exam 4 part 3
- University of Michigan - Ann Arbor
- Biochemistry 401
- exam 4 part 3
Last Modified: 2011-07-01
Related Textbooks:Biochemistry (Looseleaf)
Ubiquitin binds to proteins through formation of an __________ bond with _______ residues
Cellular proteins are ______ and _____ by the proteasome
- Pepsin: active enzyme
- Non-specific cleavage of protein
- Synthesized and released into stomach
- Activated by low pH
make more trypsin
Released as inactive zymogens
Cleave proteins at specific residues
on luminal surface
2.Remaining carbon skeletons are used:
- Energy: Glucose, Acetyl CoA, TCA intermediates
- Anabolic Reactions
2.used for synthesis of nitrogen-containing compounds (i.e. other AA’s or nucleic acids)
2.•Oxidative Deamination to remove the amino group as ammonium ion.
alanine amino transferase
*these rxns go in reverse also
Alanine + a-ketoglutarate D Pyruvate + Glutamate
7 Carbon skeleton metabolites.Can be used in these ways
-to generate energy:
-Acetyl CoA (some)
-TCA Cycle (some)
Succinyl Co A
AminotransferasesRequire the Prosthetic group:
• acts as an electron sink - an electrophilic catalyst
Prior to amino acid binding:__makes protonated Shiff-base with PLP aldehyde thus____
- Acts as a place-holder for incoming amino acid
b)The amino group is hydrolyzed to yield a free ammonium ion and a-ketoglutarate.
Glutamate dehydrogenase is found where?
a-Ketobutyrate + NH4+
Ammonium excreted (through the kidneys in most cases) as urea by most land animals.- Exceptions=
–1 N from aspartate
–C from bicarbonate
Get rid of the NH4+ safely as urea
Salvage the Carbon skeleton metabolites for use as fuel or building blocks
a) Activation of Bicarbonate with ATP, to form Carboxyphosphate
b) Condensation of Carboxyphosphate with Ammonia
c) Activation of carbamic acid with ATP to form Carbamoyl Phosphate
*ATP is needed along with the release of PP
___________ is Transported from Cytosol To MT to Join the Urea Cycle
2.Condensation with Acetyl CoA to make Citrate > energy (TCA cycle) 3.Gluconeogenesis > energy export
4.Conversion to pyruvate then to acetyl Co A for FA synthesis
Words From Our Students
"StudyBlue is great for studying. I love the study guides, flashcards, and quizzes. So extremely helpful for all of my classes!"
Alice, Arizona State University
"I'm a student using StudyBlue, and I can 100% say that it helps me so much. Study materials for almost every subject in school are available in StudyBlue. It is so helpful for my education!"
Tim, University of Florida
"StudyBlue provides way more features than other studying apps, and thus allows me to learn very quickly! I actually feel much more comfortable taking my exams after I study with this app. It's amazing!"
Jennifer, Rutgers University
"I love flashcards but carrying around physical flashcards is cumbersome and simply outdated. StudyBlue is exactly what I was looking for!"