Last Modified: 2013-11-18
Related Textbooks:Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future (12th Edition)
Which of the following activities is most directly related to the dead zones in the Gulf of
Mexico just west of the Mississippi River?
farming in the Midwest
Which of the following farming practices were recommended to mitigate the dead zone in the
Gulf of Mexico just west of the Mississippi River?
increased use of no-till farming (nitrogen retention) and decreased fertilizer use
Adding fertilizer to most aquatic systems results in
increased growth of phytoplankton and hypoxic conditions.
Noticing large amounts of algal growth in her small farm pond, a farmer adds about 20 grass
carp to feed on the abundant algae and plants. After several years, the carp grow large, exceeding
20 pounds each in size. Late one summer, the farmer notices that the carp and most of the other
fish are dead. The water also smells very bad. Which one of the following is the most likely
explanation for the death of these fish?
bacteria feeding on the large volume of carp feces depleted the oxygen
In the regions of the dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico just west of the Mississippi River delta,
oxygen levels are
highest at the bottom of the ocean, where the algae do not get enough sunlight to survive.
About one hundred years ago, cities began to address the problems of sewage disposal by
dumping sewage into nearby rivers via storm water drainage systems. One of the results of this
strategy was that
people living downriver of these cities were more likely to experience contamination of their
drinking water sources.
When cities dumped sewage into natural waterways with limited capacity for dilution,
oxygen levels were severely lowered and most aquatic life died.
Based upon the history of the U.S. federal government's involvement in controlling water
pollution, which one of the following scenarios would have most likely occurred?
A) In 1908, federal inspectors reported unacceptably high levels of petroleum products in a river. OR.
D) In 1952, federal agents advised a city on the best way to handle its sewage and storm water.
Why didn't federal laws limiting pollution of rivers and streams prevent this pollution and
There were no federal regulations of water pollution at that time.
These fires on the Cuyahoga River raised concerns that contributed to
the passage of the Clean Water Act of 1972
The dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico is primarily the result of
nonpoint sources of pollutants.
Which one of the following best illustrates a nonpoint source of pollution?
storm-water drainage from the parking lot around a football stadium
The best way to reduce the pollution of agricultural fertilizer runoff from farm fields is to
reduce the amount fertilizer leaving the farm fields through such techniques as no-till
In New York City in the 1920s, sewage-carried pathogenic diseases were primarily
public water supplies that treated the water with fluoride
A well-trained member of the Peace Corps is asked to provide assistance to a village in India
that suffers greatly from typhoid fever. The best long-term solution to reduce the cases of this
disease in this village is to
clearly separate their sewage from drinking water sources
The people using this river increase their health risks the most if they use the same area of the river for drinking and
disposal of sewage.
This fire on the Cuyahoga River in 1969 most likely resulted from
point industrial source pollution
Lake Springfield in the city of Springfield, Illinois, is a busy place where people swim and
fish. The lake also supplies drinking water for Springfield residents and cooling water to a
nearby coal-fired power plant. Beautiful homes surround most of the lake. Over the past 15
years, the bacterium Leptospira, commonly found in agricultural animal waste, has been detected
in this lake water, and some people have become sick. The contamination of the lake by
Leptospira may best be prevented by
better control of agricultural nonpoint source pollution of the lake.
Good health in the modern world, with few cases of bacterial infection, is largely the result
clean water supplies and proper treatment of sewage
Devastating earthquakes struck Haiti in January 2010, forcing the native people to live under
the most primitive of conditions. Which one of the following forms of immediate aid would most
likely prevent the outbreak of cholera and dysentery in refugees who were not seriously harmed
by the earthquakes?
water purification systems and supplies of bottled water
In 2007, heavy rains accompanied an outbreak of cholera in children living in war-torn Iraq.
What was the likely cause of the spread of this disease?
pollution of waterways by raw sewage
The fecal coliform test is used to determine if the water being tested could transmit
dysentery and cholera.
Water that comes up positive after fecal coliform testing indicates health risks most
commonly associated with
infection by E. coli
a variety of pathogens in human sewage.
Which of the following holds the highest levels of oxygen?
warm water near the surface of a marsh in Everglades National Park in May
cold flowing water in a stream in Ontario in April
The method illustrated in these figures is testing water for
Homeowners living in a heavily forested region surrounding a small 3-acre pond in Missouri
decided to reduce air pollution in their neighborhood. In the fall, after the oak and maple leaves
had fallen, the homeowners blew all of the dead leaves into the pond. About 8 months later, in
July, they noticed a large number of dead fish in the pond. What is the most likely cause of the
The bacteria decomposing the leaves depleted the levels of oxygen
Anaerobic conditions will most likely be generated in a natural water system with
low levels of DO that is contaminated by pollutants with high BOD values
About 100 meters downstream of a raw sewage discharge outlet we would expect to find
C) clear water, low levels of oxygen, and few, if any, fish.
D) clear water, high levels of oxygen, and abundant fish.
A farmer extending his farm field bulldozes the banks of a creek, greatly disturbing the creek
bed and stirring up clay and humus. The higher levels of clay and humus in the water just
downstream will most likely result in
B) more plants but fewer fish and cloudy water.
C) more plants and more fish but cloudy water.
A new gravel road is cut into the side of a mountain just north of Anchorage, Alaska. As the
snow melts in June, the fine gravel and sand of the disturbed region quickly tumbles into the
bottom of nearby streams. The addition of this fine gravel and sand changes the stream by
decreasing the number of plants and animals that live there.
Some people become alarmed when they learn that the water they drink contains known
carcinogens. These concerned people
are rightly alarmed, because all municipal drinking water should be free of any carcinogens
In general, the strictest standards with the lowest acceptable levels are the
maximum contaminant levels.
This small residential pond in the middle of this subdivision is most likely
part of a storm-water management system, to reduce erosion from runoff.
In downtown Philadelphia, water in storm drains most likely came from
On average in the United States, every day each person produces about
150-200 gallons of wastewater containing less than a half gallon of waste.
The carrot peelings you send down a garbage disposal represent which of the following types
of wastewater pollutant?
particulate organic matter
Although you should not flush a used condom down a toilet, if a person did, this type of
wastewater pollutant would represent
debris and grit.
What stage of wastewater treatment would remove a condom that had improperly been
flushed down a toilet?
If you collect a jar of muddy water from a puddle or ditch, and then let the mud settle out
over many hours, you have separated much of the mud from the water using a process very much
grit chamber in a wastewater facility.
What do wastewater treatment facilities primarily depend upon for the breakdown of
pathogenic organisms and organic materials in wastewater?
decomposers and detritus feeders
The objective of biological nutrient removal is to
reduce cultural eutrophication.
Which one of the following is not used to disinfect treated wastewater ready to be released
into natural waterways?
The quality of the final treated secondary wastewater effluent from a modern treatment plant
lower in organic content but higher in nutrient content than the body of water into which it is
Which of the following processes requires an oxygen-free environment and produces large
volumes of methane that can be used for fuel?
anaerobic sludge digestion
None of the three most popular methods for treating sludge and converting it into fertilizer is
able to produce a final treated product that is
able to be used as a fertilizer.
For more than 60 years, the city of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, has been selling its processed and
sterile sludge as Milorganite® using the process of
People with home septic systems often flush several cups of a powdered substance down
their toilets every month or two to keep their systems healthy. These powdered substances most likely contain.
bacteria and enzymes that help break down wastes.
Which of the following should not be flushed down the drain in a home with a septic tank?
human toilet wastes
The space inside the two buildings with the egg-shaped tops
is filled with aerobic bacteria.
Composting toilet systems require
Although the use of wastewater effluents for irrigation can be very beneficial, it is essential
that the effluents are
treated and free of pathogens.
In the region surrounding Orlando, Florida, effluent produced by secondary wastewater
routed through wetlands before entering the St. Johns River system.
Submerged aquatic vegetation will most likely thrive when water clarity is
high and dissolved nutrients are low.
During a spring flood, a small lake receives a large influx of nutrients. We would expect that
in this lake, the growth of phytoplankton will
increase and the growth of submerged aquatic vegetation will decrease
A lake that averages 20 feet of water depth experiences extreme eutrophication. In this lake,
we would expect to find
abundant fish, high oxygen levels, and very clear water
In a small pond, which averages about 6 feet deep or less, eutrophication typically produces
low levels of dissolved oxygen and abundant amounts of submerged aquatic vegetation
The main difference between natural eutrophication and damaging cultural eutrophication is
that in cultural eutrophication, the
speed of nutrient enrichment is faster.
The water conditions indicated in this figure reveal a body of water that most likely has
low levels of nutrients and high levels of oxygen
In this pond, experiencing cultural eutrophication, the growth of this duckweed will
add nutrients to the pond and encourage the growth of phytoplankton.
While the duckweed continues to cover the water's surface of this pond undergoing
eutrophication, it is most likely that the water clarity will
be high and the growth of submerged aquatic vegetation will increase
Harmful algal blooms appear to be linked to unusually high levels of nutrient pollution.
Which of the following is the most likely source of nutrient pollution in a river drainage system
associated with an algal bloom?
a coal-fired power plant
How could this water fountain help address the eutrophication of this pond? The water
increase the oxygen levels of the pond.
Instead of addressing the symptoms of cultural eutrophication, the neighborhood association
could address the cause of the problem by
aerating the pond with underwater pipes.
One of the most common sources of phosphate pollution that has led to eutrophication has
resulted from the use of
In 1994, because of concerns about cultural eutrophication, laundry detergent manufacturers
voluntarily stopped producing detergents that contained
Which of the following is one of the most common factors contributing to cultural
eutrophication of lakes near large cities?
Which of the following regions still struggles with severe cultural eutrophication?
Eutrophication of Lake Washington near Seattle was largely addressed by limiting levels of
A) phosphate from nonpoint source discharges of pollution.
B) phosphate from point source discharges of pollution
Which one of the following represents a way to reduce point-source pollution contributing to
remove nutrients from sewage-treatment effluents
The ultimate responsibility for public policy legislation controlling the waters of the United
States is the
Several students are discussing the role of governments and their ability to address major
problems. With your experiences in environmental science, you speak up and note that one way
the U.S. federal government has impacted our lives is by passing landmark legislation
dramatically improving the quality of natural waterways. In fact, in 1972, one of the most
important environmental laws ever passed was the
Clean Water Act.
As a new member of your city council, your small town realizes that the old wastewater
treatment facility is resulting in unacceptable levels of cultural eutrophication. Relying upon
provisions of the 1987 Water Quality Act, you suggest that the best way for your town to address this problem is to
seek a low-interest loan from the Clean Water State Revolving Fund to pay for a new
wastewater treatment facility.
According to the Environmental Protection Agency, the greatest current water-pollution
challenge in the United States is
The EPA has recently set a strict policy of monitoring the Total Maximum Daily Load
(TMDL) of nutrients in order to reverse eutrophication in
The EPA's efforts to enforce the Clean Water Act for CAFOs, mountaintop removal mining,
and storm water discharges have been opposed by
political interests supporting the industries affected by regulation
One of China's current strategies to deal with its water shortage is to
import more water intensive crops from the U.S., which has more water.
China's current need to increase its water supply is rooted in
the need to grow more crops to support its growing population
China's current rush to construct dams and transport water over long distances is a response to
producing more water for crop irrigation, urban use and for hydroelectric projects
Which of the following is more related to water quality than water quantity?
sewage treatment facilities
The decline of the polar ice caps because of increasing temperatures at the poles will
decrease the largest reserve of fresh water on earth.
Water in the oceans may become fresh water available to humans through the processes of
evaporation, condensation, and precipitation
The largest reserves of fresh water on Earth are found in
polar ice caps and glaciers.
Most of the water on Earth is found in
Fog is more likely to form when air temperatures are
Colder than the surrounding land.
If a cold front moves into a moist region
the chances of precipitation will increase.
Which of the following involves blue water?
percolation of water through soil
Which of the following are processes that generally reverse each other?
evaporation and precipitation
The kinetic energy of water is at its lowest when
The kinetic energy of water is at its greatest when
Which of the following contributes the most as a greenhouse gas?
water vapor levels in the air
We expect the highest relative humidity on a soccer field during the summer on a
cool evening after a heavy rain
Increasing the kinetic energy of liquid water enough to permit water molecules to break
completely away from each other occurs as
Which of the following is an example of condensation?
the formation of clouds
Humidity is highest when relative humidity is
high at high temperatures.
In the figure, blue water is represented by
Which of the following promotes atmospheric condensation and the formation of clouds?
Water is naturally purified by
evaporation and condensation.
Distilling salt water to make fresh water relies upon the processes of
evaporation and condensation.
Some lakes have river and stream tributaries but no outlet, losing water mainly through
evaporation. Over time, we expect that such lakes will
Which of the following would we expect on the leeward sides of high mountain ranges?
As a cold front moves into an area of warm, moist air, we would expect to see cloud
the warm air rises and condenses.
In the western United States, we expect that rain shadows most frequently occur on
the leeward, east side of mountain ranges.
Hadley cells at the equator consist of
rising, moist air that produce precipitation and rain forests, and falling dry air associated with deserts.
Compared to the windward side, the leeward side of this mountain range will most likely have
lower levels of transpiration and precipitation.
Which of the following situations is most likely to have the lowest infiltration-runoff ratio?
a paved parking lot
A rural farmer most likely obtains drinking water by drilling a deep well to use
gravitational water that has percolated through soil and accumulated as groundwater.
About 99% of all liquid fresh water on Earth is found in
lakes, including the Great Lakes of North America.
Which one of the following is fed by groundwater and often drained by seeps or springs?
In Costa Rica, a heavy downpour provides water that quickly evaporates or is absorbed and
released by the dense vegetation of the tropical rain forest. This is an example of a cycle using
Condensation, evaporation, transpiration, and green water.
Gutters and storm sewers in a city are most concerned with the
surface runoff loop.
Which one of the following loops is least susceptible to pollution?
Rainwater flows quickly over a grassland, filling lazy streams and soaking deeply into the
ground. Days later, vegetation near seeps grows quickly and the grassland seems to come to life.
This scene best represents which of the following two loops?
surface runoff loop and groundwater loop
Wetlands store and release water most like which component of the water cycle?
If a plowed farm field was restored to natural prairie, we would expect that
erosion of the soil would decrease.
How has converting forests to mostly paved urban areas changed the streams and rivers in
the affected watersheds?
Infiltration shifts to runoff.
The impact of global warming on the water cycle is expected to produce
greater agricultural productivity in currently water-stressed regions
Regions where humans produce high levels of aerosols and dust will most likely experience
less rainfall, reduced solar radiation to the Earth's surface, and cooler temperatures
Which of the following slows the global hydrologic cycle?
increased atmospheric pollution with aerosol particles
Air descending, leeward from the top of a mountain is most likely to
increase in temperature and evaporate water from the soil.
The thermohaline currents of the oceans
carry nutrients upward and also transport heat that warms Europe and North America.
Oceanographers are studying the thermohaline currents to determine
whether global climate change may slow or alter their path.
The major factor determining whether the thermohaline currents flow near the surface or on
the bottom of oceans is
water temperature and density.
The removal of existing dams is motivated by
the need for more hydroelectric power stations.
Floods are becoming more common primarily because
the "sponge effect" of forests releases large and unpredictable amounts of water.
A zookeeper arrives at work and begins her day by filling up the coffeemaker with tap water. Washing some vegetables off in a sink, she prepares meals for the monkeys. Later in the day, she washes down the animals enclosures into the zoos sewage system and sprinkles the plants growing in a nearby garden. What did the zookeeper do that represents a consumptive use of water?
using water for the garden
The greatest worldwide use of water is for
In developing countries, contaminated water is responsible for the deaths of more than 1.6 million people. Contributing to this problem is the use of
surface waters for consumption and the disposal of human sewage
Some city water treatment facilities combine storm water and sanitary sewage systems. During heavy storms, these treatment facilities may be overwhelmed with water, and untreated storm water mixes with sewage and flows directly back into the streams and rivers where treated water usually returns. What might be the best way to address this problem?
collect and treat storm sewer and sanitary sewage systems separately
Groundwater as a water source may be better than surface water because
groundwater may be naturally purified by percolation through soil.
hich one of the following is likely to result from damming a river?
the frequency and severity of floods decreases
When freshwater inflows into estuaries are reduced
All of the above.
If water is depleted from an aquifer faster than the recharge rate,
sinkholes may form
Saltwater intrusion occurs
in coastal regions where the water table is falling.
Which of the following would cause a rising water table?
Which of the following is accurate about bottled water?
It is often harvested from an area that needs water and is sold elsewhere.
As world populations increase
water demands will remain unchanged in the developing world.
As global populations increase demands for water and global warming continues, the most sustainable source of water for poor developing countries will be
dams to capture runoff water.
create important water reservoirs
All of the above.
The Three Gorges Dam
is the largest hydroelectric project in the world.
Any area protected by the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968
protects these regions like national parks.
The single greatest threat to irrigated agriculture is
The greatest threats to ground water supplies are
groundwater pollution and depletion.
Agricultural fields that must be irrigated to sustain a crop will eventually
produce enough water for local agricultural crops such as corn.
Which of the following currently is the most sustainable and affordable source of water in the face of global warming?
using rotary displacement pumps to desalinate seawater
In the United States, over the past 30 years, the population has
increased, but the amount of water each person consumes has leveled off.
Which of the following is true of the Blue Revolution?
making harder efforts to conserve, especially in food production
Drip irrigation systems are
producing greater crop yields.
All of the above.
As cities in the United States grow, they are finding that the increased water demands are best addressed by addressing the water footprint, including especially
Which of the following is not an example of gray water?
water from a toilet
All of the following are typically used in developing countries to address water shortages, except
tilling the soil thoroughly and frequently before planting crops.
A lawn based on the principle of xeriscaping
uses species that require no water other than natural precipitation.
Which of the following is true?
Conservation of water resources, energy and food production and distribution are linked.
Which one of the following is true?
Many countries have addressed their water resources and water needs with a national policies and agencies.
Some people have thought that a big solution to water shortages in the southwestern United States is to create a large canal between the Great Lakes and the southwest. Why is this suggestion probably not sustainable?
It could deplete water levels in the Great Lakes.
The authors urge a national policy for the United States that includes
halting water subsidies and increasing conservation.
Stewardship of water resources includes
All of the above.
In the figure, the location of deserts in the northern and southern regions of Africa are best explained by understanding
The wind patterns indicated by arrows in the figure are primarily the result of
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