has complete metamorphisis have normal mouthparts designed for chewing have elytra winds and have hind wings that are soft used for flight most abundat form of life in the world
in beetles front wing used for protection
life history and habits of beetles
complete metamorphosis-egg,larva,pupa, adult habits extreme range of habits they are predators and scavagers
larval features of beetles
often called grubs distinct, hard schlerotized head capsule often under ground have strong jaws used for chewing legs present on the throax-6 lexs are c shape
lady beetles seasonal migration
migrate in the south and then end up in the high country
mexican bean beetle
lady bug exception pest on beans one nad speices on co
darkling beetle life history
aka circus develop on decay plant maatter adult unble to fly wings vcovers fused very resistant to desiccation-drying out comon names comes fro habit of standing on their heads
scarab beetels life history
direct lay eggs in dung tunnel allows to keep food source are macrodecomposer dung rolling(tumblebugs)-to rear their young
scarab and Egyptian mythology
regeneration image larvae emerge from dung and mud reserrection/reincarnation scarabs entombed w dead scarab images in royal seals
ground beetle life history and habits
most develop as predators bombardier beetle-has reactor glands and inner glands
blister beetles life history adult
feed on flowers and secrete liquid that causes blister
life history of larval- blister beetles
larvae eat grasshopper egg pods and ground nesting bee larvae
how blisters received its name
creates blisters when touch
how have blisters been used
ability to produce blister highly regarded hippocrates-stoke(propsy) frederick the grea-rabies aphrodisiac use best known-spanish flu
cantharidin found in blister beetles
powerful poison-0.5 mili can kill humans; cause severe kidney damage exuded from leg joints-reflex bleeding
co potato beetle
most important potato insect pest in the world natitive to western US, mexico not impotant CO even if it has our name in it currently wdely established throughout NA euorpe-more of a pest in the midwest
how did co potato beetle contributed to pesticide dev
parisgreen/copperactoarsentite first agricultural insecticide
weevils life history and habits
aka snout beetles chewing moth parts located on tip of enlogated snout larvae dev within plants- one reason why they are a pest most diverse family of plants or animals-50,000+ species
boll weevil plant damange and economic effects
destroy the boil which destroys the cotton for commercial use destroys money- 15 million worth of cotton
in enterprise, Al did the same thing to them and mad them work other fields instead of cotton
bark beetles life history
larvae dev under bark, girdling wounds often associated w fugi
how does larve dev - pine beetles
female drill hole in bark and lay her eggs in the bark- larve pitch out the bark
adult mass attack-bark beetles
female tend to choose unhealty tree and produce a aggreation pheromonethat cause many pine beetles to lay their eggs on the smae tree
blue stain fungi- pine beetles
blocks the "pipes" that carries the beetles
european elm bark beetle
spread dutch elm disease to trees is bad for treesbcuz the trees roots are touching and can easily transmit disease
how can city forester manage elm disease
check to see if it has fungus by seeing if it has brown streaking if it does it has to be cut down
mettalic wood borers
adult of the flat headed borers
larvae of metallic wood borer takes about a yr to dev feedf under the bark brak sawdust thinking of the croawn
longhorned beetles/roundheaded borers life history and habits
complete metamorphosis attacking dying or stress out trees sexual dimophic females have longer antennie
where do larve dev in- longhorned beetle/roundheaded borers
in the hearthwood of the tree or branch
asian longhorned beetle
it is an exotic (introduced) species of beetle that is damaging to US forests.
what damanges doe the longhorne beetle/roundheaded borer cause
tunneling penetrates into hearwood of the tree
oval exist holes in tree
lightning bugs life history and habits
active at night use light to determine who to mate cuz there are so many species they can tell by signal of light
luciferin in fireflies
substrate creates flash of light
types of species
what is flash pattern contolled by
what is flash color controlled by
what are the scietific uses for fire flies
gentic transfer tech-take lufufrin and put it in a plant - molecular bio space exploration-iodiversity which we learn from these insects to make our world better
carrion beetles life history and habits
dewv on carcasses of dead animals- make good parents macrodecomposers larvae of most species feed on carrion inplaces(no burial, movement) mutalististic association w tiny mites-have mites on them so they help the beetles b eating fly eggs
sequence of activities w carrion- carrion beetles
get a mouse ball shave all the hair apply secreation so the mouse ball will not decease
dermestid/ carpet beetles life history and habits
feed on hids, wool and everything are scarvengers pest very comon inhabitant of homes humans use them to clean skeletons
lepidotera-butterfly physical feature
brightly colored wings are held above the body when at rest active during the day distinct club at tip-attened sex pheromones used just for short distances larva r naked or ver fine pupa naked, produced above ground-chrysalid
most dully colored,some exceptions wings fold over the body most active at dust and night ;some exceptions, particulary among species hat mimic wasps. sex phermones- produce long distance lara are hairy sometimes pupa usual brown and make concoon
classic example of migratory insect cant survive winter in areas of freezing temp eggs are laid in milk weed feed on milkweed overwinters in:mountainous areas in mexico city not in tru hibernation-may make short flight and feed on nectar if avaliable
A term used to describe warning coloration of insects. This helps advertise that the species is toxic, has chemical defenses or is otherwise defended. Yellow, red, and orange - often mixed with black - are typical aposematic patterns.
Insects with defenses (distaste, stings, etc.) tend to show the same patterning - e.g., aposematic patternings. As a result most insects with chemical defenses tend to show the same kinds of red, orange, yellow colorations. This reinforces that such patterns signal warning to potential predators.
Some insects that are entirely palatable and lack defenses have developed patterning similar to species with defenses.
the larva and pupa bird dropping so they will not be eaten and when they are adults they mimic the monarch butterfly usues the mullerian mimicy
painted lady/thistle caterpillar
larvae known as thistle caterpillar-u can buy these life stages has continual N/S migration-migrates anual into CO from overwinter area Baja, CA pest species-weather events
a parsley worm is the larva stage name relate to the tail like proection similar to swallows instarsI-III look like bird dropping later instars have warning colors Y-shaped osmeteria everted in rsponse to distrubance that emit fowl odor
what is needed to help bring butterflies/caterpillars into a garden
provide food and nectoar and provide some shelter if sites are expose
what is the state insect of CO
army cutworks aka miller moths life history
spring larva eat alfai and winter weed march to may they pupa under ground adult has highly variable color behavior- adultsfollow flowers to stay cool migrate to the mountains and in oct they migrate back to plains they are nusance insects
why are moths attracted to flame/light
they are trying to reorient to the moon
what are moth's respones to ultrasonics?
they freak out because they think they are going to eaten by a bat
CO hairstreak group of elm schoolers brought it legslation
what is the state insect of CO
quality of silk as fiber
insulates very well light weight grease resistance absorb dye doesnt catch on fire elasticity
urticating stinging hairs
chemical toxins in them
some local giant silkworms
polyphemus ceropia lo hickory horned devil luna moth
what were some indeirect contributions of silk to history
silk and the oppian laws of rome louis pasteur and pebrine disease punch cards for silk mills-development of IBM
gypse moth why was it introduced
it was introduced to the US for silk industry
is the gypsy moth considred a pest or no?
yes the blank is considered a pest
sexual dimorphic do not have these in CO mostly occur in the east are major pest imported by leopold trouvelot for silk industry show different colors
humming bird moths - hornworms / hawk moth
adult are strong flyers look like birds are also knwn as hummingbird moths not really a major pest flies at day
tomato hornworms and sphinx moths hornwomrs/hawk moths
flies at nifhr not a pest larvaelook like the sphinx from ancient egypt
wollybears/tiger moths NO you can not it is false
can you tell the weather by the size of the band?
agave(tequila) worm life history
feeds inside the plant ppl ut this worm inside tequila as a marketing play directed to americans to show the higher concention- an exotic drink
during industrial times trees became polluted and the darker they became the one moth that was darker were camoflage so birds did not eat it and ate the lighter moths that did not blend into the tree in great britaint
codling moth life history
when females emerge they are active when these moths las smalle masses of eggs on fruit the alrva tunnel into the fruit that create the damange
mexican jumping beetle
doesnt cause prolems to plants dev within seeds of legume jumping caused by heating up
indian meal moth
most common moth that breeds indoors eats grains, cookies anything grain, dog food
how do u get rid of indian meal moth
clean up things that are indested store al new materials in tight fitting cantainers maintain free period for month- they will die
dev on woolen, feathers can digest kerati do not see it really in CO because of elevation
physical feature of nruroptera- lacewings, antlions, snakeflies, mantidflies of adults
chewing mouthparts wings delicate wth a very large number of veins neuro-"sinew-nerve" some are predaceous, some feed on nectar and pollen
physical feature of neuroptera- lacewings, antlions, snakeflies, mantidflies larvae
enlarged sickle-shaped jaws generally enlongate form, tapered at ends
important predators of many pest insects use in biolgical control their eggs are unique because they are laid in groups and has a salk on it and has a ant repellent
consturct pits in loose soil and hide at the bottom. Insects fall in and are eaten by the larvae adults somewhate resmble damselflies
Lightning bug larvae eat small invertibrates (slugs and snails) in moist environments
what do fire flies eat?
They are in diapause...no feeding and no breeding. They are mass collected at these migration sites. Purchasing is not good for biological control because they are in diapause...not feeding and not breeding
is purchasing ladybugs help reduce pop of pest insects in your garden mass collecting
They are common grass pests. the larva (white grubs) feed just under the soil level and eat roots causing grasses to die
why are may june beetles considered pest?
the advent of classical biological control: An introduced pest from Australia, theCottony cushion scale, was devistating citrus in California. The vedalia beetle was introduced to control the cottony cushion scale and it worked really well
what happened at the classical biological control?
what is the chemical compound that causes luminescence in lightnignt bugs
Luciferin, Luciferace, ATP, Oxygen and Water create what?
What was the great silk road?
It was the trade route that moved silk from China to the rest of the "known world"
White-lined sphinx moth is the most common
what is the most common hornwom in colorado
is a term associated with blister beetles. The 1st instar larvae is very active (it hunts around to find grasshopper egg pods or ground nesting bee larvae) hunters, 2nd, 3rd instars change in form and are not active. They just hang out at the food source
the hardened first pair of wings.
The ?elytra? of a beetle is/are: A) the hardened first pair of wings. B) the special digging structures on their legs. C) sensory organs near their eyes used for sensing light. D) found on the tip of the antennae. E) another name for the larval stagehand.
It was named in the course of the 1830?s Long expedition to Colorado
How did the Colorado potato beetle get its name? A) It was named in the course of the 1830?s Long expedition to Colorado. B) It was named because it is a beneficial beetle that saved Colorado from an uncontrollable outbreak of the Cottony cushion scale. C) It was named because Colorado was the first state to report that the beetle showed insecticide resistance. D) It was named because the beetle is the worst potato pest in Colorado. E) None of these correctly describe how the Colorado potato beetle got its name.
They stand on their heads when threatened
Why are some darkling beetles (family: Tenebrionidae) called ?circus beetles?? A) They live in the very high branches of trees. B) They roll large balls of dung up hills. C) They are often found hunting for prey items on spider webs D) They stand on their heads when threatened. E) They are often found in association with circus animals (Elephants, Giraffes, etc?)
The Mexican bean beetle
What is the ?exception? to the lady beetles family that feeds on plants and is a major crop pest in some areas? A) The May/June beetle B) The Asian lady beetle C) The convergent lady beetle D) The Colorado potato beetle E) The Mexican bean beetle
defensive compound produced by blister beetles.
What is cantharidin? A) A term used to describe the chewed up food that a carrion beetle feeds its young. B) A defensive compound produced by blister beetles. C) The bacteria responsible for Dutch elm disease. D) The chemical that makes fireflies light up. E) The aggregation
using a combination of "mass attacks" and carrying a fungus into the tree
Bark beetles are very tiny beetles, but are able to overcome a tree's defenses and kill it by: A) chewing on the needles/leaves until they all fall off. B) feeding only on completely dead wood that is already chopped up for firewood. C) using a combination of "mass attacks" and carrying a fungus into the tree. D) feeding on the roots in the winter. E) releasing cantharidin into the tree causing it to stop the process of photosynthesis.
Longhorned beetle/roundheaded borer
The following best describes the larval habits of what tree boring beetle; Extensively riddle heartwood, presence of loosely packed coarse sawdust, produce a round or oblong exit hole. A) Ips beetle B) Metallic wood borer/flatheaded borer C) Mountain pine beetle D) Longhorned beetle/roundheaded borer E) Smaller European elm bark beetle
using species specific flash patterns that are recognized by the male and female
Male and female lightning bugs/fireflies of the same species find each other: A) using species specific flash patterns that are recognized by the male and female. B) by flying to any flashing light and checking for a mate that emits the right chemical cue when it gets there. C) by use of pheromones alone, the flashing is to distract predators and confuse other fireflies. D) by waiting in well lit areas for the right mate to fly by E) by making a specific clicking noise with their antennae
both the mother and father stay with the young after they hatch, feeding and communicating with them.
Carrion beetles are considered to have something of a family life because: A) the mother carries the young on her back after they hatch, protecting and feeding them. B) both the mother and father stay with the young after they hatch, feeding and communicating with them. C) large groups of female carrion beetles come together using pheromones, establish colonies, and share resources. D) the father stays behind tending to the young while the female goes in search of food. E) the larvae help to feed each other after the mother and father leave.
Carpet beetles (Family: Dermestidae).
Which of the following is commonly used by museum curators to clean skeletons? A) Darkling beetles (Family: Tenebrionidae). B) Carrion beetles (Family: Silphidae). C) Boll weevils (Family: Curculionidae). D) Scarab beetles (Family: Scarabaeidae). E) Carpet beetles (Family: Dermestidae).
The scales on their wings
The name for the order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) comes from Greek and refers to which distinguishing characteristic of the order? A) Their short, stubby antennae. B) Their hardened wing coverings. C) The scales on their wings. D) The presence of prolegs on the adults. E) Their unique mouthparts.
the Colorado hairstreak butterfly.
The Colorado state insect is: A) the monarch butterfly. B) the painted lady butterfly. C) the Colorado hairstreak butterfly. D) the Colorado potato beetle. E) the honey bee
Emperor Justinian?s monks smuggled the secret back to the Byzantine Empire in hollowed out walking sticks.
Silk has been the most sought after, most jealously guarded, most furiously defended fiber in history. How was the secret broken? A) Marco Polo was favored by the emperor and allowed to take the process back to Europe. B) Napoleon?s spies stole the secret and brought it back to France hidden in barrels of gun powder. C) Louis Pasteur was given the secret as a reward for his work on pebrine (silkworm) disease. D) Emperor Justinian?s monks smuggled the secret back to the Byzantine Empire in hollowed out walking sticks. E) Leopold Trouvelot stole the secret and brought it back to the United States.
Some caterpillars have barbed hairs that break off when you touch them and can cause a burning sensation. These stinging hairs are more formally known as: A) fatal hairs. B) incurable hairs. C) pokey hairs. D) terminal hairs. E) urticating hairs.
Adults fly mostly at dusk or during the night and often pupate within a cocoon
Which of the following statements is only TRUE about moths? A) Adults are usually brightly colored. B) Adults have antennae with a distinct club at the end. C) Adults fly mostly at dusk or during the night and often pupate within a cocoon. D) Adults have wings that are held above the body when at rest. E) Adults fly mostly during the day and pupate in a chrysalis.
when one organism moves a pathogen into another organism
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