acts directly linked to a simple stimulus.
the trigger for a behavior is an external cue.
a regular, long distance change in location.
a stimulus transmitted from one animal to another.
the transmission and reception of signals.
animals that communicate through odors or tastes emit these chemical substances.
behavior that is developmentally fixed in a way.
cross fostering study
in which the young of one species are placed in the care of adults from another species.
in which researchers compare the behavior of identical twins raised apart with the behavior of identical twins raised apart with the behavior of those raised in the same household.
the modification of behavior based on specific experiences.
the formation at a specific stage in life of a long lasting behavioral response to a particular individual or object.
a limited developmental phase when this type of learning can occur.
the establishment of a memory that reflects the environment's spatial structure.
a representation in the nervous system of the spatial relationships between objects in an animal's surroundings.
the ability to associate one environmental feature with another.
the process of knowing that involves awareness, reasoning, recollection, and judgment.
the cognitive activity of devising a method to proceed from one state to another in the face of real or apparent obstacles.
includes not only eating but also an activities an animal uses to search for, recognize, and capture food items.
optimal foraging model
natural selection should favor a foraging behavior that minimizes the costs of foraging and maximizes the benefit.
mate choice copying
a behavior in which individuals in a population copy the mate choice of others.
evaluates alternative strategies in situations where the outcome depends on the strategies of all the individuals involved.
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