for school-aged children, what are the factors that are likely to effect food insufficiency?
-poverty -more common in African American and Hispanic households -more often in female-headed households
on average, which of the five food groups do children actually consume enough of?
Why are school settings ideal for nutrition education?
-can reach almost all kids -skilled personnel are available -provide opportunities to practice healthy eating -can improve eating behaviors -teach kids to resist social pressures
What are some recommendations for school health programs regarding promoting healthy eating?
-serve well-balanced meals -healthy snacks -fund-raising -remove vending machines -provide opportunities to try new foods
Describe the prevalence of overweight children and adolescents in the past two decades.
the number has increased substantially
Approximately how many minutes of physical activity per day is recommended for children?
What is HDL?
high-density lipoprotein: a lipoprotein that transports cholesterol in the blood; composed of a high proportion of protein and relatively little cholesterol; high levels are thought to be associated with decreased risk of coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis
What is LDL?
low density lipoprotein cholesterol in blood a lipoprotein that transports cholesterol in the blood; composed of moderate amount of protein and a large amount of cholesterol; high levels are thought to be associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis
Describe salt consumption in America.
nearly all Americans consume substantially more salt than they need
What are the various names for added sugars?
(caloric sweeteners) -sucrose, glucose, high fructose corn syrup, corn syrup, maple syrup, and fructose
What are the interacting spheres of influence that schools should address to promote healthy changes in eating behaviors?
environment, personal characteristics & behavioral skills, and experience
Describe the connection between increased participation in school breakfast programs and academic test scores and attendance.
It improves attendance rates, decreases tardiness, and those whoa re severely undernourished. -programs appear to improve academic performance and cognitive functioning.
Describe Americans' consumption patterns of calories, saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, added sugar, and salt.
80% of Americans consume too much total fat 90% consume too much saturated fat
Describe getting daily physical activity in short ten-minute bouts of moderate intensity.
It doesn't matter how you divide it up, it is the total amount of time engaged in activity that counts.
Describe the need to include fats and oils in the diet.
Omega-6 and Omega-3 are necessary -include 25-35% (depending on age) of calories from polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids
Describe the research on children who are exposed to trauma.
Describe the characteristics of students who survive abuse from a primary caregiver.
This can cause children to be withdrawn and cautious. They often manifest delayed language development, express feelings of powerlessness, and have a general inability to set goals or plan for a meaningful future. They also may see behaviors as acceptable.
Describe violence prevention policies and security strategies to meet the needs of diverse populations.
3 common effective practices: 1. efforts to involve parents in preventing and reducing violence 2. safety and security procedures 3. Disciplinary policies
Describe the effectiveness of the DARE program.
There is little evidence of its effectiveness in either substance use or violence risk reduction. There is a lack of skill development. It may be developmentally inappropriate.
Describe the strategies that show the best potential for reducing the risk of violence.
Comprehensive staff development parental involvement early start and long term commitment strong leadership and disciplinary policies culturally sensitive and developmentally appropriate materials and activities
Describe the effect of trauma on children.
-often will use withdrawal skills when feeling threatened -quite often, kids freeze and/or become speechless in the face of danger -may demonstrate avoidance, disassociation, and an inability to build or maintain friendships/relationships with certain teachers
Various Forms of Abuse
Physical, Emotional, Sexual, and Neglect
signs of neglect
-frequently absent from school -begs or steals food or money -lacks needed medical or dental care, immunizations, or glasses
signs of sexual abuse
-has difficulty walking or sitting -suddenly refuses to change for gym or participate in physical activities -reports nightmares or bedwetting
signs of emotional abuse
-shows extreme behaviors (overly compliant or demanding, extreme passivity or aggression)
non-accidental injury or pattern of injury to a child
caregiver fails to provide for the basic emotional, medical, safety, and/or educational needs of a child -more common than physical abuse, but receives less attention
Why are teachers at an advantage for observing changes in a student's appearance and behavior?
They are because they have the opportunity to observe students in the context of the child's age-cohort and peers; any anomalies, changes, or injuries might be more conspicuous to them. They also keep record of a child's performance, such as social interaction, healthy, and academics.
When must teachers report possible abuse of a child?
if abuse is suspected
Which are the advocacy skills for teachers?
1. Observe (look for changes in health, social interaction, and academic performance) 2. Make Referrals (report and direct child to appropriate services) 3. Gathering Information (about ways to support the child and continue to integrate them into daily classroom practice) 4. Follow Up (telephone contacts, updates with caseworkers or other child protective service professionals)
What are the types of touches children should be taught?
Safe, unsafe, and secret
make a person feel good, comfortable, and supported --ex) hugging, holding hands, pat on the back, high five)
make a person feel uncomfortable --Ex) kicking, hitting, tripping, pinching)
occurs when an adult or older person touches your genitals or "private parts' (those covered by your bathing suit) or when they encourage you or trick you into touching their genitals
Describe bulling and how it has been identified as a common thread in connection to school shootings, adult violence, and student suicides.
Direct and Indirectly; creates a hostile environment; bullies often commit acts of violence as an adult.
What kind of approach have many schools embraced to mediate conflicts?
comprehensive approach--- staff recognize and intervene
Describe the portrayal of death in the media.
-often misleading and confusing -unreal and devoid of significant emotions -emotions surrounding death are ignored -"dead characters" on one show appear alive on another show at a later time
prolonged illness anticipated death or the person has little connection to the deceased
unexpected death longer grieving process
What are the emotions that individuals usually experience when told they have a terminal illness?
What are the stages of the dying process proposed by Elizabeth Kubler-Ross?
Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, and Acceptance
What are the warning signs for suicide?
-changes in physical appearance and eating/sleeping habits -apathy about school -outbursts of anger, mood swings -withdrawal from family, friends, social activities -increased use of substances -previous attempts -recent death of a loved one -preoccupation with death -giving away of prized possessions -(in)direct statements of suicide -depression
What are the Consumer Bill of Rights?
The right to safety.-to be protected against the marketing of goods that are hazardous to health or life The right to be informed.-be protected against fraudulent, deceitful, or misleading information or advertising The right to choose.-to be assured that consumer interests will receive full and sympathetic consideration in the formulation of government policy on consumer matters
What are the most abundant air pollutants?
Carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons
What type of pollution involves the heating of water and then channeling it back to its source?
Better Business Bureau
private, nonprofit, business-supported groups that help the consumer mediate misunderstandings between customers and businesses. These groups provide information about a company, help resolve complaints against companies, foster ethical advertising and selling practices, alert consumers to bad business practices, and provide the media with informational materials on consumer subject -provide reliable information and referrals
Buying Patterns and selections of people
buying patterns are consistent with others around you -the more status/importance a person has, the greater influence they have
Attempts at weight loss are most common among which age group?
Describe childhood consumption of the five major food groups.
don't get enough of all five of them
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