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epidural space, dura mater, sub dural space, arachnoid, subarachnoid space, pia
mater, spinal cord
Polysynaptic reflexes usually?a. have reverberating circuits that prolong the reflexive motor response b. involve pools of interneurons c. involve reciprocal inhibition d. involve contralateral reflexes e. all may be correct
E---- since polysynaptic reflexes: usually have reverberating circuits that prolong the reflex motor response; polysynaptic reflexes involve pools of interneurons; polysynaptic reflexes involve reciprocal inhibition; & polysynaptic reflexes involve contralateral reflexes . . . thus, ALL are correct statements
control peripheral effector organs such as skeletal muscle via efferent pathways & contain somatic motor neurons(SM) to skeletal muscle and visceral motor neurons (VM) to visceral organs
cord?a. sciatic plexus b. lumbosacral plexus c. lumbar plexus d. lumbar enlargement e. c and d
White matter that connects the brain with the spinal cord and other organs and systems include?
Spinal cord segment C-1 comes off the spinal cord?
above C-1 vertebrae (the atlas) and inferior to the foramen magnum
Can you list in order, from innermost to outermost, the spinal cord meninges layers, spaces, and structures?
Name the strand of fibrous tissue that provides longitudinal support of the spinal cord and is a component of the coccygeal ligament?
Name the specialized fibrous membrane layers that surround and protect the spinal cord?
In which meninges layer are blood vessels found directly supply the spinal cord?
What neural structures are found in the gray matter horns of the spinal cord?
nerve cell bodies and nuclei
What neural structures are found in the posterior or dorsal gray horns of the spinal cord?
somatic sensory (SS) and visceral sensory (VS) nuclei . . . remember “dorsal in”
somatic motor (SM) and visceral motor (VM) nuclei . . . remember “ventral out”
Sensory information from the spinal cord to the brain
In diagnosing bacterial and viral infections of the nervous system, samples of cerebrospinal fluid are extracted for analysis. This procedure would withdraw CSF from what meninges space?
What meninges space and what level of the vertebral column would be involved in a procedure known as a myelogram?
a radiopaque dye is injected into the Subarachnoid space at L3-L4 vertebrae or lower
A person suffering from a spinal injury could exhibit any of the following symptoms, except?
A. no visual, auditory reflexes or vasomotor reflexes
B. flaccid skeletal muscles
C. no visceral spinal reflexes
D. no somatic spinal reflexes
Which of type of spinal reflex would demonstrate the greatest delay between stimulus and response?
Greater in a polysynaptic reflex such as the crossed extensor reflex
A person contracts a viral disease that destroys some of the cells in the anterior or ventral gray horns in the lumbar region of the spinal cord. What symptoms would be expected?
loss of motor function to the limbs, thus This person would have problems standing or walking. Remember “ventral out” . . . the lumbar plexus supplies the legs
A person suffers a serious injury that severs or crushes most of the cells (dorsal & ventral) in the spinal cord at the level of spinal segment C-2. What symptoms would be expected?
lose the ability to move the arms & legs; would be a quadriplegic, and would be unable to breathe on their own since most of the cord was damaged (loss of dorsal & ventral function) at the level above C-3
A person suffers a serious injury that severs or crushes most of the cells in the spinal cord at the level of spinal segment C-5. All the following symptoms would be expected, except?
A. inability to breathe
D. inability to move the legs
A --would be the correct choice since if a person suffers a serious injury that severs or crushes most of the cells in the spinal cord at the level of spinal segment C-5, all the symptoms choices listed would be expected, except inability to breathe since C-5 affects the arms & legs but the phrenic nerve would remain in tact . . . thus this individual would still be able to breath on their own.
A person suffers a serious injury that severs or crushes most of the cells in the spinal cord at the level of spinal segment T-5. What symptoms would be expected?
inability to move the legs since everything below the level of T-5 would be affected. The upper part of the body including breathing would NOT be affected.
Why would a person who suffers a severe injury to the spinal cord at the level of C-3 or above, lose all sensory and motor function below that level, but still maintain normal heart, liver, kidney, and digestive functions?
the spinal cord has no control over those visceral vital organs mentioned above----most vital organ function is controlled by the vagus nerve which is a vital cranial nerve
Which paired group association regarding the spinal nerve rami, is FALSE?
a. Dorsal Ramus contains both somatic sensory and visceral sensory neurons
b. Dorsal Ramus contains sensory and motor neurons that innervates the skin & back muscles
Choice A is incorrect . . . since the Dorsal Ramus contains somatic sensory neurons but DOES NOT contain and visceral sensory neurons . . . instead, the rami communicante contains visceral sensory neurons
Spinal cord, rootlets, roots, spinal nerves, rami, trunks, cords, peripheral nerves
Which association grouping, regarding spinal nerve plexuses, is FALSE?
a. Cervical plexus ~ C1-C5, innervates neck muscles, includes the phrenic nerve at C-3, controls diaphragm
b. Brachial plexus ~ C5-T1, innervates the upper limbs, includes the radial nerve, median nerve, ulnar nerve
E --- All associations in this question are correct but this could likely change on the exam. Know what is in each plexus!!!
Do you know which reflexes might be innate (we are all born with them) and do you know what reflexes may be acquired reflexes?
Know the difference between innate and acquired reflexes; know the differences between cranial & spinal reflexes; know the differences between somatic motor and visceral motor reflexes; know the differences between simple and complex reflexes!!!
Which homeostatic imbalance statement below, is TRUE?
a-Meningitis is an inflammation of the spinal or cranial meninges
b-Polio is a demyelination of spinal nerves and spinal cord white matter
c-Multiple Sclerosis is a destruction of somatic motor neurons by polio virus
What part of the brain regulates non-vital autonomic reflex functions, such as appetite, thirst, arousal and temperature?
Name the smooth surface meninges layer that covers the brain but does not follow the underlying neural convolutions or sulci is?
Name the highly vascular meninges layer that adheres closely to the surface contour of the brain, extending into every fold and curve?
Name the neural centers of the pons that modify the activity of the respiratory rate & depth rhythmic centers in the medulla oblongata?
apneustic and pneumotaxic centers
Two hormones produced in the hypothalamus but secreted by the pituitary gland are?
a. adrenalin and acetylcholine
b. antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin
c. melatonin and melanin
d. testosterone and estrogen
e. insulin and pyruvic acid
B is the correct choice . . antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin
Name the part of the diencephalon that is the final relay point for ascending sensory information routed to the primary sensory cortex?
thalamus in the diencephalon
Name the non-structural but functional system in the brain that is responsible for the establishment or our emotional and motivational state?
limbic system . . . conscious awareness is interpreted in the pre-frontal cortex
Coordination of learned movement patterns, fine muscle movement, and balance at the subconscious level is
b. vasomotor centers
c. the cerebellum
d. the cerebral cortex
C is correct . . . Coordination of learned movement patterns, fine muscle movement , and balance at the subconscious level is performed by the cerebellum
able to see letters but would be unable to recognize or interpret them
Name the only cranial nerve that is attached to the cerebrum?
olfactory nerve which is cranial nerve I
The cranial nerve that has three branches is the?
a. optic nerve
b. facial nerve
c. vagus nerve
d. trigeminal nerve
e. phrenic nerve
D is correct . . . The cranial nerve that has three branches is the trigeminal nerve which is cranial nerve V
Damage to which cranial nerve (not spinal nerves) could result in death?
a. vagus nerve
b. phrenic nerve
c. optic nerve
d. auditory nerve
e. olfactory nerve
A is correct---The phrenic nerve controls the vital function of respiration but is not a cranial nerve. It is a spinal nerve . . The other nerves listed are cranial nerves but do not control vital functions with the exception of the vagus nerve which controls many vital functions.
What is the difference in the white matter and gray matter structural arrangement between the spinal cord and the medulla?
Damage to the pyramidal cells of the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex would directly affect?
a. sensory perception of pain
c. voluntary somatic motor control of skeletal lmuscle
Damage to the temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex would directly affect?
a. conscious perception of hearing ~ auditory cortex
b. conscious perception of vision ~ visual cortex
c. conscious perception of smell ~ olfactory cortex
d. voluntary motor activity
e. a and c
E is correct . . . since damage to the temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex would directly affect conscious perception of hearing ~ auditory cortex and conscious perception of smell ~ olfactory cortex
Damage to the pre-optic area of the hypothalamus (diencephalon) would result in?
an inability to adjust body temperature since this area of the hypothalamus controls body temperature
Damage to the corpra quadrigemina of the mesencephalon would interfere with the ability to?
react to the bright headlights of an approaching car & react to loud noises from
inadequate amounts of dopamine produced in the substantial nigra of the mesencephalon
Where in the brain would you expect to find large numbers of branched purkinje cells?
cerebellar cortex of the cerebellum
A tumor or blockage of the interventricular foramen in the left cerebral hemisphere would result in?
a. decreased production of cerebral spinal fluid
b. increased production of cerebrospinal fluid
c. cerebrospinal fluid build up in the left lateral ventricle
C --- . . . A tumor or blockage of the interventricular foramen in the left cerebral hemisphere would result in water on the brain caused by cerebrospinal fluid build up in the left lateral ventricle
79. A person who suffers a stroke cannot move their right arm as a result. This would suggest that the stroke
damage is in the area of the?
a. right frontal lobe ~ motor cortex
b. left frontal lobe ~ motor cortex
c. right temporal lobe
d. left temporal lobe
B ---- . . . A person who suffers a stroke cannot move their right arm as a result. This would suggest that the stroke damage is in the area of the left frontal lobe ~ motor cortex
An injury or blow to the head results in some local swelling in the area of pyramidal cells of the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex (motor cortex). Symptoms would likely include?
a. loss of feeling in the hands
b. difficulty moving the legs
c. loss of hearing
A tumor that results in violent mood swings, lost feeling of well being, & lack of motivation would likely involve
a. limbic system
b. medulla oblongata
e. spinal cord
A ----- . . . A tumor that results in violent mood swings, feeling of well being, and lack of motivation would likely involve the limbic system
Increased production and release of acetylcholine by the neurons of the primary motor cortex would result in?
Spastic, uncontrolled skeletal muscle contractions since the motor cortex would be overly stimulated
What type of neural tissue or neural cells would involve primary brain cancers?
Name the demyelination disorder(s) caused by progressive destruction of the myelin sheath in the CNS and PNS, and resulting in a numbing paralysis?
b. multiple sclerosis
c. muscular dystrophy
d. spastic paralysis
e. a and c
B-----A demyelination disorder caused by progressive
destruction of the myelin sheath in the CNS and PNS, and resulting in a numbing paralysis is multiple sclerosis
It is virtually impossible to obtain normal or precise alignment of axons; permanent scar tissue affects nerve impulse conduction; degeneration of axons distal to an injury called wallerian degeneration; & a lack of centrioles in neural tissue
Motivation and ability to predict consequences of our actions are localized in the?
a. prefrontal cortex
b. speech center or Broca’s Area
d. medulla oblongata
e. general interpretive area
A is correct . . . Motivation and ability to predict consequences of our actions are localized in the prefrontal cortex
The corpora quadrigemina of the mesencephalon
In what region of the brain are transverse tracts that connect the cerebellum to the brain stem?
medulla oblongata, pons & mesencephalon
In what region of the brain are the major centers controlling vital autonomic reflexes such as, breathing, blood pressure, heart rate, digestive and other vital reflexes, located in?
cerebrum & cerebellum
What is the primary structural link between the nervous and endocrine system?
The pituitary through the infundibulum
Name the thin partition that separates the two lateral ventricles of the brain?
Foramen of monro, also called the Interventricular foramen
What structure links the third and forth ventricles of the brain?
mesencephalic aqueduct, also called the aqueduct of sylvius or the midbrain aqueduct
Where are the dural sinuses (superior saggital sinus) are located in the brain?
Dura mater meninges
What meningal space contains a delicate network of collagen and elastin fibers through which cerebrospinal fluid circulates?
The subarachnoid space
Which item below is not a function of cerebrospinal fluid?
a. provides cushioning for delicate neural tissue
b. provides buoyant support for the brain and spinal cord
c. acts as a transport medium for nutrients
d. provides a medium for nerve impulse conduction
D . . . is not a function of CSF . . . Cerebrospinal fluid DOES NOT provide a medium for nerve impulse conduction. CSF has nothing to do with nerve impulse conduction
is secreted by SNS neuroglia ependymal cells and replaces itself approximately
every 8 hours
The normal circulation route of cerebral spinal fluid, starting from where it is produced to where it is absorbed into the venous system, is?
The normal circulation route of cerebral spinal fluid from production to absorbtion is, in order of flow . . . choroid plexus . . . brain ventricles . . . central canal of the spinal cord . . . subarachnoid space . . . superior saggital sinuses . . . jugular veins
Excess cerebrospinal fluid is drained into the general venous circulation via the?
a. superior saggital sinus and jugular vein
b. superior saggital sinus and carotid arteries
c. jugular vein and carotid arteries
d. choroid plexus
e. arterial circulation
A is correct . . . Excess cerebrospinal fluid is drained into the general venous circulation via the superior saggital sinus and jugular vein
Which item below is FALSE about the BBB?
a- capillary endothelial cells are interconnected by tight junctions
b- astrocytes surround the CNS capillaries and inhibit diffusion it is freely
c- permeable and allows selective flow of hormones and ions into the CNS
C--- . The blood-brain barrier is NOT freely permeable and does NOT allow selective flow of hormones and ions into the CNS. This is why it is the blood brain barrier. Only gases and alcohols or lipid soluble materials can pass through the blood brain barrier
What major region of the brain monitors the postural muscles of the body and makes rapid adjustments to maintain balance and equilibrium?
The structural component of the cerebellum that monitors incoming sensations to the brain including proprioceptive, visual, tactile, balance & auditory senses, is the?
The structural component of the cerebellum, that is affected by alcohol, drugs, strokes and trauma, thus, resulting in balance disturbances or ataxia is the?
The areas of each cerebral cortex of the brain that receive sensory information and allows us to know what we see, smell, hear and taste, are called?
The major region of the brain that is involved in conscious thought and intellectual function and processing somatic sensory and motor information, is the?
Abstract intellectual functions such as predicting the consequences of future actions, occur in the?
a. precentral gyrus
b. postcentral gyrus
c. premotor cortex
d. prefrontal cortex
e. corpus callosum
D is correct . . . Abstract intellectual functions such as predicting the consequences of a particular response occur in the prefrontal cortex of the cerebrum
The corpus callosum which carries information from one hemisphere to the other, is composed of?
a. arcuate fibers
b. longitudinal fibers
c. association fibers
d. commissural fibers
e. projection fibers
D is correct . . .The corpus callosum is composed of commissural fibers which carry information from one side of the cerebrum to the other side
In what part of the CNS does the highest, most complex information processing, such as intelligence, analytical thinking, and predicting consequences of future actions, occur in?
Higher order functions?
a. are subject to adjustments and modifications over time
b. involve complex interactions between areas of the cerebral cortex and other areas of the brain
c. involve conscious information processing
d. involve unconscious information processing
The basal or cerebral nuclei?
a. plan and coordinate voluntary muscle activity
b. provide the general pattern and rhythm for subconscious movements such as walking
c. coordinate sensory information
d. control the secretions from the pituitary gland
B --- The basal or cerebral nuclei provide the general pattern and rhythm for subconscious movements such as walking by augmenting the cerebellum & motor cortex
The order of complexity of brain regions, from least complex to most complex is?
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