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Anything that might energize and direct an organism's actions is called _____.
Innate and complex patterns of behavior that occur in every normally functioning member of a species under certain set conditions are called _____.
Preprogrammed tendencies to behave in certain ways and in certain situations are best known as _____.
Instinct theory was strongly influenced by _____.
a. B. F. Skinner's behaviorism
b. W. Wundt's structuralism
c. C. Darwin's evolution
d. A. Maslow's humanism
The view that organisms learn to engage in behaviors that have the effect of reducing drives is referred to as _____.
a. Freudian psychology
c. drive-reduction theory
Primary drives are _____.
Drives that are learned through experience are known as ________ drives.
Expectations play an important role in the ________ theory of motivation.
c. cognitive expectancy theory
d. hierarchy of needs
Achievement Motivation or Need for Achievement refers to which of the following?
a. A low need for achievement
b. The ability to allow others to do things for you
c. The amount of sexual motivation an individual has
d. The need to attain the highest level of achievement
When cognitions are inconsistent with one another, we experience what psychologists call _____.
b. cognitive conflict
c. cognitive dissonance
d. behavioral inconsistency
What did Cannon and Washburn's classic study (1912) of the hunger motive find?
a. The hunger drive is associated with osmosis.
b. The hunger drive is the result of stomach contractions.
c. The hunger drive is independent of stomach pangs.d. Hunger pangs are learned.
The brain structure involved in regulating hunger is the _____.
When the ventromedial hypothalamus is lesioned, the rat becomes _____.
When the lateral hypothalamus of the rat's brain is destroyed, the animals _____.
a. feel no hunger
b. start eating
c. are thirsty
d. are aroused
How can arousal be defined?
a. As a physiological state
b. As an increased engagement of behaviors
c. The ability to process information effectively
d. All of the above
For most people, ________ levels of arousal are preferable.
The Yerkes-Dodson law describes the relationship between _____.
a. arousal and performance
b. motivation and performance
c. motivation and drive
d. motivation and arousal
According to the Yerkes-Dodson law, when does performance on a relatively simple task increase?
a. Arousal is high.
b. Arousal is low.
c. Motivation is low.
d. The stimulus is novel.
At what level of arousal might one perform best on a difficult task?
d. Either a or b
________ play(s) an important role in male sexual motivation.
There are a variety of theories that attempt to explain how homosexuality develops. Which of the following has been shown?
a. Homosexuality is solely biologically based.
b. Homosexuality is solely psychologically based.
c. Homosexuality is neither psychologically nor biologically based.
d. Seemingly, homosexuality is both biologically and psychologically based.
A state or feeling that has psychological, physiological, behavioral, and cognitive components is called _____.
Which of the following is not one of the integral components of human emotions?
a. Behavioral reactions
c. Physiological arousal
d. Cognitive processes
Perception, thinking, and memory are all part of the ________ process of emotion.
Joy, anger, fear, and disgust are part of the ________ process of emotion.
What does the James-Lange theory of emotion assert that our emotions are?
a. A result of our actions
b. The cause of our actions
c. Based on our interpretations of bodily responses
d. All are learned.
You are home alone at night and begin to cry. You then know that you are sad. This supports the ________ theory of emotion.
The idea that emotional experience and bodily changes occur simultaneously is known as the _____.
a. James-Lange theory
b. Cannon-Bard theory
c. activation theoryd. cognitive appraisal theory
Which of the following best illustrates the essence of the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion?
a. We are fearful of spiders, so we run away.
b. We run from spiders because we are afraid.
c. We feel afraid of spiders as we run away.
d. We run from a spider then become afraid.
The idea that we "label" an emotion because of our cognitive appraisal of the situation comes from _____.
a. James and Lange
b. Cannon and Bard
c. Schachter and Singer
d. Rogers and Decker
We see a bear! We determine that this could be a dangerous situation, so we run away because we know we could be hurt. This statement would be supportive of the ________ theory.
The view that specific facial expressions can contribute to the person's experiencing specific emotions is called the _____.
a. facial-detection theory
b. facial-feedback theory
c. emotion-expression theory
d. Cannon-Bard theory
If we act cheerfully, smile, and laugh even when we feel down, there is a good chance that we will do which of the following?
a. Still feel depressed, however
b. Actually feel happier as a result
c. Fool everyone but ourselves
d. Feel worse in the long run
The amygdala is located within the temporal lobes of both hemispheres. The amygdala is responsible for regulating which two emotions?
a. sleep and fear
b. learning and anger
c. fear and aggression
d. lethargy and fear
Hans Seyle's term for the body's three-stage response to stress is the _____.
a. alarm reaction
b. general adaptation syndrome
c. fight-or-flight reaction
d. resistance-recovery reaction
The first stage of the general adaptation syndrome is the _____.
a. resistance stage
b. compression stage
c. alarm reaction
d. exhaustion stage
The fight-or-flight reaction is characterized by a high level of activity of the ________ nervous system.
The stage of the GAS characterized by a state of fatigue in which body tissues begin to show signs of wear and tear and susceptibility to disease is the:
a. adaptation stage.
b. resistance stage.
c. alarm stage.
d. exhaustion stage.
Any illness that causes a narrowing of the arteries feeding the heart muscles is known as:
c. coronaryd. none of the above.
The first clue that Friedman and Rosenman had concerning the link between stress and coronary heart disease came from a study involving:
a. Type A and Type B businessmen.
b. Type A and Type B businesswomen.
c. tax accountants.
d. married couples.
When compared to Type A people, Type B people tend to be more:
a. hard-driving, ambitious, and competitive.
b. relaxed, easy going, and not driven to achieve perfection.
c. inhibited, compliant, and depressed.
d. anxious, irritable, unassertive, and easily embarrassed.
Barbara is hard-driving, ambitious, very competitive, demanding, and perfectionistic. Friedman and Rosenman would type her as belonging in which category?
a. Type Y.
b. Type X.
c. Type A.
d. Type B.
Friedman and Rosenman found that Type A men were ________ as vulnerable to suffering heart attacks as were Type B.
a. less than
c. more than
Stress affects the immune system by:
a. speeding it up, thus providing more protection.
b. changing it to defend against specific diseases.
c. suppressing it initially, but allowing it to become stronger.
d. suppressing it, causing the body to become more vulnerable to disease.
What field of psychology studies how social factors influence our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors?
a. Social psychology
What is the ways in which we perceive, evaluate, form, and modify impressions about the qualities of others called?
a. Social perception
The primacy effect is a tendency to evaluate others according to which of the following?
b. Economic standing
d. First impressions
Which type of impressions is often quickly formed and hard to overcome?
d. All the above
Our first impression of a student who arrives late is that he or she is disorganized, but when that student makes a very good grade on the first exam, what do we tend to believe?
a. We see him or her in a different light.
b. We think that we were wrong at first.
c. We dismiss the grade as a "fluke" and continue to think of the student according to our schema.
d. We see his or her tardy behavior as okay.
The assumption about why people behave the way they do is referred to as which of the following?
b. Matching hypothesis
c. Recency effectd. Primacy effect
Which of the following statements reflects a clear dispositional attribution?
a. "Something got the best of him."
b. "He did what he thought was right because he is confident."
c. "He did it that way because of the weather."
d. "He went along with the crowd."
Attributing your roommates' lack of concern for you when you have a cold to the fact that they have final exams during that week is an example of which of the following?
a. Wishful thinking on your part
b. A halo effect
c. A dispositional attribution
d. A situational attribution
The Jefferson’s view their children as stubborn and independent. The parents are making ________ about the children.
a. truthful judgments
b. a fundamental attribution error
c. dispositional attributions
d. external attributions
The fundamental attribution error occurs when we attribute too much of another person's behavior to ________ factors.
The gender bias in attribution errors is that males will tend to attribute their failures to ________, while females tend to attribute their failures to ________.
a. situational factors; dispositional factors
b. external factors; external factors
c. dispositional factors; external factors
Any learned, relatively enduring predisposition to respond in consistently favorable or unfavorable ways to certain people, groups, ideas, or situations is called a/an ______.
A theory that people experience psychological discomfort whenever two related cognitions are in conflict is ______ theory.
According to cognitive dissonance theory, when people perceive a discrepancy between their actions and their attitudes or between two attitudes they tend to do which of the following?
a. Change attitudes to make them more consistent with behavior
b. Repress their awareness of the discrepancy
c. Change their behavior
d. Achieve consistency by balancing their beliefs and feelings
A negative, unjustifiable, and inflexible attitude toward a group and its members based on erroneous information is called ______.
Preconceived and oversimplified beliefs and expectations about the traits of members of a particular group that ignore individual differences are called ______.
What is the reference for the tendency to see one's own group in a favorable light?
a. Ingroup typing
b. Outgroup bias
c. Ingroup biasd. Outgroup typing
The tendency to change or modify beliefs and behaviors so that they are consistent with those of other people is called ______.
b. social influence
What are attitudes that are unavailable to your conscious awareness called?
a. Implicit attitudes
What do implicit association tests measure?
b. Belief biases
d. Reaction times to associate images with negative or positive words
What is the technique for encouraging compliance in which a person is first encouraged to agree to a relatively minor request that serves as a set-up for a more major request called?
a. Foot-in-the-door technique
b. Cognitive dissonance
Research demonstrates that we are more inclined to comply with a moderate request if we have already refused a larger one. This is referred to as the ________ technique.
a. selling up
b. balance theory
You would like to borrow $5 from a friend. If you first ask your friend to lend you $20, you would be using the ________ technique.
What do the results of the Milgram studies on obedience suggest?
a. Most people will obey authority figures-even when it is against their moral attitudes and values.
b. Women, but not men, will punish others.
c. College-educated people will not obey authority figures.
d. Uneducated people will not obey authority figures.
"The more we get to know someone, the more we like them" is because of what psychologists call the _______ effect.
b. mere exposure
Why are people attracted to each other?
a. Opposites attract
c. They often share similar beliefs, values, and attitudes.
d. Ethnocentric viewpoints
While males cross-culturally stress ________ as key characteristics in mate selection; women rate ________ higher.
a. dependable character and sociability; good looks and intelligence
b. physical appearance and youth; dependability and financial prospects
c. chastity and youth; physical appearance and securityd. physical appearance and chastity; experiences and stability
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