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Geologists who specifically study earthquakes are called
A surface along which rock on opposed sides is offset by earthquake-induced slip is called a ____________
hanging wall lies vertically above the footwall
At any point along the surface of an oblique (nonvertical) fault, the ____________
If, during an earthquake, a hanging wall slides upward relative to a footwall, the fault is termed ____________ if the fault is steep (closer to vertical than horizontal)
If, during an earthquake, a hanging wall slides upward relative to a footwall, the fault is termed ____________ if the fault is shallow (much closer to horizontal than vertical).
If, during an earthquake, a footwall slides upward relative to a hanging wall, the fault is termed ____________
If a fault is nearly vertical in orientation and the two walls of rock on opposite sides slide past one another horizontally, the fault is termed ____________.
The quantity of offset that occurs along a fault is termed ____________.
The intersection between a fault plane and the ground surface is called the ____________.
20 km beneath New Madrid
An earthquake occurs with an epicenter in the town of New Madrid, Missouri, in the interior of the North American Plate. Where might the hypocenter of this earthquake plausibly be found?
The greatest earthquake ever recorded by seismographs occurred in 1960 in Chile and measured ____________ on the moment-magnitude scale.
A primary force opposing motion on all faults is ____________
Periods of intermittent sliding on a fault that result from the release of stress during episodes of displacement followed by stress buildup to the point that the fault is reactivated, are termed ____________.
may continue for days after the initial earthquake
are mostly much smaller than the original earthquake
may occur on the same fault as the original earthquake, or on a different fault
all of the above
Aftershocks following a major earthquake ____________.
Faulting and earthquakes are examples of ____________.
Earthquake waves that pass through the interior of Earth are termed ____________.
Which type of earthquake waves generally travels fastest?
cause most of the damage to buildings during earthquakes
Surface waves ____________.
both S- and P-waves
Body waves include ____________.
Which type of earthquake wave travels fastest?
Vertical motion seismographs record earthquakes through the production of a squiggly diagram called a ____________.
The point within Earth where an earthquake takes place is termed the ____________.
The point on Earth’s surface directly above the point where an earthquake occurs is termed the ____________.
How many seismic stations are necessary to find the epicenter of an earthquake?
Which earthquake intensity scale assesses the effects of an earthquake on humans and human-made structures?
Which earthquake severity scale only takes vibration caused by the S-waves into account when estimating the size of an earthquake?
Which earthquake severity scale takes into account the type of rock that has been fractured?
Which earthquake severity scale measures the amplitude of deflection of a seismograph pen, standardized to an idealized distance of 100 km between epicenter and seismograph?
Which earthquake severity scale varies from locality to locality for a single earthquake?
convergent plate boundaries only
divergent plate boundaries only
transform plate boundaries only
all three major types of plate boundaries
Earthquakes are likely to occur along ____________.
convergent plate boundaries only
Intermediate and deep earthquakes occur along ____________.
Earthquakes that occur in a band called a ____________ can be used to track the motion of subducted oceanic lithosphere.
Virtually all of the deaths attributed to major earthquakes have resulted from the collapse of buildings. TorF
have been largely unreliable
Short-term predictions of earthquake behavior ____________.
is based on past earthquake activity
works on the principle that zones of past seismicity will be active in the future
includes the notion of seismic gaps—places where an earthquake is “overdue”
all of the above
Long-term prediction of earthquake behavior ____________.
an earthquake-generated sea wave that can sometimes destroy coastal cities thousands of kilometers from its source
A tsunami is ____________.
On December 26, 2004, a magnitude 9 earthquake generated a tsunami that devastated coastlines on the ____________ Ocean.
ten thousand times
An earthquake with magnitude 8.0 releases ____________ the energy of an earthquake with magnitude 4.0.
The greatest earthquake ever recorded by seismograph equipment measured ____________ on the moment-magnitude scale and had an epicenter off the coast of ____________.
California is the only state in the United States that experiences frequent or strong earthquakes. TorF
Mt. Everest, the tallest mountain in the world, is located on the continent of ____________.
An episode of mountain building is termed a(n) ____________.
Mountain ranges are associated with modern and ancient convergent plate boundaries, but do not form in association with either divergent or transform plate boundaries. TorF
Change in shape, induced by stress, is termed ____________.
A body of rock affected by tensile stress will likely undergo ____________.
A body of rock affected by compressive stress will likely undergo ____________.
A hot body of rock is more likely to exhibit ____________ than is a cold body of rock.
A body of rock under high pressure is more likely to exhibit ____________ than is a body of rock at low pressure.
A body of rock to which a sudden, rapid stress has been applied is more likely to exhibit ____________ than is a body of rock subjected to a gradually applied stress.
Earthquakes only occur ____________ the brittle/ductile transition depth.
Force per unit area is termed ____________.
faults are fractures along which displacement has occurred; displacement does not occur along joints
The distinction between joints and faults is that ____________.
A joint always occurs as a single, isolated plane within a rock. TorF
Most fault surfaces, like joints, are roughly planar in orientation. TorF
Motion along all faults is either strike-slip or dip-slip; combinations of these two types of displacement are never found together in a single fault. TorF
Normal, reverse, and thrust are all examples of ____________ faults.
Right-lateral and left-lateral are both examples of ____________ faults.
In the above map the vertical, north-south trending fault is a ____________ fault.
normal and left-lateral
It is possible for offset along an oblique-slip fault to have both ____________ components.
Movement along faults often produces sharply angled rock fragments termed ____________.
Within a cratonic platform, sedimentary rocks always have a horizontal orientation. TorF
A fold shaped like an elongate arch is a(n) ____________.
A fold shaped like an elongate trough is a(n) ____________.
A fold shaped like an upside-down bowl is a(n) ____________.
A fold shaped like a right-side up bowl is a(n) ____________.
The central portion of high curvature on a fold is termed the fold ____________.
Tectonic foliation, such as elongation of quartz grains, always occurs parallel to the original bedding plane of a body of rock. TorF
Continental crust is typically 35 km thick, but may be up to ____________ thicker under mountain ranges.
he balance between the weight of a mountain range and the buoyancy provided by the underlying mantle is termed ____________.
Regions of continents that have not been subjected to orogeny during the past one billion years are termed ____________.
The outer portion of a craton, where deformed rocks are covered by sediments, is termed the ____________.
Regions where Precambrian metamorphic rocks are exposed at the surface are termed ____________.
A polished surface produced by rock scraping along a fault is termed a(n) ____________.
In a ____________ fault, the fault plane is less than 30° from horizontal and the hanging-wall block moves upward relative to the footwall block.
In a ____________ fault, the fault plane is greater than 30° from horizontal and the hanging-wall block moves upward relative to the footwall block.
In a ____________ fault, the fault plane is nonvertical and the hanging-wall block moves downward relative to the footwall block.
The sides of a fold where curvature is at a minimum are termed ____________.
On a geologic map, if the contacts between sedimentary rock units form a series of parallel lines, with the youngest unit in the center, the underlying structure is a(n) ____________.
On a geologic map, if the contacts between sedimentary rock units form a bull’s eye pattern of concentric circles, with the youngest unit in the center, the underlying structure is a(n) ____________.
On a geologic map, if the contacts between sedimentary rock units form a bull’s eye pattern of concentric circles, with the oldest unit in the center, the underlying structure is a(n) ____________.
James Hutton, the “father of geology,” put forth the principle of ____________.
Period names on the geologic time scale, such as Devonian and Permian, provide examples of ____________.
In an undisturbed sequence of sedimentary rocks, younger layers overlay older layers, according to the principle of ____________.
If the lithology and fossil content of two bodies of rock on opposite sides of a canyon are identical, then these remaining outcrops were likely physically connected at one time and formed part of an extensive, sheet-like layer of rock. This idea summarizes the principle of ____________.
Which of the following geologic principles is a direct result of gravity?
Which of the following geologic principles is NOT a result of gravity?
fossil content and spatial relationships among sedimentary rocks
Relative ages expressed on the geologic time scale primarily resulted from the study of ____________.
radiometric dating of igneous rocks
Numerical ages for boundaries between time units on the geologic time scale primarily resulted from the study of ____________, in conjunction with relative age data.
occur in an ordered sequence
Within the world’s sedimentary rocks, fossils ____________.
The surface below sedimentary rocks that overlie igneous or metamorphic rocks is termed a(n) ____________.
Buried erosional surfaces between parallel sedimentary strata are termed ____________.
Which method of correlation is more reliable for determining age equivalence among bodies of rock that are physically isolated by vast distances?
Which eon of geologic time is represented by rocks containing abundant shelly fossils?
Two atoms of a single element that differ in number of neutrons are said to represent two distinct ____________ of that element.
Which proportion of a radioactive isotope is expected to remain in an unaltered (unreacted) state after the passage of three half-lives?
temperature of the crystal became equal to the closure temperature for the mineral
Precisely speaking, a measured radiometric age for a mineral crystal within an igneous rock denotes the amount of time that has passed since the ____________.
too old (predate sedimentary deposition)
Radiometric dates applied to sedimentary rocks produce ages that are ____________.
The correct answer to question 30 illustrates the principle of ____________.
No new heat has been added to the Earth since its initial formation.
In the 1800s Lord Kelvin estimated the age of the Earth, utilizing a number of assumptions. Which wrong assumption was the primary reason why his estimate (approximately 20 million years) was so wildly inaccurate?
layering (growth lines) in shells
annual growth rings in trees
seasonal layering in glacial ice
all of the above
Numerical ages for recent geologic events can sometimes be determined by the study of ____________.
physical processes observed today (such as erosion and volcanic eruption) have been active in the past and are responsible for the geologic history we see preserved in the rock record
As understood by modern geologists, the principle of uniformitarianism implies that ____________.
The present is the key to the past.
Uniformitarianism is succinctly summarized by which phrase?
Relative ages for sedimentary strata were known well before accurate numerical dates for these rocks could be provided.
Which statement best summarizes the development of the geologic time scale?
If the numerical ages of two formations are known, then the relative age of each with respect to one another can be inferred. TorF
If the relative age of two formations (with respect to one another) is known, then the numerical ages for each formation can be inferred. TorF
The limestone must be older than the marble.
In the area immediately surrounding an igneous intrusion, a host limestone is locally metamorphosed to produce marble. Which of the following statements is correct?
If horizontal sedimentary strata overlie tilted strata (and no fault is present), the surface between the horizontal and tilted strata must be a(n) ____________.
200 million years
In an unweathered sample of igneous rock, the ratio of an unstable isotope to its stable daughter isotope is 1/15. If no daughters were present at the time the rock cooled below closure temperature, and the half-life of the reaction is 50 million years, how old is the rock?
none of the above
In an unweathered sample of detrital sedimentary rock, the ratio of an unstable isotope to its stable daughter isotope is 1/15. If no daughters were present at the time the rock cooled below closure temperature, and the half-life of the reaction is 50 million years, how old is the rock?
When an unstable isotope decays, the daughter isotope that results is always a stable isotope. TorF
Which of the following is always the same for multiple isotopes of a single element?
atomic mass number
Which of the following always varies among multiple isotopes of a single element?
4.57 billion years
Earth is approximately how old?
Earth’s interior was so hot that a solid outer crust, if present, was likely being extensively remelted
The Hadean is a time in Earth history when ____________.
the first abundant shelly organisms appear in the fossil record
The Cambrian Period is a time in Earth history when ____________.
the dinosaurs appeared and came to dominate large-scale terrestrial life
The Mesozoic Era is a time in Earth history when ____________.
stable continental interiors, termed cratons, first formed
Toward the end of the Archean Eon, ____________.
Greenstones are metamorphosed sedimentary rocks; as sediments, they were deposited in the oceans during the ____________.
Which gas found in today’s atmosphere was virtually absent in the Hadean’s and Archean’s?
Greenhouse climate on Earth was associated with relatively high atmospheric levels of which gas?
Proterozoic and Paleozoic
Rodinia and Pangaea are supercontinents that assembled during the ____________, respectively.
The oldest radiometrically dated mineral grains are ____________ the oldest preserved rocks on Earth.
150 million years
A crustal rock dated to 150 Ma is how old?
The Himalayas were produced by the collision of ____________ with southern Asia during the Cenozoic.
150 thousand years
A crustal rock dated to 150 Ka is how old?
A crustal rock dated to 1.9 Ga is how old?
The oldest terrestrial insect fossils are found in rocks from the ____________ period.
The first terrestrial vertebrates (with an amphibian life cycle) are represented by fossils that are late ____________ in age.
Dinosaurs first appeared during the ____________ period.
The first mammals appeared during the ____________ period.
The eon represented by abundant deposits of strata with shelly fossils is the ____________.
a low-lying region where Precambrian rocks crop out
A shield is ____________
a low-lying region where Precambrian rocks are covered by Phanerozoic sedimentary strata
A cratonic platform is ____________.
synonymous with “craton”
Geographically, a shield and surrounding platform together are ____________.
a region of compressed rock located behind a volcanic arc at a convergent continental margin
A fold-thrust belt is ____________.
assembly of the supercontinent Rodinia
The late Proterozoic Grenville orogen is an event related to the ____________.
assembly of the supercontinent Pangaea
The late Paleozoic Hercynian orogen is an event related to the____________.
middle Paleozoic (in the Devonian Period)
The earliest forests containing woody trees appeared during the ____________.
Tree-sized relatives of the living ferns, club mosses, and scouring rushes were common in environments termed coal swamps during the ____________ Period.
conifers and cycads
Permian, Triassic, and Jurassic forests were dominated by large ____________.
The Western Interior Seaway reached its greatest level of continental inundation during the ____________ Period.
Tyrannosaurus rex, one of the largest carnivorous dinosaur species, lived during the ____________ Period.
The Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary event took place how many millions of years ago?
the impact of a bolide (meteoroid or comet)
An iridium-rich layer of clay, glass spherules, and shocked quartz grains strongly suggests that the K-T boundary extinctions were at least in part caused by ____________.
The Chicxulub crater is located on which continent?
Basin and Range Province
Convergence along the western margin of North America during the Cenozoic gave way to rifting forces which created the characteristic topography of the ____________.
The Miocene epoch saw the spread of which new vegetative zone?
The most recent interval of Quaternary glaciation gave way to warmer, interglacial conditions ____________ ago.
During the Cenozoic Era, most large-bodied terrestrial animals inhabiting regions of temperate climate have been ____________.
2.4 million years ago
When did the human genus, Homo first appear on Earth?
Humans belong to a lineage of mammals called the ____________.
represents a transitional form between more typical bony fish and terrestrial vertebrates
The fossil fish Tiktaalik made headlines in 2005 because it ____________.
Once an ancient mountain range is destroyed by erosion, it leaves no detectable record, and therefore geologists can never learn of its past existence. TorF
Through geologic time, continents have drifted over the surface of Earth, but each continent has always been about as large as it is today. TorF
Regions on the continents that are experiencing warm climates today have generally experienced colder climates in the past, and vice versa. TorF
Earth became internally differentiated, with a metallic core distinct from the rocky mantle, during the ____________.
impact between Earth and a Mars-sized body during the Hadean
The generally accepted scientific theory for the origin of our Moon involves ____________.
the Sun was much more luminous than it is today
Earth was hotter than today during the Hadean for all of the following reasons EXCEPT ____________.
Stromatolites are layered structures produced by the activity of ____________.
Oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere is derived from ____________.
Banded-iron formations were abundantly produced during the ____________.
The end of the Cretaceous Period (extinction of dinosaurs and many other groups) represents the only evidence we have in the fossil record of a catastrophic mass extinction. TorF
coal, oil, natural gas
Which of the following lists contains only fossil fuels?
trap—a geologic configuration that forces oil to pool up and denies it passage to the
In order to produce a commercially viable oil deposit, there must be a source rock, a reservoir rock, a seal rock, and a ____________.
Chemically, oil and gas are both ____________.
are more volatile than hydrocarbons with longer chains
Hydrocarbons consisting of short carbon chains ____________.
Most of the hydrocarbons within oil and natural gas are derived from the breakdown of organic matter from once-living ____________.
A buried body of rock that is induced by heat to exude oil is termed a ____________.
A permeable and porous rock, regardless of lithology, is a good candidate to serve as a ____________ in an oil-producing scenario.
An impermeable rock, regardless of lithology, is a good candidate to serve as a ____________ in an oil-producing scenario.
is produced at higher temperatures than oil
Natural gas ____________.
6.5 km below the surface
The greatest depth at which oil is found is about ____________.
gas, because it is more stable at high temperatures
Which fossil fuel—oil or natural gas—is found at greater depths within Earth, and why?
source rock or seal rock
A black, organic-rich shale could likely serve as either of which two necessary types of rocks within oil fields?
how well the pores within rock are connected
Permeability is a measure of ____________.
the gas will naturally be floating on top of the oil
If a drilled well encounters both oil and natural gas, ____________.
a seal rock
Shale, salt, and fine-grained limestone that is not fractured are all good candidates to serve as ____________ within an oil field.
90 to 160 °C
The oil window (temperature range wherein organic matter is converted to petroleum without destroying it) lies between ____________.
Which of the following is NOT an important type of oil trap?
Coal is the altered remains of ancient ____________.
lignite, bituminous, anthracite
Which sequence of coal ranks is ordered from lowest to highest?
Yucca Mountain, Nevada
Congress has proposed storing nuclear waste beneath ____________.
Coal layers buried under less than 100 m of sediment are usually mined with which technique?
rare even in uranium oxide deposits, and thus usable reactor fuel must be enriched
with respect to this isotope
the isotope of uranium commonly utilized in nuclear power plants, is ____________.
Aside from the possibility of a meltdown, nuclear power provides no other major problems or concerns. TorF
Geothermal energy provides a low-cost alternative to fossil fuels throughout most of the populated world. TorF
Which of the following is a renewable resource?
The world’s supply of oil is likely to be depleted in about ____________ years.
Which of the three most commonly used metals is sometimes mined as a native metal?
Which ores are most commonly concentrated in magmatic deposits?
Mineral-rich veins within plutons, deposited by hot groundwater into fractures within the rock, characterize ____________.
lead and zinc
MVT (Mississippi-Valley Type) deposits are secondary enrichments primarily of ____________.
Which ore minerals are commonly found in ancient sedimentary deposits that are 2 billion years old?
The stereotypical gold rush prospector panning for gold in a stream bed is exploiting ____________.
Open pits on the surface of Earth, constructed to extract stone for building purposes are called ____________.
No mineral resources are renewable.
Which mineral resources are considered renewable?
The United States has active mines within its boundaries that are sufficient to maintain a steady supply of all important metals. TorF
As compared to coal mining, mineral mining has virtually no adverse environmental impact. TorF
Most important mineral resources, including ores, can be expected to last for the next 1000 years. TorF
Most metals used by society are obtained from ____________.
Nonmetals extracted from metals during smelting are termed ____________.
Smelting is a technique applied to ____________.
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