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Child Development Plus NEW MyDevelopmentLab with eText -- Access Card Package (9th Edition)
Boys sexually desire their mother
Boys afraid that their father will be angered by boys' desires & will cut off his penis
- Boy trues to win over daddy & identifies w/him in hopes of winning his mothers affection
3/4 yr olds ____ the understanding of gender constancy
- kids think that a child can become a boy if she changes her clothes, plays boys games, etc
- Imitate ppl that are similar to us
- have desirable characteristics
- don't specifically teach a boy to be a MAN
- Through books, magazines..... MEDIA
- don't come out & say boys ACT this way..... Imitate IT!!!
- biologically based differences in hormones, muscles, brain....
- built in difference between males & females
- estrogen vs. testosterone
- sex differences support survival of the species
- sexual differences found in animal species
3 Major Discipline Techniques
- Power Assertion
- Love Withdrawal
Which technique is generally successful?
use of force or threat / takes away material objects
use of power to control child
Does power assertion help to form a conscience?
child tends to focus on lost love rather than what they did
- Parent often ignores the child, turns their back, isolates them, and tells the child that they don't love them when they do that
Focuses on how the child's actions affect those around them
encourages empathy in kidlets
doesn't threaten their need for love
Induction tends to help develop....
an internalized moral orientation.
Younger kids concentrate on Quantity, where as.....
older kids concentrate on the child's intentions.
Just World Hypothesis [Lermer]
things even out in the end AKA bad things happen to bad people
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Dvlpmt
Level 1 - Pre-conventional Morality
Stage 1: Punishment & Obedience
Stage 2: Instrumental Hedinist
Level 2 - Convention Morality
Stage 3: Good Boy / Girl
Stage 4: Authority Maintaining Morality
Level 3 - Post Conventional Morality
Stage 5: Contract & Democratically Accepted Law
Stage 6: Individual Principles & Conscience
Putting "Just Communities" in schools
overtime a St 4 thinker would help a St 2 thinker progress
encourage them to argue abt morals/values
discuss hot topics like abortion
- Physical vs. Verbal aggression
- Hostile vs. Instrumental aggression
- Active vs. Passive
- Relational Aggression
Bandura's Bobo Doll Study
Filmed adult hitting & verbally abusing the doll
children watched video & imitated the adult model
Kids learned that if they were aggressive they could get what they wanted.
Variable reinforcement promotes ____________ ___ _____________.
resistance to extinction
aggressive bhvr will increase or stay the same
Exposure to a lot of television results in....
How do children learn fears?
At what age do kids start to understand that death is irreversible?
8 years of age
Autism gender ratio
3 or 4 boys to 1 girl....... 3:1 or 4:1
- Relative low IQ scores
- Unresponsive to caregivers
- Escape artists
- Self-injurious behavior
- Mutism (only communicate with grunts/sounds)
- (DELAYED) Echolalia
memorize phrases/slogans and repeat them weeks later
10% of Autistic kids have a special ability/talent
Talent varies: music, memorization, art, calenders, etc.
Boys > Girls
take on mother's attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs to win over father
Children learn consequences/rewards by observing a TV model or their neighborhood friend
- "I wanna get a cookie too"
kids try to recapture the lost mommy by adopting their mothers characteristics
Child scores high within the Feminine & Masculine scales.
Child score low within the feminine & masculine scales.
In what stage does the edible conflict occur?
Of the major theories, which one focuses on moral development?
Moral absolutism vs. Moral subjectivism
- MA: rules set in stone & can't be changed
- MS: rules can change if there is mutual consent
The Punish/help studies showed that....
- kids thought it was more important to comfort the girl
- implies that females are emotional
Which discipline technique is most conductive to the development of an internalized moral orientation?
buttons that set people off
- Gangs have territories
Nature vs. Nurture
- Nature: some people are wired to be more aggressive
- Nurture: aggression is learned --- We shape aggressive behavior just as we do with any other behavior.
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