Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
List and briefly explain 5 stages of food processing:
B.Transport and temporary storage of food
:Digestion occurs inside of the cell
Digestion occurs in a digestive tract or cavity outside of the cells
List 4 ways that saliva is important in food "processing":
1).glycoprotein lubricates food
2).Buffers neutralize acid foods (aids in preventing tooth decay)
3).antibacterial agents kill some bacteria
4).Chemical digestion:Salivary amylase, digestion of starch begins.
List 2 reasons for chewing your food before swallowing:
a).Makes food easier to swallow
b).increase surface area of food improving enzme activity.
List 3 functions of the tongue:
a.Keeps food on teeth
b.Shapes food into a bolus and pushes it back into the oral pharynx initiating the swallow reflex.
c. Taste buds: NOTE: Food must be dissolved in saliva before there is any "taste".
d. NOTE: Flavor = Taste + Smell
The common passage way for both the gas exchange system and the digestive system
Bolus is pushed into oral pharynx which initiates swallowing.
A ball of well chewed food; mixed with saliva and ready to swallow.
Mastication, smooshing action of the tongue against the hard palate
Salivary amylase to begin starch digestion.
peristalsis:moves food from the oral pharynx to the stomache.
a.Rythmic, wave like contractions of muscles forcing food through the digestive tract
(stays approx. 4 hours)
1.eliminates the need for constant eating
gastric Ulcers:the action of pepsin and HCL destroys the stomach lining faster than it can regenerate.
:Proteins are broken down into polypeptides by enzyme pepsin
(20-25 feet in length; food remains here approx. 6 hours)
2).nutrients absorbed through the walls of the ilieum and delivered to the liver for storage and regulation of nutrient content of the blood
3).Collects and neutralizes many toxins including alcohol
4).excess amino acids are converted to urea to be passed to urine
5).stores fat soluble vitamins
6). Hemoglobin from dead red blood cells s converted into bile pigments
Summarize digestion in the small intestine:
b. Chemical digestion:all polymers are broken down into their monomers.
Large Intestine or Colon
(5 feet in length; 12-24 hours)
Caecum or Appendix at the junction of the small and large intestine
a. Appendix plays a minor roll in immunity.
2. Function:Reabsorbs water from undigested material
Waste product of humans
a.30% undigestible plant cellulose
c.15% inorganic material
Last 2% is water
Terminal portion of the large intestine where feces are stored until eliminated.
2 rectal sphincters.
Summarize digestion in the large intestine:
The interchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between an organism and its environment.
Transport of gases by the circulatory system.
a.diffusion of oxygen from the lungs(aleveoli) into the blood vessels
b.Oxygen attaches to hemoglobin in the red blood cells (RBC) and is carried to the bodys tissues and surrendered where oxygen is needed
c.Carbon dioxide is carried by the blood from the body's tissues to the lungs(alevoli)where it is exhaled.
Cells take up oxygen from the blood and give up carbon dioxide to the blood.
Where oxygen diffuses across cell membranes into the animal and where carbon dioxide diffuses to the outside environment.
The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
1).Must be moist
2).Must be extensive
3).a single layer of cells
List 4 functions of the nasal passages:
1.Cleans the air
2.Warms the air
3.moistens the air
4.samples the air for odors
Common passage way for both food and air
Function of the soft palate and the uvula
Close the nasopharnyx when you swallow.
When the glottis closes you swallow
Larynx or voice box
The first part of the trachea. Vocal cords allow voluntary sound.
Trachea or windpipe
”tube”leading to the lungs
NOTE:Rings of cartilidge keep the trachea open
Branches in the trachea , 1 leading into each lung
The bronchi branch and rebranch in the lungs into finer tubes , the bronchioles
Air sacs at the end of each bronchiole. The site of gas exchange between the environment nd the blood.
Explain the 2 types of breathing:
1. Positive pressure breathing:Air is forced into the lungs
2. Negative pressure breathing:Air passively flows into the lungs due to the creation of a partial vacumn in the chest cavity.
Briefly explain the mechanism of inhalation:
1.Rib muscles contract bringing the rib cage upwards and outwards. Increasing the size of the chest cavity.
2.The muscles in the diaphragm contract and the diaphragm drops increasing the size of the chest cavity.
3.The abdominal muscles relax, allowing the abdominal organs to drop, increasing the size of the chest cavity.
The mechanism of exhalation:
1.just the opposite of inhalation
. Automatic control of breathing:
Breathing control centers located in the pons and medulla oblongata (medulla) of the brain.
1).Nerves from the medulla signal the diaphragm and rib muscles contract resulting in an inhalation
2).Regulates how much carbon dioxide the aleveoli dispose of by monitoring the pH of the blood.
Smooths out the basic rhythm of inhalation and exhalation
Hyperventilation or "Over" or "too much" breathing:
Breathing stops until the carbon dioxide level increases enough to activate the control center.
Transport of respiratory gases:
1.Very little oxygen dissolved in liquid of blood
2.Most of the oxygen is carried by hemoglobin in red blood cells.
Carbon monoxide poisoning:
1.Hemoglobin has a 250 times greater affinity for carbon monoxide than it does oxygen.
2.Carbon monoxide forms a very tight bond with the hemoglobin
3.While red blood cells are carrying carbon monoxide they can not carry oxygen.
List 5 basic functions of a circulatory system:
2.Collecting metabolic waste
3.Aiding in the regulation of body temperature
4.Combating disease agents
Open circulatory system:
1.Blood is pumped through an open ended vessels and flows out among the cells; there is no separate interstitial fluid.
List the components of an open system
Heart---->arteries--->hemocoel---->heart(plus a circulating fluid)
A cavity where blood flows.
Give 3 characteristics of an open system:
a.low pressure system
c.organs are bathed directly in a pool of blood
any blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart
any blood vessel carrying blood towards the heart.
connects arteries and veins
Give 3 characteristics of a closed system:
b.very efficient; allowing organisms to be large, fast moving and maintain high metabolic rates.
c. organs are not bathed directly in blood
single circuit circulatory system
Briefly explain a double circuit circulatory system
1. Size:about the size of a fist
2. Location:under the sternum under the pericardium
membranous bag around the heart; creating a friction free environment for it to beat in
Right atria or auricle:
Function:receives low oxygen blood from the body nd delivers it to the right ventricle
Left atria or auricle:
Function:receives high oxygen blood from he lungs and delivers it to the left ventricle
Function:receives low oxygen blood from the light atrium and pumps low oxygen blood to the lungs(pulmonary artery)
. Function:receives high oxygen blood from the left atrium and pumps high oxygen blood to the body (aorta)
Alternating relaxations and contractions of the heart.
the relaxed phase of the heart
the contracted phase of the heart
Death of cardiac muscle cells resulting in the failure of the heart to deliver enough blood to the rest of the body
located on the surface of the heart. These are the only arteries that deliver blood to the cardiac muscles.
the force that blood exerts a gainst the walls of a blood vessel
Blood pressure maintains the direction of blood flow through the arteries and arterioles
the movement of muscles and the presence of valves on the walls of veins keeps blood moving through the veins
Average blood pressure for a young adult
rythmic stretching for arteries caused by the pressure of blood forced through the arteries by the contractions of the ventricles during systoles
Noncellular, liquid component of the blood
Components of blood
2).10% dissolved salts, proteins etc.
Erythrocytes or red blood cells (RBC):
a. Normal count:5-6 million per ml
b. Major function:transport oxygen and help transport co2
Average life span:3-4 months
a condition resulting from abnormally low amount of hemoglobin or a low number of RBC'S
Leucocytes or white blood cells (WBC):
a. Normal count:5000-10000 per ml
b. Major function:defense and immunity
Thrombocytes or platelets:
a. Normal count:150000-400000 per ml
b. Major function:initiates blood clotting
Sign up for free and study better.
Get started today!