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a slow moving mass of ice
Valley or Alpine Glacier
A glacier that fills a valley
A mass of glacier that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than 50,000 km also known as continental glacier.
An ice mass that covers less than 50,000 km of land area.
a thick continuous ice sheet formed at the base of a mountain range by the spreading out.
Removal of material from the surface of an object through erosion or vaporization.
An increase by natural growth or addition.
A crack in a glacier
The appearance of rock after having been worn smooth by a passing glacier. Typically granite or other metamorphic rocks.
Scratches on bedrock which were caused by the dragging of rock that was frozen in the base of a overriding glacier.
U-shaped valleys or troughs
The shape of a valley after it has been overdeepened by a glacier.
Smaller glacial valleys feeding into a deeper main glacier trough,
a mountain lake formed by glaciers.
A former glacial valley with steep walls and a u-shaped profile now occupied by the sea.
Caused by 2 glaciers forming U-shaped valleys, the space seperating them is the arete and it is a thing ridge of rock like a knife.
A rock formation created by the passing of a glacier.
AN accumulation of earth and rock which have been transported by moving ice.
unsorted glacial sediment
piece of rock that differs in size and type of the native rocks in the area.
accumulated earth and stones deposited by a glacier
tops of mountains exposed because glacier ice is so thick
a shallow, sediment-filled body of water formed by retreating glaciers.
a mound of glacial drift
long, narrow high ridge of sand and gravel formed by a stream underneath a glacier.
a round hill or short ridge of sand/gravel deposited by a melting glacier.
Glaciers moving faster than normal
Why do low latitude desters form?
General circulation of the atmosphere (30 degrees N and S)
What is a steppe?
Next step up from deserts, can grow grass.
What does most of the erosional work in deserts?
What can form in playas?
What size particle makes up the bedload and suspended load of wind?
Name the processes of wind erosion
How does desert pavement form?
erosion of silt
What is ventifact?
Stones on surface pounded by one direction of wind on one side.
How does wind cause sand to ripple in the desert?
Saltation and creep
What are the main sedimentary structures of dunes? (3)
1. cross bedding
2. ripple marks
What is an oasis?
Some sort of aquifer or Artesian well need
evidence of activity of the organism
footprints, burrows, trails
Fossilized animal excrement.
gastroliths: swallowed stones
coal: plant fossils
Unaltered Soft Part Fossils
Insects preserved in amber
Unaltered Hard Parts
The hard parts of most animals such as shells, bones, teeth.
Permineralization (Altered Hard Part Fossil)
Plants, bones and shells that were once porous have their pores filled by mineral matter. Heavier than the original
Carbonization (Altered Hard Part Fossil)
The volatile consituents (hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen) contained in the organic remains of plants and animals may be lost leaving a thing black film of carbon.
usually plants, fish, anthropods
Recrystallization (Altered Hard Part Fossil)
The internal physical structure of some shells is changed by a rearrangement of the molecules. Making mosaic or interlocking crystals.
Molds and Casts (Altered Hard Part Fossil)
THe impression or hole made in the sediment by a buried shell removed by groundwater solution is a mold. If the mold is later filled by cement or sediment, a cast is formed.
study of ancient life
Badlands NP - South Dakota - Cenozoic
Petrified NP- Mesozoic
Dinosaur NM- Colorado- Mesozoic
Fossil Butte NM- Wyoming- Cenozoic = LAGERSTATTE
Types of deserts (5)
-Low latitude or Trade Wind Deserts (30)
-Midlatitude Desert (Far from Ocean, Mountains Blocking weather)
-Rain Shadow Deserts (Mountain Blocking)
-Coastal Deserts (Wind pattern goes to Ocean) *DRIEST= CHILE NAMIBIA
-Polar Deserts (Frozen water=dry)
removal of material by wind
Pebbles on ground- deposition not deflation!
Result of deflation. plant roots keep sand in tact.
Rocks that are ebraided because of wind direction
polishes rock cause of wind
wind sculpted landforms aligned with wind direction (Death Valley)
Factors controlling dune formation
-source for materials
Death Valley NP- California- Sand=quartz
White Sands NP- New Mexico- sand=gypsum
Great Sand Dunes NM-Colorado sand=quartz/feldspar CENOZOIC
Glacier Park in California
-PAst glacier activty
rocks: granite, diorite, grandiorite
Glacier Bay NP
-Modern Glacier Park with Lateral Moraines
all types of rocks
When Ice breaks off into ocean
What represents the l
What is the sand at Great Sand Dune NP?
The polar region is considered to be what?
A type of desert.
Glaciers erode throught he process of
Bong Hill in Athens is Moraine from the last glacial period.
Valley glaciers scour rock and deliver this sediment at the bottom of the valley
Glaciers move at a constant speed
Yosemite NP is full of what?
Mountains of igneous rocks from subduction
Fossil Preservation through replacement involves what?
Precipitation of a compeltely different mineral.
What kind of sedimentary rock would be preserved within a desert environment?
Chemical (evaporite) and clastic (sand, quartz, mud)
Badlands have rocks that preserve what?
Wind deposits include:
Sand and silt ONLY
What is Yosemite NP famous for?
Its waterfalls and hanging valleys
Where is Badlands NP?
Where is the worlds largest Ice sheet?
The epoch of the last Ice age is called?
Stratified drift is deposited by...?
Which park does not have sedimintary rocks?
Rocks that do not fit in with native rocks
Petrified NP Contains rocks from
What landscape feature is composed of coalesced alluvial fans?
What kind of loads does wind transport?
Bed load and suspended
Desert pavement is formed solely by what?
deposition of silt
All deserts form exclusively in the middle of latitudeS? T OR F
False! there are different types of deserts
Dunes contain cross bedding T OR F
Dinosaur footprints are an example of what category of preservation?
Best preserved fossil faunal deposits are called
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