Reference groups influence us in three ways. These ways include informational, utilitarian and _______ dimensions.
The ________ influence is the reference group influence that helps the consumer make decisions about specific brands or activities.
Within groups, informal rules of behavior are called ________.
The plain and simple fact is that Ralph has body odor. Worse than that, Ralph does not seem to care. Ralph's clothes are in a shambles and his personal hygiene could certainly be improved. For most people, Ralph would be in which of the following groups?
What is guerrilla marketing?
The use of promotions that use unconventional locations and extensive word-of-mouth campaigns
According to the _________ perspective, under the right circumstances a group of people is smarter than the smartest people within the group
Wisdom of crowds
Rick and his decision team purchase office equipment that will be used by the entire organization in the next month. This is an example of which of the following forms of decision making?
Collective decision making
Like end consumers, organizational buyers are influenced by both internal and external stimuli. Which of the following is an example of an organizational buyer's internal stimuli?
The buyer's willingness to take risks
Business-to-business marketing often involves more of an emphasis on personal selling than on advertising or other forms of promotion. Which of the following is the chief reason for this emphasis?
Dealing with organizational buyers typically requires more face-to-face contact than is necessary in the case of end consumers
The ideal self is a person's conception of how she ________.
Would like to be
Paola is a very conservative businesswoman during the week. However, when she decides to "go out on the town," she likes to party and "kick up her heels." Paola's wardrobe choices are strikingly different for each of these roles. This best illustrates which of the following?
Consumers have multiple selves
Which of the following perspectives leads to the conclusion that our possessions play a key role as we evaluate ourselves and decide "who we are"
What describes a person's unique psychological makeup and how it consistently influences the way a person responds to his or her enviornment environment
What theory of personality suggests that one person differs from another because of a number of different characteristics such as introversion or extroversion?
Variables that measure psychological sociological and anthropological are referred to as ________.
Which of the following terms best describes the US society?
More than 50% of all Hispanic Americans are concentrated in just six cities. Which of the following is not among those cities?
We can trace most religion oriented marketing activity in America to _________.
The Born-Again Christian community
What are the three largest American subcultures?
Hispanics, African Americans & Asians
Promoters attempt to have their products shown prominently in full-length films. This is a promotion referred to as ________.
With respect to the types of adopters found in the diffusion of innovation process, the ________ are the one-sixth of the population that is very slow to adopt
What are some factors that influence how an organizational buyer evaluates a purchase decision?
• Expectations of supplier
• Organization climate of own company
• Buyers assessment of his own performance
What do organizational buyers do?
Purchase goods & services on behalf of companies for the companies' use in manufacturing, distribution or resale.
Business to business marketers
Must satisfy needs of organizations such as corporations, government agencies & retailers
Differences in Organizational vs. Consumer Buying
Organizational buying: Impulse buying is rare. Frequently involves many people. Dollar volume of purchases is often substantial. Decisions are often risky.
What are organizational buyers' influenced by?
Brand loyalty, long-term relationships or aesthetic preference
What are the three types of "buy classes"?
1. Straight rebuy
2. Modified rebuy
3. New task
Limited decision making
Extensive problem solving
Who is classified as the Sandwich Generation & why?
Middle aged people because they support both the generation above & below
Who are boomerang kids & what is the reason for this development?
Kids who return home after college due to the harsh economic condition
What is the change in culture for pets?
92% of pet owners consider their pets as members of the family & purchase them gifts for holidays
What are the two important factors that determine how a couple spends time & money?
1. Whether they have children
2. Whether the woman works
What are the eight stages of the family life cycle, according to Duvall?
Child bering families
Families with pre-school children
Families with school children
Families with teenagers
Families as launching centers
Aging family members
What are the four variables that describe changes in family life cycles?
2. Marital status
3. Presence of absence of children
4. Ages of children
Consensual purchase decision
Members agree on the purchase, but disagree on how they will make it happen
Accommodative purchase decision
members have different preferences of priorities and they cannot agree on a purchase to satisfy the minimum expectations of all involved
What are the factors that determine how much family decision conflict there will be?
1. Interpersonal need
2. Product involvement & utility
When one family member chooses a product
Involves both parents
Primary children markets
Includes toys, apparel, movies & games
Influence market - parental yielding
Parental decision maker surrenders to child's request
Kids who have grown to be adults so marketers try to lock in brand loyalty at an early age
the process through which a person acquires the knowledge and skills to function as a consumer
What are the three forms of reference group influences?
What is social power?
Capacity to alter actions of others
What is deindividuation?
When immersion in a group causes people to become less aware of their individual values
What is social loafing?
It happens when we don’t devote as much to a task because our contribution is part of a larger group effort.
Groups will make riskier decisions than individuals will
The direction the group members leaned before discussion began becomes even more extreme in that direction after the group talks about
Change in beliefs or actions as a reaction to real or imagined group pressure
What are characteristics of an opinion leader?
Young, adventuresome, good income, very curious about their area of expertise; A person who is frequently able to influence others’ attitudes or behaviors.
What is a market maven?
A person who likes to transmit marketplace information of all types
A person whom we retain to provide input into our purchase decisions; often guides what we buy
How do we find opinion leaders?
2. Key informant
3. Sociometric methods
Self designating method
Simply asks individuals whether they consider themselves to be opinion leaders. easy, not always accurate
Key informant method
Key informant in a social system is asked to identify opinion leaders
Trace communication patterns among members of a group
What are online communities
Groups of people that gather online & may be thousands of miles apart
What is a consumer tribe?
Is similar to the idea of a brand community; it is
a group of people who share a lifestyle and can identify with each other because of a shared allegiance to an activity or a product.
What is the difference between aspirational & membership groups?
Aspirational groups are people we don't know, but admire, while we known those in membership groups
How do we predict what membership group one is apart of?
2. Mere exposure
3. Group cohesiveness
Our understanding and evaluation of who we are
The positivity one has about their self-concept
Our more realistic appraisal of the qualities we do and don’t have.
We work hard to “manage” what others think of us
Consumers demonstrate consistency between their values and the things they buy
The external objects we consider part of our self-identity
Sets of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one's status as male or female
Sex Typed Traits and Products
• Characteristics we stereotypically associate with one gender or the other
• Sex type products take on masculine of feminine attributes
The specific mix of human traits that may be attributed to a particular brand
Refers to the extent to which a consumer holds strong, favorable, and unique associations with a brand in memory
Dividing the market into different segments based on social class lifestyle or personality characteristics
Most contemporary psychographic research attempts to group consumers according
to some combination of three categories of variables _________, _________ & _________.
Activities, interests & opinions
What is the most well know segmentation system?
The Values and Lifestyles System (VALS)
A segmentation technique that combines geography with demographics
What is the significance for geodemography?
In order to identify consumers who share common consumption patterns.
The money that remains after paying for taxes and necessities.
This measure reflects how optimistic or pessimistic people are about the future health of the economy
The division of society into groups arranged in a social hierarchy
Social Class Structure
Social class is determined by income, family background, and occupation
Achieved Status vs Ascribed Status
Achieved: gained through choices, actions, efforts, talents, accomplishments.
Ascribed: little or no choice about occupying
Movement of individuals or groups from one position in a society's stratification system to another
Two major components of social class
Three groups based on attitudes towards luxury items
Describes consumers in terms of their aesthetic and intellectual preferences
Material signs that inform others of a person's specific status
A pattern of consumption that reflects a person’s choices of how to spend her time and money
People sort themselves into groups on the basis of: What they like to do, how they spend leisure time, how they spend disposable income
A group whose members share beliefs and common experiences that set them apart from other members of a culture is a ________
The smallest subgroup within a culture that shares specific cultural features such as values or behaviors
The result of targeting a product heavily associated with one ethnic group to other segments
Adapting to a new culture by means of someone influencing you
Consists of people of similar ages who have similar experiences.
The Interbellum Generation
The Silent Generation
The War Baby Generation
The Baby Boom Generation
How old a person feels as compared to his or her true chronological age
The beliefs, customs, habits, and language shared by the people living in a particular time and place.
story with symbolic elements that represents a culture’s ideals
Sets of multiple symbolic behaviors that occur in a fixed sequence and that tend to be repeated periodically
Grooming, gift giving, holidays
Sacred vs profane consumption
When we “set apart” objects
and events from normal activities and treat them with respect; no special meaning
Occurs when ordinary objects, events, people take on sacred meaning
Loss of a sense of the sacred or spiritual
Culture production system
Set of individuals and organizations that create and market a cultural product
Online games that contain interactive advertisements
Diffusion of innovation
A product diffuses, or spreads, through the population
Behavioral demands of innovations
•Dynamically continuous innovation
Evolutionary rather than revolutionary
Dynamically continuation innovation
More pronounced change to existing product
Creates major changes in the way we live
Perquisites for successful adoption
5. Relative advantage
Which of the following is an example of utilitarian influence?
An individual's decision to purchase a particular brand is influenced by the preferences of family members
______ consumption occurs with objects & events that are considered to be ordinary & everyday
Variables that measure psychological, sociological & ________ characteristics are referred to as psychographics
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