The use of a strong CS to create a second CS is called
A conditioned response that briefly reappears after it has been extinguished is called
The prologue is about Angelica's fear of clowns as a child. The fact that she was not only afraid of the circus clown, but also other types of clowns is an example of what?
What is false about conditioning according to Pavlov?
The CS must come immediately after the UCS
Ed noticed that whenever he used his electric can opener, his cat would come into the kitchen and act hungry--drooling and meowing pitiably. He reasoned that because he used the can opener to open the cat food, the sound of the can opener became a?
In watson's experiment with "Little Albert," the unconditioned stimulus was
the loud noise
Often, people with certain types of cancer must take chemo. The drugs used in these treatments are powerful and usually cause strong nausea reactions. If Cindy had scrambled eggs for breakfast and then took a chem treatment later that same morning, what might we predict based on conditioned taste aversion research?
Cindy will probably get nauseated the next time she tries to eat scrambled eggs
Rescorla found that the CS must ___ the UCS for conditioning to take place.
The fact that the CS must come immediately before the UCS, and not after, is a problem for the ___ theory of why classical conditioning works.
Your pet parakeet eats some cooked spaghetti noodles. Later the poor bird gets very ill. What would the research on biological preparedness predict?
The parakeet will probably not eat linguini noodles, because they are long and thin and similar to spaghetti
In Thorndike's puzzle box experiments, the cats were rewarded by
getting out of the box and getting food
__ is an example of a primary reinforcer, whereas __ is an example of a secondary reinforcer.
a candy bar; a gold star
Carmen hates to clean up after dinner. One night she volunteers to bathe the baby before cleaning up. When she finishes with the baby and returns to the kitchen, her husband has cleaned everything for her. what is true?
Carmen's husband has negatively reinforced her for bathing the baby.
Bernie is afraid of snakes. He won't even look at pictures of them but turns the page or closes the book instead. When he sees a picture of a snake, his anxiety goes up but when he avoids looking at the picture is goes down. it is most correct to say that Bernie's avoidance behavior is being
negatively reinforced because he is rewarded by his anxiety going down
in popular tv series, Desmond lived in a bunker underground on a mysterious island. He had on task: when the alarm sounds, type in a series of numbers on the computer and push enter. desmond was being reinforced for doing so by avoiding some terrible disaster that would occur if he did not type in the numbers at the right time--every 108 minutes. What kind of schedule reinforcment is this?
Joe was trying to get tickets to a concert and called the ticket outlet only to find that the phone line was busy. He dialed again, busy, and again.... sometimes waiting minutes or seconds, not knowing how much time would go by before his call would go through. What schedule of reinforcment is this?
Jessica's mother was upset to find that Jessica had used her crayons to draw flowers on her bedroom wall. Her mother took the crayons away from her and made Jessica wash the wall. What is true about this?
Having her crayons taken away was a form of punishment by removal.
being made to wash off the drawings was a form of punishment by application
What is not a problem with punishment?
Mild punishment can be paired with reinforcement of the correct behavior
Applied behavior analysis involes
the process of shaping and other behavioral techniques
Ella is teaching her new parrot a new word. Every time the parrot says a sound that is close to the new word, she gives it a treat. But the parrot keeps repeating other words it has learned in the past, trying to get a treat that way. The parrot is exhibiting
Professor Elliot told his students that if his door was open, it meant that he was available to them and would gladly answer any questions. But if his door was almost completely shut, it meant that he was busy and could not answer questions. Professor's door being opened was a __ for ___
discriminative stimulus; asking questions
Elizabeth's parents want her to put her clothes in the hamper. At first, they praise her for putting the clothes together in one pile. Then they praise her for getting the clothes on the same side of the room as the hamper. When she gets the clothes on the same side of the room as the hamper. When she gets the clothes on top of the hamper, she gets praise. Finally, her parents praise her when she puts her clothes in the hamper. This is an example of __.
Cognition refers to
the mental events that take place while a person is behaving
In Tolman's maze study, the fact that the group of rats received reinforcement only after day 10 of the study solved the maze far more quickly than did the rats who had been reinforced from the first day can be interpreted to mean that these particular rats
had already learned the maze in the first 9 days
Seligman found many simliarities between his "helpless" dogs and people suffering from..?
Kohler determined that Sultan's two-stick solution to the banana problem was an example of insight because it was
sudden and rapid
In Bandura's study with the Bobo doll, the children in the group that saw the model punished did not imitate the model at first. They would only imitate the model if given a reward for doing so. The fact that these children had obviously learned the behavior without actually performing it is an example of
Miranda wanted to make a casserole she saw on TV food show. She bought the ingredients, put them together, baked it, and served it. It tasted awful and she realized that she had left out a key ingredient and vowed next time to write everything down as she watched the show. Miranda's dinner disaster was an example of failing at which of Bandura;s 4 elements of observational learning?
any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience
In your college dorm, any time you take a shower, someone always flushes the toilet and causes the water in your shower in turn icy cold, making you cringe. After several episodes like this you find that you tend to cringe whenever you hear a toilet flush, no matter where you are. In this example, what is the conditioned stimulus?
the sound of the flushing
A child has been classically conditioned to fear a white rat. If the child also shows fear when shown a white rabbit, this is called
You move out of your dorm into an apartment shared with three other people. Unlike the shower in your dorm, this shower does not turn cold when the toilet is flushed, and you eventually stop cringing every time you hear the toilet flush. What has occured?
When one conditioned stimulus is used to create another, this is called
Tenia ate out with some friends and had fired oysters. The next morning she was nauseated and sick for much of the day. The nest time she saw someone eating fried oysters, she felt queasy and looked away. Her queasiness at the sight of the fried oysters was probably due to
a conditioned taste aversion
The fact that some kinds of stimuli (like a taste) are more easily and quickly connected to a response (like nausea) is explained by the concept of
The key to the cognitive perspective of classical conditioning is that the presentation of the conditioned stimulus must
provide information about the coming of the unconditioned stimulus
In classical conditioning, the __ are important in learning, but in operant conditioning, it is the __ that determine whether learning will occu.
Who added the concept of reinforcement to learning theory?
Which of the following is an example of a secondary reinforcer?
praising a child
Joaquin's parents have given his 2 yr old daughter, Marie, a very noisy jack in the box for her birthday. Marie loves to turn the crank and make the puppet pop up, over and over again. Desperate to have some peace and quiet, Joaquin gives Marie a popsicle, which distracts her and produces the quiet he was craving. But when the popsicle is finished, Marie goes back to the toy, cranking and cranking. Joaquin tries another popsicle. What kind of reinforcement process is taking place in this situation?
Marie is being positively reinforced for playing with the toy by receiving the treat. AND
Joaquin is being negatively reinforced for giving her the treat by the absence of the noise
Sherry wants her dog to "heel" on command. At first she gives the dog a treat for coming to her when she speaks the command, HEEL! Then she only rewards the dog when it stands at her side when she gives the command and finally rewards the dog only when it is at her side and facing front. Sherry is using..
One year old Ben learned to say the word DUCK when his mother showed him a duck in their backyard. That evening he sees a cartoon with a rooster in it and says duck, pointing to the rooster. Ben is exhibiting
For every 10 boxes of cookies that Lisa sells, her scout troop gets a dollar. Lisa is being reinforced on what schedule.
Dennis buys a lottery ticket every Saturday, using the same set of numbers. Although he has only won 25$ on one occasion, he keeps buying the tickets. In fact, he's a little afraid that if he doesn't buy a ticket, that would be the one that would win really big. The fact that Dennis seems addicted to buying lottery tickets is common characteristic of which schedule of reinforcement?
Sandy had learned that if her mother was smiling at her when she came into the kitchen, it meant that Sandy would probably be given a treat to eat if she asked nicely. But if her mother was frowning, she would not give Sandy anything and instead would shoo her away. Sandy's mother's facial expression was serving as
Liz failed her math test, so her parents told her that she could not play video games for a month. Her parents are using.
punishment by removal
To make punishment for effective, it should be
paired with reinforcement of the correct behavior
In applied behavior analysis,
skills are broken down into their smallest steps and then reinforced
Jody has had repeated failures at asking guys out on dates. Finally she gives up. One day at the office a really nice guy seems interested in her, but she refuses to even approach him. What concept might explain her reluctance?
Jared's father is ill and cannot prepare his famous chili recipe, which Jared has watched his father make many times. When his father tells Jared that he must cook the chili, he panics at first and then finds that he knows how to put the recipe together anyway. His ability to prepare the recipe is an example of
Archimedes was told by the kind to find a way to prove that a gold crown was really gold. While in the bath, he noticed the wayer that his body displaced out of the tub and shouted, I found it! If the crown was really gold, it should displace the same amount of water as an equal amount of real gold. This is a famous example of
Jared realized that he had learned how to prepare his father's famous chili recipe by watching his father in the kitchen for many years. This kind of learning is called
Barry would really like to learn to do ballroom dancing, but he has a severe limp in his left leg. Although he watches ballroom dancing on TV and can remember all of the dance moves and dips, he will be very unlikely to be able to dance this way because he is missing a key element of observational learning. What is it?
Eldon has just finished his essay test and handed it in. As he walks out of the classroom, he realizes that there were a few more things he should have included in the essay. Eldon's prolem is in the memory process of
When Edie studies her psyc terms, she tries to tie each concept into something she already knows, She thinks about the meaning of the concept rather than just saying the words over and over. Which model of memory would best explain Edie's approach to encoding memories?
levels of processing model
Long ago, when a TV set was turned off it took a while for the last image that was on the screen to fade away. This is most like...
Which type of memory is used to keep the flow of conversations going by allowing a person to remember what was just said?
Fethia learned her multiplication facts by repeating them over and over until she had them memorized. Fethia was using what kind of rehearsal?
Of the following, which is most similar to the concept of long-term memory?
a filing cabinet
Long term memories are encoded in terms of
sounds, visual images, and meanings of words and concepts
Which type of long term memory is seldom, if ever, lost by people with Alzheimer's disease?
In the game show, Who wants to be a millionaire? contestants are asked a series of questions of general information, although of increasing difficulty. The type of memory needed to access the answers to these kinds of questions is
The internet, with its series of links from one site to many others, is a good analogy for the organization of
The best place to take your math exam to ensure good retrieval of math concepts is in
the math classroom
Sarah can remember names of the first two people she was introduced to at Ted's party, and she can remember the name of the last person she met, but the names of the dozen or so people in between are gone. This is an exampe of...
serial position effect
This quiz question, as well as the other quiz questions, makes use of which form of retrieval of memories?
Which of the following statements about Loftus's classic study is TRUE?
Subjects either increased or decreased the number of demonstrators in an attempt to compromise their memory with the later false information
Which of the following statements about flashbulb memories is FALSE?
They are unusually accurate
The phenomenon of hindsight bias is an example of the __ of long-term memory retrieval.
In Loftus's 1978 study, subjects viewed a slide presentation of an accident. Later, some of the subjects were asked a question about a yield sign when the actual slides contained pictures of a stop sign. When these same subjects were later asked about what kind of sign was at the accident, they were very likely to be confused in this situation. This is an example of
Which of the following statements about memory retrieval while under hypnosis is TRUE?
People recalling memories under hypnosis are more confident in their memories, regardless of accuracy
Pezdek and colleagues found that for a person to interpret thoughts and fantasies about false events as true memories
the event must seem as plausible as possible
Salvatore was introduced to a number of new people on his first day at his new job. According to Ebbinghaus, when should Salvatore expect to have forgotten the greatest number of names he has just learned?
within the first hour after learning the names
When a person "forgets" what someone has just said because he wasn't paying attention to the speaker at all, it is an example of the ____ explanation of forgetting.
Edna took sociology in the fall semester and is now taking psychology. Some of the concepts are similar, and Edna finds that she sometimes has trouble recalling some of the major sociology theorists. She keeps getting them confused with psychology theorists. Edna's problem is most likely due to
Brian went from the US, where he grew up, to England. The first week he was there he had a terrible time remembering to drive on the left side of the road. His problem was most likely due to
Katerine is trying to hold the names of the students she just met in her psychology class in her short term memory. According to the studies, these memories will be stored in what part of the brain?
Research suggests that memory formation is a function of
changes in the number of receptor sites, changes in the sensitivity in the synapse, and changes in the dendrites and proteins within neurons
The role of the ___ in the formation of new long term declarative memories was first made apparent in the case of H.M. a famous case study in amnesia.
TJ was in a car accident and suffered a concussion. After he recovered, he found that he could not remember the accident itself or the events of the morning leading up to the accident. TJ had which kind of amnesia?
Memory can best be described as
an active system that encodes, stores, and retrieves information
In the __ model of memory, memories are simultaneously created and stored across a mental network.
parallel distributed processing
Roberta looked up from her book, realizing that Joaquin had just said something to her. What was it? Oh yes, he had just asked her if she wanted to go out to dinner. Roberta's ability to retrieve what Joaquin said is due to her
echoic sensory memory
Although Sperling found evidence that ionic memory lasts about half a second, in reality information gets pushed out rather quickly by newer information. Evidence suggests that iconic memory really lasts about ___ of a second
The duration of echoic memory is ___ than iconic memory, but its capacity is probably ___
When Greg tried to remember the name of his employer's wife, he had trouble getting the right name. At first he thought it might be Sandy or Candy bu finally he realized that it was Mandy. Greg's confusion is evidence that short term memories are primarily encoded in __ form.
Although the capacity of short term memory is limited, more items can be held in this kind of storage through the process of
The best method for encoding long term memories is probably to use
The levels of processing concept of Craik and Lockhart would suggest that which of the following questions would lead to better memory of the word frog?
Would it be found in a pond?
Which type of long term memory is revised and updated more or less constantly?
Knowledge that we gain from school textbooks is called ___ memory.
The semantic network model of memory would suggest that which of the following questions would take the longest to answer?
Is a collie an animal?
The research of Eich and Metcalf would suggest that if you were really angry when you were learning Spanish, you should be ___ when taking the final exam for best retrieval.
Which of the following is NOT an example of a test using recall?
The serial position effect predicts that the information that will be remembered best from a list will come at the ____ of the list.
beginning and the end
Melanie was having a difficult time describing the man who took her purse in the mall parking lot. The officer showed her some pictures of people who had been involved in similar crimes, and she was quickly able to point out the right man. Melanie's situation is a reminder that in comparing recognition to recall, recognition tends to be
Is eyewitness testimony usually accurate?
No, because there is a great possibility of a false-positive identification
The passage of time and frequency of events are examples of knowledge that is often subject to
When retrieving a long term memory, bits and pieces of information are gathered from various areas and put back together in a process called
Ebbinhaus found that information is forgotten
quickly at first, then tapering off gradually
A problem with using decay or disuse theory to explain forgetting from long-term memory is that
older people can still remember things from their early years
You started out by using WordPerfect and then moved to MicrosoftWord because your company demaded that all documents be in Word. If you have trouble with Word, it is most likely due to.
The earliest and main type of memory problem that people with dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, typically have is called
One theory that explains infantile amnesia states that these memories are
implicit and not retrievable consciously
have a picturelike quality
Knowing that the definition of psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes is an example of a
A "rule of thumb" is another name for a
What type of problem-solving strategy would be best to use when solving a problem in algebra class?
Miguel was struggling with the answer to one of the questions on his psychology midterm. Seeing that the answer was not going to come easily, he went on to answer some of the other easier questions. Then suddenly, the answer to the problematic question just seemed to pop into his head. Miguel's experience is an example of
Al goes out one frosty morning to find that his car is covered with a layer of thick frost. He needs to get to work and looks for his ice scraper. Unable to find it, he thinks a moment, goes into the house, and returns with a hard plastic spatula from the kitchen. In using the spatula as a makeshift ice scraper, Al has overcome
Randall believes that aliens crashed in the western US in the 1950s. When looking for information about this on the internet he ignores any sites that are skeptical of his belief and only visits and talks with his friends about the sites that support his belief. This is an example of ___
When a problem is seen as having only one answer, with all lines of thinking leading to that answer, this is known as ____ thinking.
Which of the following statements about creative people is TRUE?
They are not afraid to be different
According to Spearman, a traditional IQ test would most likely measure
In Gardner's view, astronauts, navigators, and artists would be high in ___ inteligence.
Sternberg has found that ___ intelligence is a good predictor of success in life but has a low relationship to ___ intelligence.
Using the Stanford-Binet IQ formula, what IQ would a person have whose mental age is 10 and whose chronological age is 15?
Lia is 10 years old. The intelligence test that would most likely be used to determine her IQ is the
Professor Beckett designed an IQ test. To standardize this test the professor should be careful to do which of the following?
Select the people in the sample from the population of people for whom the test is designed.
___ would be the problem in a test that provides a consistent score for some people each time it is administered but yields different scores for other people.
Blake is 35 years old, but his cognitive abilities have never gone beyond the level of a second grade child. Blake would be classified with an intellectual disability and ___ developmentally delayed.
A male with a defective chromosome leading to severe protein deficiency and poor brain development probably suffers from
fragile X syndrome
Elizabeth was tested while in grade school and was found to have an IQ of 134. Elizabeth's intelligence level can be labeled as
Which of the following statements about the successful "Termites" in the Terman and Oden study is NOT TRUE?
The successful men were more likely to be divorced
What is true about the Bell Curve?
The authors assumed that heritability applied only to differences within groups of people
The system of rules for combining words and phrases to make meaningful sentences is called..
Grammar includes all but which of the following aspects of language?
The sounds of the letters b, z, c, and d are examples of
The Dani have only two words for color yet can distinguish between many different colors. This finding supports the language theory or..
The quality of language produced by animals cannot yet compare to the level achieved by a __ human.
3 year old
Mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is processing information is called...
Research suggests we interact with ___ images ___ the way interact with physical objects.
mental; similarity to
On a popular quiz show, contestants are asked to match the audience in naming certain items. One contestant, when asked to name a type of vehicle, replied ELEVATOR! The audience groaned, because they knew that the contestant was pretty far off the mark. The contestant should have picked a vehicle that was close to a __ for vehicles to match the audience's response.
Algorithms are a type of ____
The ___ heuristic can be used to create and maintain stereotypes.
When people persist in trying to solve a problem the same way they have always gone about solving a problem, they have developed a
Which of the following questions would be more likely to produce divergent thinking?
"How many uses can you think of for a coffee cup?"
Which of the following is NOT part of the traditional definition of intelligence?
Ability to be creative
In Terman's study of gifted children, social and behavioral problems were found only in those...
with IQs of 180 or higher
According to Sternberg, "street smarts" is another way of talking about which kind of intelligence?
Which type of intelligence, according to Sternberg, would most likely be measured by traditional intelligence tests?
Goleman has proposed that ___ intelligence is a more powerful influence on success in life than other forms of intelligence.
Keneisha is only 11 years old, but she can answer questions that most 15 year olds can answer. Fifteen is Keneisha's ...
Which of the following makes the Wechsler tests different from the Stanford-Binet?
Different Wechsler tests are available for different age groups
A test that gives similiar scores for a person each time a person takes it is considered to be a ____ test
When a test allows a person from one particular background to have an unfair advantage over persons from other backgrounds, it is called
Marcos' mother drank heavily while pregnant with him and he has been diagnosed with mild intellectual disability. Marcos most likely suffers from
fetal alcohol syndrome
The current estimate of heritability of intelligence is..
The basic units of sound are called
The linguistic relativity hypothesis states that
language shapes thoughts
Research has supported the role of __ in the maintenance of mental fitness and improved cognitive function.
specific mental exercises such as those involving working memory AND nigher levels of aerobic fitness
Traumatic brain injuries can have a negative impact on which of the following?
problem solving, attention, and memory
Pavlov placed meat powder in the mouths of the dogs, and they began to salivate. Pavlov's student noticed that after a few days the dogs began to salivate at the sound of the student's footsteps. The salivation to the sound of the footsteps was a ________.
After Pavlov's dogs became conditioned to salivate at the sound of the bell, he experimented with ringing the bell and then failing to present the dogs with any food right away. Soon they stopped salivating to the sound of the bell. This represents the process called ________.
While watching the evening news you see a story about domestic abuse and wonder "why would anyone stay in a relationship where they are being abused?"According to Seligman, one factor that may contribute to victim's staying in abusive relationships is ________.
A child learns that whenever he eats all of his dinner he gets a cookie for dessert. This type of learning is BEST explained by ________.
Bob has learned that he can usually get what he wants from his parents if he keeps whining for something. One day Bob starts whining in the toy store because he wants a GI JOE action figure. His father refuses to give it to him and ignores his whining. What will happen?
Which of the following is true of research on insight?
Researchers have found support for the existence of both human and animal insight learning.
An expert on parenting is addressing parents at the local grade school. When the topic of punishment is discussed, what is one outcome of punishment the expert is likely to note for the parents to consider?
Punishment can also lead to the child acting aggressively.
A stimulus presented to a person or animal that decreases the probability of a particular response is known as ________.
punishment by application
A researcher places dogs in a cage with metal bars on the floor. The dogs are randomly given electric shocks and can do nothing to prevent them or stop them. Later, the same dogs are placed in a cage where they can escape the shocks by jumping over a low hurdle. When the shocks are given, the dogs do not even try to escape. They just sit and cower. This is an example of ________.
False positives occur when a person incorrectly “matches” a stimulus that is merely similar to a real memory to that memory. One major problem with eyewitness testimony is that _______________.
false positives can cause eyewitness testimony to be quite inaccurate
Someone asks you to name the twenty-second president of the United States, but you can't remember. To aid your memory, the person then tells you that the president's name is the same as that of a large city on Lake Erie. Upon hearing the hint, you instantly realize that Grover Cleveland is the answer. In this situation, the hint acted as a(n) ________.
The levels-of-processing concept of Craik and Lockhart would suggest that which of the following questions would lead to better memory of the word frog?
"Would it be found in a pond?"
Bits of information are combined into meaningful units so that more information can be held in short-term memory through the process of ________.
When given a list of items to remember, people tend to do better at recalling the first items on the list than the middle of the list. This is known as the ________.
Retrieving information from long-term memory is done by assembling information from various brain locations in a process known as ________.
Goddenand Baddeley foundthat if you study on land, you do better when tested on land, and if you study under water, you do better when tested under water. This finding is an example of ________.
Sitting in a very noisy restaurant, you are able to screen out all the other conversations around you so you can listen to the friend with whom you are conversing. This is an example of ________.
In the semantic network model of memory, concepts that are related in meaning ________.
are stored physically closer to each other than concepts that are not highly related
Let's say we could teach a dolphin to understand the difference between the sentences "The parrot kissed the dolphin" and "The dolphin kissed the parrot." If this were demonstrated, it might mean the dolphin had an understanding of ________.
In a heuristic called ________, a person determines the difference between the current situation and the goal and then tries to reduce that difference by various methods.
Which is the most likely prototype for the concept "vehicle"?
The linguistic relativity hypothesis suggests that ________.
one's language determines the pattern of one's thinking and view of the world
When adults who are speaking to infants change the pitch and rhythm in their speech, they are altering their ________.
A seemingly arbitrary flash "out of the blue,"through which the solution to a problem suddenly becomes apparent to you, but you do not consciously know how you "figured it out," is called ________.
The basic meaningful units of any language are called ________.
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