Martin & Fabes: Speech problems Poor articulation could be a common speech problem. In the early stages of learning to speak, many children speak haltingly, with many revisions in their sentences, false starts, and frequent use of uh and um which is normal. Some children begin stuttering, meaning that they have excessive disruptions in the rate, rhythm, and forward flow of speech. Boys are three times more likely to begin stuttering than girls. Only 5 percent begin, and few than 1 percent will the condition persist for a long time. Factors related to physical fitness an children 55 percent of American children were unfit versus only 15 percent of European youth. More than half of children and adolescents are not vigorously active on a regular basis. Surgeon General of the US recommends that children spend at least 30-60 minutes of physical activity most or every day of the week. US children get 20-40 percent of their total physical activity at school. Benefits of participating in organized sports During adolescence, involvement in sports tends to peak. 12-17 years olds are more likely to participate in organized sports and are less likely to participate in aerobics, walking, and exercise with equipment. 1971- 4% of girls were active in high school athletics; has increased to 42%. Females who continue to play sports tend to be popular, involved more, high education aspirations, less likely to become delinquents. Less likely to get pregnant ate young age. More likely to be virgins. Develop social ties. Less likely to be depressed and anxious. Body image can be improved or denigrated. Most common nutritional problems in school-age children Undernutrition ? children who fail to receive the nutrients they need are adversely affected in academic and social domains. US study ? children who reported that their families did not have enough food to eat were more likely to repeat a grade, had lower arithmetic scores, were more likely to have seen a psychologist, were more likely to have been suspended from school, and had more difficulty getting along with other children. Children who weigh more than 20% over their ideal weight are defined as obese. The number of children who are overweight has nearly tripled over the past 20-30 years. 40-80 percent of overweight children go on to become overweight adults?lifelong health risks. Type 2 diabetes: an insensitivity to insulin causing in imbalance in how the body handles sugar consumption. Metabolic syndrome: a combination of obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol. Leading cause of death in US children Motor vehicle injuries: ages 5-14. Every 90 seconds, a child in the US is killed or injured in a motor vehicle. About 1600 per year die, and another 160,000 are hurt. Characteristic of concrete operational period The best indicator of concrete operational thinking is a child?s use of logical principles. These principles are most vividly demonstrated when children solve conservation problems. Ball of clay and ball of clay rolled into a snake have same amount of clay. To solve they must: mentally represent the action, focus on more than one dimension, and recognize that appearances can be deceiving. Reversible thinking: the understanding that actions can be undone or reversed. Snake can be made back into a ball. Compensation: the understanding that one change can offset another. Change in height due to change in length from ball to snake. Class inclusion: part-whole relations of categories. What IQ scores can predict School achievement and success?they also accurately identify children who need special help in school and those who are especially bright. They do not predict life outcomes for many individuals. People who score high on IQ tests tend to complete more years of school and have more prestigious occupations, but within normal ranges, IQ does not relate to success in a career. Garner?s eight frames of mind Examples of abilities and people who exemplify them: Linguistic: good conversationalist, has learned several languages, writes well Logical-mathematical: able to solve logical and mathematical problems, analytical Musical: plays several instruments, understands music theory, composes music Spatial: good at visualizing, solving visual problems, and negotiating directions, artistic Bodily-kinesthetic: good athlete or dancer, has good motor skills Interpersonal: socially competent, understand others feelings Intrapersonal: knows himself or herself Naturalistic: can categorize and draw upon features of the environment Factors that can adversely affect children?s achievement & intellectual development Poverty, role of family and community, parental involvement, and cultural beliefs in academic achievement. Children?s reading readiness Pushing children to read before they are ready may cause them to become discouraged. Instead, caregivers should be on the lookout for general cues that their children are ready to read. -attempting to tells stories while scanning and turning pages in a book -understanding that stories start at the front of the book and move to the back in order -recognizing written labels or signs -pointing out individual letters -showing interest in seeing his or her name in print Antisocial behavior in school A pattern of behavior that is aggressive, defiant, uncooperative, irresponsible, or dishonest defines antisocial behavior. It disrupts the individual, to his or her relationships, and to the community at large. Fail at school and are disliked by peers, teachers, and sometimes even their parents. A history of antisocial behavior can lead to troubled marriages, failure at work, and crime. Boys are much more likely than girls to be referred for treatment for antisocial behavior. Biological factors, family factors, peer relationships, social milieu (environment) Reduced parent-child interaction and supervision As children enter late childhood, there is a decline in the amount of time they spend with their parents and in the amount of time their parents devote to them. More time is spent studying, playing sports, and performing chores or housework, whereas young children spend more time playing and eating. The decreased amount of supervision provided by parents comes at a cost. Children who are not well supervised are more likely to engage in antisocial and delinquent behaviors. Latchkey Child: children who are left unsupervised during the day or return home to an empty house after school. Risks associated with latchkey children Truant from school, feel stressed, receive poor grades, engage in risky behaviors, and use alcohol or tobacco. Benefits of after school programs Has the potential to protect children from possibly detrimental environments. Myths about ?only? children versus those who have siblings Not having siblings was thought to be a type of social deprivation for children and was considered to have detrimental effects on their social development. Spoiled, insensitive, socially awkward, and egocentric. Only children scored higher on motivation to achieve and on self-esteem. Social competency: rejected, neglected and socially competent children Rejected: those who are overtly disliked by their peers Neglected: children who are reasonable well liked by their peers but lack friends Pg 431 How relationships with teachers affects students Teachers act as role models, caregivers, and mentors for children. The relationship has important effects on children?s social and emotional development and their adaptation to the school environment. Pg. 437 Parent characteristics or anorexic teens There is some evidence that parents of adolescents with anorexia tend toward intense and intrusive involvement in their children?s lives, as a result of frustration and disappointment in their own lives. This parental overinvolvement leaves the child ill-equipped to cope with the challenges experienced during early adolescence. Death in late adolescence (cause) US 2003: 13,595 teens ages 15-19 died; 75% of these deaths were due to accidents, homicides, and suicides. Driving or riding in an automobile is one of the riskiest activities for adolescents. About 2 out of 3 teenagers killed in motor vehicle crashed are males. Trend in adolescent suicide rate Students in ninth grade were twice as likely to have made a suicide attempt than those in twelfth grade. Only 1 in 50 attempts resulting in death. STD rates in adolescents Approximately 19 million new cases of STDs occur each year in the US, 9 million are among individuals between the ages of 15 and 24. Of the sexually active population, 25 percent are 15-24 years old, yes this group accounts for the following: 48% of stds 58% of gonorrhea infections 71% of Chlamydia infections 74% of HPV infections Reasons adolescents give for not using contraception Lack of availability of contraceptives Inadequate knowledge about contraceptives, how to get them, and how to use them Failure to identify pregnancy as a serious problem or one that should be prevented Reluctance to admit loss of virginity or sexual activity Fear that parents will find out Fear and embarrassment associated with buying contraceptives Cost of contraception Formal operational thought Reaching cognitive maturity: appears from age 11 to 15, although it may not be completely developed until late adolescence. Pg. 485 Adolescent egocentrism An adolescent?s belief that his or her thoughts and ideas are unique and are not understood by others. As adolescents grow older, their self-centered beliefs about what they know evolve to become more realistic. Imaginary audience: a characteristic of adolescents? self-consciousness, involving the feeling that they are on stage, with people watching their every move. Personal Fable: a story adolescents tell themselves that emphasizes their uniqueness and invulnerability. The risk-taking behavior that emerges because of personal fables may have some long-term adaptive value in that it encourages adolescents to experiment with new idea and behave more independently. Social cognition Thinking about people and interpersonal relationships It involves thinking about other people?s feelings and views, trying to understand other people?s behavior, and recognizing the social rules that guide everyday interpersonal behavior. Social perspective taking From ages 10-15 adolescents begin to develop the ability to view a situation from the perspective of a neutral outsider. Later in adolescence, they reach and even more abstract level of reflection in which they develop the ability to coordinate perspectives of all the other people involved. It leads to more accurate communication, negotiation, and problem solving. Why adolescents drop out of school Did not like school Did not get along with teachers Was failing school Could not keep up with schoolwork Did not feel safe at school Expelled Friends dropped out Had to get a job Got married Had to care for family Was pregnant Pg 496 Characteristics of effective drop-out prevention programs -High expectations and standards for all students and programs to help at-risk youth meet these expectations -identification of potential dropouts as early as possible and early intervention to ensure school success -effective, flexible classroom instruction?a mix of academic instruction and experiential learning appears to be most effective -caring teachers with interest in and concern for at-risk youth -skills training and counseling necessary for success after graduation (such as occupational training and job counseling) -inclusion of families, peers, and the community in the program?peer tutors, parents, and local business and government agencies provide a broad support system for at-risk youths. Gender differences in math and science performance in school Many girls lose confidence in their math and science abilities as they move through adolescence. Pg 500 Different ?selves? adolescents experience Scholastic Athletic Behavioral conduct Social acceptance Physical appearance Job competence Close friendships Romantic appeal Gender differences in self-concept and self-esteem Being self-conscious is greater for girls in early adolescents. Girls may suffer difficulties with their self-concept and self-esteem because of the important roles played by physical appearance and body image in peer acceptance. Boys place more value on what they do than what they look like. Girls place more value on their social selves than do boys. Pg 516 Marcia?s theory of identity development -crisis/exploration: refers to the process of considering options, values, and goals. Making choices about life directions is an active process of searching among alternatives in religious beliefs, political views, sexuality, roles, and relationships. Because the term crisis implies that identity development is an unpleasant and disruptive experience, the term exploration often is used to provide a more neutral or even positive tone. -commitment: refers to the making of voluntary choices about life directions from the many available options. By making these choices, adolescents become invested in their identity decisions. The concepts of exploration and commitment are used to classify adolescents into four categories with respect to identity status. These status categories provide a way to recognize adolescents who are in the different phases of identity development. -Identity diffusion- identity status of those who have not explored or committed themselves to a specific identity role. -Foreclosure- identity status of those who have not explored alternative but nonetheless have made a definite commitment to a specific identity. -Moratorium- identity status of those adolescents who are actively exploring identity issues but have not yet made any firm commitment. -Identity achieved- identity status of those who have experienced a period of exploration and crisis and have made a commitment. Types of autonomy Emotional autonomy: the ability to understand oneself as a person who is emotionally distinct from one?s parents Behavioral autonomy: the capacity to make and follow through with decisions on regulating one?s behavior Values autonomy: the capacity to make judgments and choices about personal beliefs and principles Parenting adolescents Pg 524 Consequences of not supervising adolescents Adolescents whose parents fail to monitor their activities are more likely to become involved in delinquency, antisocial behavior, early sexual activity, and drug use. Prevalence of high school girls who are sexually active (recent evidence) ??? Brooks textbook: Self esteem and school aged children Pg323: high-self-esteem children aged three to seven had two qualities?confidence in approaching situations and resilience when frustrated or upset. Parental support is a more important determinant of early self-esteem than is competence per se. Elementary school children also evaluate themselves in terms of their scholastic and athletic competence and their conduct. Qualities of parents that are associated with children?s self-regulation and prosocial behavior - being warm and supportive with children - developing mutually responsive relationships with children - helping children understand others? feelings and the effects of their behaviors on others - using reasoning and persuasion to gain children?s compliance with rules - including children in family decision making - modeling caring and concern for other Parent-child relationships Parents spend half and much time with elementary school children and give them less physical affection, compared with preschoolers. Pg325 Lying and stealing When parents create a supportive atmosphere in which children can talk about mistakes and misdeeds, and when they offer encouragement rather than criticism, lying and stealing are reduced. Still, almost every child has told a lie at one time or another, and all parents have concerns about lying and stealing, because trust in others is such an important part of close relationships. Pg338 Larson and Richards? findings about mood during early adolescence Pg351: emotional life becomes more complex and intense during adolescence. 27% of early teens reported boredom when beeped, much of the time at school and in study activities. Honor students report boredom as often as do acting-out kids. Depressed and negative moods also increase over the early adolescent years. 10-20% of parents say their children have experienced some depressed mood?sad, unhappy feelings?in the past six months. Cross?s two aspects of identity Personal identity: which includes such factors as self-esteem and general personality traits Reference group orientation: which includes group identity, group awareness and group attitudes Pg353 Family characteristics in boys vs girls who rate high in identity exploration Boys who rank high in identity exploration come from families in which they can express their own opinions yet receive support from parents even when they disagree with them. Girls who rate high in identity exploration come from families in which they are challenged and receive little support from parents who are contentious with each other. Factors related to over-control in men Overcontrol in men seems to come from having authoritarian and highly controlling parents. The dominant mother who sets high standards and arouses guilt to punish the child for misdeeds is a powerful figure in establishing overcontrol. Fathers in these families withdraw from the parenting role and support their wives? domination. Together, the parents so overcontrol the son that he remains fearful of impulse, expression, even of pleasure, as an adult. The average girl is so well controlled that Block found it difficult to isolate any one group of overcontrolled girls to study the qualities of the family. Time spent with parents in early adolescence compared to elementary school Young adolescents spend about half as much time with parents as they did in the elementary school years. Parent and child are alone as often, but family activities at home and with relatives decrease. Pg 355 Complaints that young adolescents have about siblings 97% of a large group of teens say they sometimes do like their brothers and sisters, and only 3 percent say they do not like them. However, they rank brothers and sisters as one of their biggest problems, more of a problem than parents and peers. Invade privacy Younger siblings get privileges older ones did not get at that age Teasing is a third complain How little league coaches can increase players? enjoyment and self-esteem Factors affecting school achievement for adolescents Students? achievement is related also to how they feel about themselves and their abilities. Underachievement in high school occurs in all socioeconomic and ethnic groups. Pg381 Sources of support that help teens under stress Family support helps girls under high stress avoid difficulties. For boys, the support of friends rather than family helps to reduce problem behaviors to a slight degree. Pg382 Which of Baumrind?s parenting styles is related to least amount of drug use in adolescents Nonauthoritarian-directive parents, who emphasize conventional control and value conformity, have children with the least drug use, but this is accomplished by strict obedience to rules so that children are conforming and dependent on adult approval. Major changes in peer relationships during adolescents - peer interactions are generally unsupervised by adults - they are more likely to include larger numbers of peers, who form crowds - peers gravitate to members of the opposite sex Single most powerful predictor of drug avoidance in adolescents Parent involvement and interest in their teens predict avoidance of smoking, drinking, and drug use. ????pg391 Emotional regulation and which adolescents are at higher risk for more severe problems in adulthood Herrin?s signs of eating disorder Pg392,,,but I don?t see any signs of an eating disorder, just what to do when there is an eating disorder
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