Last Modified: 2011-07-11
Nonsense mutation (Frame Shift)
Reactive Oxygen Species
DNA replication Errors (Not often)
Human Growth Hormone
Factor 8- blood clotting factor
Denaturation- proteolysis of casein and decreased pH
Bitter taste- protein degradation
Smell- degradation of amino acids to make sulfides and amines.
2. Consume Immediately
3. Desiccation (removal of water)
4. Raise Osmolarity ( increase solute concentration) Add salt of sugar
6. Increase Acidity
2. Decrease temperature
3. Anitmicrobial chemicals
5. Filter Sterilization
2. NADH waste product
3. Limited NAD+
-Acetaldehyde is reduced to form ethanol (receives electrons).
-Increase membrane fluidity, loose integrity
-no wine of beer over 12% ethanol
-Higher concentrations are made from distillation
-Depressant for some and a stimulant for others
2. Dopamine- increase signaling
3. GABA- decrease
4. NMDA (formation of memories)- decrease
5. Glutanate (slowed speech)- decrease
3. Disruption of REM and Non REM sleep
4. Accumulation of waste products
2. Antiseptics- Sterilize living tissue. EX. iodine, alcohols, hydrogen peroxide. Low concentration!
-Penicillin and cephalosporins
-inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan cross links
-Not effective against Gram Negative bacteria.
-Can ruin Kidneys
-Used to treat Staphylococcus aureus.
-Ions leak in and out
-also works on eukaryotes
-lyse red blood cells
-Bind to the small subunit of the ribosome and prevent it from joining with the -large subunit.
-No exchange of info from mRNA to Protein.
-Prevent tRNA from binding
-Most are Bacteriostatic
-binds to the large subunit of ribosome
-blocks polypeptide chain from leaving
-Can be both Bacteriocidal or Bacteriostatic
-PABA- precursor to make folic acid which sulfa drugs prevent
-inhibits DNA gyrase from resealing nicks
-damages DNA by causing nicks
- humans given the inactive form
-Blocks the emergence of mRNA (blocks pores)
-prevents RNA from being created
2. Misuse of Antibiotics
3. Human population density and interactions
4. Immune-suppressed individuals
5. Frequent Mutations
6. Bacterial populations densities
7. Short replication time
8. Horizontal Gene Transfer
2. Enzymatic Inactivation
3. Target Modification
4. Failure to Activate
5. Alternate Pathway
Clavulanic acid- inactivated B-lactamase
-Vancomycin resistant bacteria can alter the peptide bond.
-mutate promoter region of gene itself
2. The Lysogenic Cylce
Have a size of 2kb to 50kb (killa base)
2. Metabolic Enzymes
3. Adhesion Factors
2. Electroporation- Short burst of electricity, puts holes in membrane
-Direct transfer of DNA between bacteria.
-Performed using sex pilus
-allows bacteria to make sex pilus
-can land inside genes and inactivate them
-carry antibiotic resistant genes
2. Replicative Transpostion
MOST microbes are NOT pathogens
2. Bacteria are attempting to create a non parasitic association, but fail.
3. Bacteria normally live in another niche, but have accidentally entered and caused an immune response.
LOWER LD50 MORE virulent
LOWER ID 50 MORE virulent
2. It mush be isolated and grown in culture
3. It must reproduce the disease when introduced to a host
4. It must be reisolated from the host with the disease
2. Some microbes can be very difficult to culture (EX. Syphilis)
3. Genetics can make a person more or less susceptible to the disease
4. Age can also make someone more or less susceptilble
5. An animal model may not exist (ex. Cholera)
2. Helicobacter pylori
-moves with run and tumble motility
-infects small intestine
-Gram negative facultative anaerobe
-survive water at cold temps
-rash on abdomen
-Bacteria travel from liver and spleen
-Delirium and convulsions
- Asymptomatic/ chronic carrier- no symptoms
5. fecal material
2. Biological vector- plays a direct role in pathogen's life (mosquitoes and ticks)
3. mechanical vector- transports the pathogen (house fly)
-include Botulism, Diphtheria, tetanus
-inactivated by heat
gram negative bacteria
-B (binding)- binds to a receptor and moves A into the cell
-A-B subunits separated by proteolysis
-A chain can only get into a certain type of tissue because of B chain
-Staphylococcus epidermidis- forms biofilms on implants and catheters
-Propioribactrium acnes- Anaerobic lives in pore and hair follicles
2. Travel upward along urinary tract
3. E. coli MOST common cause
- Type 1 Pili- allows E. coli to bind to the mucosa of the urethra.
-Golden Cluster Seed
-Infects cuts, glands, and hair follicles
-may require surgery
-Assists in colonizing new tissues and migrating out of abscesses
-Staphylococcus aureus can live on fomites
-Frequently resistant to other antibiotics as well
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