If lymphocytes roll along the surface of the blood vessels in continuous contact with epithelial cells, what kind of communication is this?
Which is not a function of any membrane signaling receptors?
Transport the signaling molecule into the cell
What would be the likely outcome if a cytoplasmic receptor was functionally normal except for a mutation that damaged the part of the receptor that binds to an inhibitor?
The receptor would always be active and over-stimulate gene expression even when the signaling molecule was not present
Most receptor enzymes are what type of enzyme?
What is the second step in receptor kinase signaling (i.e. after ligand binding)?
If G-proteins were nonfunctional, the direct link between which two parts of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling system would be disabled?
GPCRs and effector proteins
What is the job of a second messenger in a GPCR signaling system?
Relay a signal to the response proteins
Serotonin acts as a ligand fro some ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) and in a digestive system, serotonin stimulates peistaltic reflexes through LGIC signaling. If a drug that acts as a serotonin agonist was administered to a patient, what would the response be?
Stimulate peristaltic reflexes
What property do all blastomeres all share?
They are all stem cells
Localized morphogens in an egg and shorted G1 and G2 stages early in development lead directly to:
Asymmetric inheritance of cytoplasm determinants
What type of stem cell would be necessary to regrow a limb but not be able to make a whole new organism with placenta and all?
Which of the following is true of all stem cells?
they have the ability to divide indefinitely
Which of the following is an "unseen" process detectable only through experimentation?
What process represents a change in cell fate due to interactions with other cells?
Determination due to induction
FOr somatic cell nuclear transfer technology, what did the eggs used in the experiment provide?
Morphogens to reprogram the DNA of the mature cell, causing it to reverse the process of differentiation
Which type of transcription factor divides embryos into seven zones?
What type of transcription factor accomplished HOX gene function in plants?
MADS box genes
A programmed cell death pathway often includes an inhibitor and an activator and an apoptotic protease. What is the likely outcome if the activator is nonfunctional because of a mutation?
None of the cells in the embryo will enter the program cell death and die
A mutation in cadherin proteins is most likely to affect what process?
Which neurons are responsible for carrying impulses from sensory organs to the central nervous system?
THe cell bodies of which neurons always lie within the central nervous system?
What sepcific part of the nervous system would you suspect is impaired if the cardiac muscle no longer responded to nerve stimulation but skeletal muscle and learning and memory functioned normally?
Autonomic nervous system
What part of the neuron is most closely associated with supporting cells such as Schwann cells?
If a cell was not able to maintain its normal resting mebmrane potential, what part of the neuron would you suspect could be defective?
Ion leakage channels
If a neuron was depleted of ATP as an energy source and was not able to actively transport ions across teh mebmrane, what feature of nerve biology would be directly affectd?
The resting membrane potential
A ligand-gated ion channel that transports Na+ is sitmulated by its ligand to open. What is the result?
Depolarizing graded potential
What is the normal sequence of events (and resulting change) during an action potential?