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Which branch of government was most responsible for the elimination of the white primary in the Lone Star State?
U.S. Supreme Court
Which of the following factors helps account for relatively low levels of political participation for African American and Hispanic Texans?
The income and educational levels of African American and Hispanic Texans are relatively low, and persons with lower incomes and relatively less education are not as likely to participate politically as wealthier, better- educated individuals.
Which of the following is associated with higher levels of political participation?
the presence of organizations that foster group identity
Which of the following is TRUE about voter registration in Texas?
Prospective voters must register at least 30 days before an election to be eligible to vote in that election.
5. How do voter participation rates in Texas compare with participation rates in other states?
Participation rates in Texas are below the national average.
In which of the following types of elections in Texas would you expect voting participation rates to be proportionally the highest?
A presidential election
Which of the following developments might lead to an increase in voter participation rates in Texas?
a strengthening of the state's political parties
What percentage of the voting-age population participates on average in the state's constitutional amendment elections?
Less than 9%
Which of the following ways do Texans participate in the policy process?
all of the above
Which of the following is true of the electorate in
The Texas electorate is less representative of the state's population than the average state electorate, especially in terms of income and education.
For which of the following reasons are business and trade groups not as influential in Texas politics
today as they were in the 1950s?
Business and industry are less likely to be united because they have grown more diverse as the state's economy has diversified.
Political action committees (PACs) are organized to accomplish which of the following tasks?
raise and contribute money to candidates for public office
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding PAC contributions?
PACs typically contribute more money to incumbents than to challengers
Which of the following statements is TRUE about lobbying?
Lobbyists use information to make a case for their group's position with public officials.
Which of the following statements is TRUE about interest groups and electioneering?
Interest groups attempt to influence public policy by participating in the electoral process.
An identifiable subgroup within a political party (such as the liberal Democrats) is known by which of the following terms?
National party organizations support party candidates at the state level by performing all of the following activities except
The national party organization decides who may run for state-level offices.
Which of the following individuals is/are eligible to participate in a Republican precinct convention held on the evening of primary election day?
a person who voted during the day in the Republican primary election
Which of the following is NOT a reason explaining why the Texas Republican Party is organizationally stronger than the Texas Democratic Party?
Because the Republican Party has long been the dominant party in the state, it has had longer to organize
Interest groups work with political parties in the following ways except
nominating candidates to run as the party's nominees in the general election.
Which of the following reasons best explains the dominance of the Democratic Party in Texas and other southern states in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries?
The Republican Party was discredited in the eyes of most native white Texans because of its leadership role in American national government during the Civil War and Reconstruction era.
. Which of the following had the MOST influence in the Texas Democratic Party in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century?
a conservative upper- income white elite of large landowners and industrialists
When did the Republican Party become the clear majority party in the state?
In 1994, when Republican gubernatorial nominee George W. Bush defeated Democratic incumbent Ann Richards.
The possibility of Texas turning purple – having a higher level of party competition – depends on all of the following except
A slowing of the population shift from rural to urban areas
Which election was the zenith of Republican Party success in Texas?
Distrust of Concentration of Authority
• Populist current - preference for direct consent of the government
• Can create barriers to voter participation due to numerous elections, at multiple times, long ballots
• Voters sometimes wonder - Why vote?
• Probability that your individual vote will make a difference
• So called barriers to entry - such as the cost of acquiring and processing the tons of necessary political information
Effects of the dominance of only two parties in our system
• Pride in being informed and involved
• Sense of duty and obligation
• Belonging to community
• Influence on politics and issues of the day
• Outcome if everyone decides not to vote
• Concern that opposing views will win
• Critical for the legitimacy of a democratic system
• Involuntary ! Family
! Geographic Region? ! Class and Income?
• Voluntary ! Media
! Political Party
Tend to be intensely held, long-lasting and difficult to change.
– Reflect the goals, aspirations, and ideals that shape an individuals perceptions about their world.
– Arise from firmly-rooted assumptions about reality and on deeply held religious and/or ethical principles
• Product of Socialization
Can be changeable and temporary
– Specific responses and views about particular issues, personalities, or events.
– Often a shorthand, sometimes emotional, response
– Opinions and attitudes about Politics are often derived from an ideology
! Complex and interrelated set of values (and beliefs) that form a general philosophy of government.
! Generates an individuals position on political and social issues and influences their opinions (and attitudes) about events.
! Since they are based on values and beliefs, it tends to be intensely held, long-lasting, and difficult to change.
• Grassroots Lobbying
• Attending a Public Hearing • Appointmenteering
• Representation: Interest groups represent their constituents before government
• Participation: facilitate people’s participation in politics
• Education: help to educate their members, the public at large, and government officials
• Agenda building: new issues are brought onto the political agenda through interest group advocacy
• Program monitoring: Lobbying organizations keep track of how programs are working in the field and try to persuade government to take action when problems become evident
• Membership - large and politically active • Lobbyists - transmission of information;
• Political Action Committees (PACs) - pool contributions from members and donate to candidates for public office
• Interest Groups in the US and Texas do not enjoy uniform capabilities or effectiveness
• Not all Texans are represented equally or effectively because groups bring different levels of resources and intensity to bear on their efforts.
• Institutional arrangements, such as the design of the Legislature and the laws regulating interest group activities also shape both the capabilities of interest groups to affect policy making the distribution of influence among groups.
• Interest Groups in Texas are relatively powerful actors in the political process.
• Public Interest Groups
– Promote policies that produce widely distributed benefits (e.g. clean air, improvements in public health)
– Rely on numerous small donations and contributions of goods
– Tend to have fewer resources than special interest groups
• Private Interest Groups
– Promote policies that provide benefits targeted to specific individuals and groups
– “Special interests” has a acquired a negative political connotation.
– Goals may impose costs on other private groups while benefiting society as a secondary or unintended consequence.
– Pursuits can be a benefit to common welfare and good for the political system
• Petitions and Letter Writing Campaigns • Public Demonstrations
• Media Campaigns
• Attending Public Meetings
• Legal Action
• Illegal Action
• Support from liberal activists and African Americans for civil rights loosened the allegiance of conservative white voters, activists and contributors to the Democratic Party
• Highway construction and residential development patterns increased the suburbanized population throughout the nation. Migration of conservatives and diversification of the economy
• Changes in party organizing and campaigning, including the shift to more expensive methods, helped level the playing field.
• Organizing societal interests
• Recruiting political leaders
• Communicating popular preferences
• Structuring public debate
• Structuring political conflict and competition • Organizing government
• Linking state governments to the national government
• Register and Vote
• Run for party nomination to public office • Run for party office
• Organize a precinct
• Serve as an election judge
• Talk politics
• Split-Ticket Voting - steady increase in party competition from the top to the bottom of the ballot.
• Party Identification - changing distribution of party allegiances in the electorate
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