Video Questions: Archaeology, History and Custer?s Last Battle Who were the principal combatants of the Battle of the Little Big Horn, the US Army vs. which Native American group(s)? Northern Cheyenne ; Lakota Sioux - Led by Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse, & Lame White Man VS 7th US Cavalry Regiment ? operated in companies -_- NOT platoons, which they should?ve b/c companies are smallest tactical unit Who was the commanding American officer at the Battle of the Little Big Horn? George Armstrong Custer How many died on each side, the Native American and American (including Native American scouts)? Native American Sitting Bull ? 36 killed; 168 wounded Red Horse ? 136 killed; 160 wounded American 268 killed ; 55 wounded Where was this battle fought and when (what current state and what year)? Montana (Little Bighorn Battlefield) June 25, 1876 Which group had more different types of firearms, the US army or the Native Americans? Indians had 41 types of firearms VS the US army, which had 2 types of fire arms What was Custer?s strategy regarding the Native American women and children (non-combatants)? Capture the non-combatants & hold them hostage ( then control actual warriors but when he got there, it was too big a group 80 soldiers VS 5000 children & women Where did the last men of the US Army die, deep ravine or Custer Hill? Men left Custer Hill ( towards deep ravine; 22 got there alive. Was the myth of Custer proven or disproven by the archaeology? Disproven by archeology ? he was on the offensive not the defensive posture What about bunching, tactical stability v. disintegration, panic, flight and mass flight? ?Tactical Disintegration? ( psychological debilitation fear ( ?bunching? ( panic ( lose the order known as ?tactical stability? ( mass flight (don?t put up much of a fight; common to throw away weapons, and run towards ?safe? location, perceived or real) ?Tactical stability? ( intervals between individuals ? orchestrate strategies and instill order into maneuvers and during chaos What can the firing-pin signature on a bullet cartridge casings tell us? The movement of individual warriors across landscape ? crucial in constructing the flow of battle State and Aztec Lecture: Be able to define: state, nation-state, and stratified state society as defined by your textbook. State: a type of society characterized by a political structure with authority that is legally constituted Specific people are authorized and empowered to enforce laws Wealth is not equally distributed Specialization and market-exchange Nation-state: a group that shares common cultural heritage, territory, and legitimate political structure They have both, nation = symbolic identity; location, history, culture, religion AND political structure Stratified state society: a society in which institutions are based on coercive power and authority. Inequality exists within social groupings. Where and when did the worlds first states arise? Why do state arise, what are the consequences of this, and what were some reasons for their collapse as of the lecture? Where and when: Egypt & Mesopotamia ? 6000 yrs ago Why? Hydraulic Theory: irrigation was necessary due to increase in population density. B/c it was complicated, the state had to evolve in order to propagate it (Create new plants, spread widely) Environmental Circumscription Theory: Physical barriers Trade (world systems perspective): trade & exotic resources create diff. social statuses, creating power then statehood Religion: ideology, coping w/uncertainties of agriculture Action Theory: forceful leaders What are the consequences? Positive: 1. relief from food production 2. cities can arise in many places, not just agricultural areas 3. Cultural expansion (music, literature, etc.) Negative: 1. limits of freedom 2. Class differences emerge 3. malnutrition/ famine is always possible 4. warfare ? stress What are some reasons for why CIVILIZATIONS collapse? Complexities of civilizations makes them fragile Famine/disease Social competition/political unrest Combination of factors: Systems collapse theory: (ex: Shelly?s ozymandias) What is the subsistence base of a state? What type of economy does a state have? Subsistence: Agriculture ? intensive use of land for the production of plant foods (cultivation/fertilizers/irrigation/ownership of land?) State economics: Distribution of resources: (redidstribution & market exchange) Market Exchange: barter/Commodity money/flat money What is the general trend of cultural evolution throughout the Holocene? Greater organization complexity & energy harvesting efficiency has increased Cultural variability has been decreasing What are V. Gordon Childe?s 10 traits of a state? 1. large population 2. specialization of labor 3. surplus controlled by elites (paid for by commoners) 4. monumental public works 5. social stratification 6. writing 7. calendars (agriculture regulation) 8. full time artists 9. long distance trade 10. solidarity by ideology & force (religion & military) What ethnic group were the Aztec, what language did they speak and how large was their empire by 1519? The Aztecs were a Mexica ethnic group They spoke Nahuati & had an empire of 15 million by 1915 The Aztec?s were nomadic and came form where? What god did they make offerings to along the way ? how did this turn out poorly for them when they were allowed asylum by Culhuaca and offered the daughter of Achitometl? The Aztecs were from Aztlan ?Pace of Herons? ? nomads from the NorthWest Offers were to Hutizilpochtli ? God of Sun b/c sacrifices were a way of life for them, after they lived in the Culhuacan asylum, they were given the daughter of Achitometl, b/c they wanted to marry into the royal line, they flayed the woman, while alive, then killed her, and once again, they got kicked out and were once again, on the run What was Huitzilopochtli?s sign? What was the name of their city state and what does it mean? The sign was a place to tell them were to stop They saw an eagle (representing the sun) sitting on top of a prickly pear cactus (representing human hearts) The name of their city was Tenochtitlan ? meant ?place of the fruit of the cactus? 1325 ( What are chinampas agriculture and what does this word mean? Chinampas = ?floating gardens? built on swamps It was their key to autonomy & expansion Templo Major was dedicated to two gods, who were they and what were they gods of? What happened at this temple? About how many sacrifices took place per year, how many skulls on the skull rack according to Spanish chroniclers? ?Twin Temple: - dedicated to Tlaloc (God of rain, fertility, and water) & to Huitzilopochtli (God of sun) Itzcoatl ? 20,000 a year 15,000 a day Skull rack: 136,000 skulls Skew bodies and eat them! What is the difference between autosacrifice and heart sacrifice? How does the Aztec cosmos (5 eras) as well as the origins of the this era: the sun, moon, and humans relate to sacrifice? In other words, ultimately WHY IS SACRIFICE NECCESARY? Auto-sacrifice: Maguey thorns or stingray barbs Bloodletting: to nourish gods ( one?s own blood in devotion to the Gods, a ritual, mostly performed by priests! Heart Sacrifice: Obsidian ? the heart was the most precious thing that could be given to the gods, the decapitation afterwards was for ?energy? in their God?s eyes The Aztec have 2 calendars, what are the purposes of each? How is the ritual calendar related to the Greco-Roman concept of fate; moreover, what about Greco-Roman oratory? Tonalpohaualli: (counting of the days): 260 ? divination Xiuhpohualli: (counting of the years); 365 ? seasonal Aztecs and Greeks on Fate: Ovid: Fasti (lucky) v nefasti (unlucky) Oedipus (fulfills his prophecy in an attempt to escape it ? adopted. Kills dad. Marries mother) Aztecs ruled by fate ( so they looked for Omens or Prodigies Augury: behavior of birds; liver as wel; What is the binding of the years, how does this relate to the calendars and how often does it occur? What ceremony takes place at the binding of years? The 260 ? and 365-day calendars have been set us as 2 gears, set side by side The binding of years is when they would align every 52 years ?half century fire-lighting ceremony?- the beginning of a new age would commence after the sun went down What are some theories regarding why the Aztec sacrificed human beings? Aztecs sacrificed humans to renew the world Other human sacrifice theories: 1. Religion 2. Protein shortage 3. Population Control 4. Propaganda Etic perspective: propaganda by terror ? it sends a powerful message, NOT to rebel Lecture on North America: The use of mtDNA (?) to study when and where human populations diverged is based upon one large assumption, what is this assumption? The assumption that mutations occur at the same rate What does the combined DNA evidence tell us about the first settlers in North Amarica, how many migrations, when, and from where? 2 DNA lineages ? 2 migration / 2 dispersals 14-7 / 18 thousand years ago (ka) From Asia via (through) Siberia What is the main difference between the old and the revised, or new, ice free corridor hypotheses, which is a people and which is the diffusion of a technological horizon, which posits a pre-Clovis population and which is the first population? Where are these people coming from? Old Ice Free Corridor Hypothesis It?s a people Clovis was the first to enter America Between 13.5 ? 13 ka BP (11.5 ? 11ka uncalibrated C14 BP) People are coming from Siberia ( Alaska NEW (Revised) Ice Free Corridor Model It?s a technology (arises after land is fairly populated) ( & why its so widespread is explained ( Pre-Clovis population origin (allowing it to spread out) Fast Clovis horizon from 11,050 ? 10,800 un-calibrated radiocarbon( was a lot less lengthy, from 5,000 yrs ( 200 years According to the slides (maps of glacial Canada and N. USA), when did the ice free corridor open up, when is the earliest date? 14.1ka BP (14.1 thousands years before present) First day that the ?Ice Free Corridor actually opened up ( 11.5 ka BP when it eventually opens up, creating continents and possibility to travel by sea now How do we determine dates using C14? And why do we need to calibrate C14? When is BP relative to? C 14 Uses 8 neutrons. It is taken in by plants and animals and starts breaking down at death, allowing US to record the date But b/c of N14, through beta decay, we get Half life ( which means it takes half of every C14 C14 is not perfectly steady b/c it decreases through time in the atmosphere, the further we go back, it makes years appear longer and the harder it is to measure its accuracy, ( BP relative to 1950 A bombs (you get a carbon plateau b/c rings don?t exist anymore) Technique first appears & is the (standard datum) 12,000 = (uncal BP ? 13,990) (cal BP ? BC 12,040) 11,500 = (uncal BP ? 13,420) (cal BP ? BC 11,470) 11,000 = (uncal BP - 12,920 ) (cal BP ? BC 10,970) 10,500 = (uncal BP ? 12,420 ) (cal BP ? BC 10,470) HUGE SHIFT FROM YOUNGER DRYAS 10,000 = (uncal BP - 11,160 ) (cal BP ? BC 9,210) *** only 500 uncalibrated years = 1200 year calibrated difference!!! (+700) 1 std. dev = +100 ( 68% probability ) 2 std. dev = +200 ( 95% probability ) What are some characteristics of a diagnostic Clovis point and how old would it be? Hold old - 13 ka BP (11ka BC) Bifacially worked (both sides) Lanceolate in shape Fluted (bottom was designed to help you bind the projectile point to the stick) Similar b/c of Hafting & flintknapping (pressure flaking, it?s a process) What are the implications of a fast Clovis horizon? Clovis point is most wide-spread NA distribution Clovis origins: the traditional model But they DO vary! Not all similar and all quite different ( possible theories? By when was Clovis technology in widespread use, and what does this imply? When were people at the tip of South America by? Clovis technology widespread by 13,000 BP calibrated (or 11,000 BC) People were at the tip of SA by 12,500 BP calibrated (or 10,500 BC) ( 8,000 miles in 500 years? ( a lot of land covered, its not likely, BUT it is possible According to the Solutrean hypothesis, where were the first Americans originally from? When does the Solutrean date to, and what other arguments do Bradley and Stanford use to question the Siberian data (ice free corridor)? What are the flaws with the Solutrean hypothesis? Why is it so easy to refute? Soultrean Alternative Hypothesis (an irrefutable hypothesis, based on no strong evidence) Spain 22 ? 16.5 ka BP Remarkably similar technology Marine resources Soultrean Refuted 5000 years before clovis Not very similar technology (regional variation) OR adaptive technological convergence (no ubiquitous point) No clovis art No evidence of sea hunting or of aquatic (marine) resources exploitation, at all! DNA (we know the DNA evidence points to Siberia as the origin, NOT SPAIN) What is the problem with the coastal migration hypothesis? the coastal migration megafaunal overkill ( over 100lbs) Anthropogenic cause (humans overhunting) Climate cause Germ caused (b/c dogs have fleas w/germs) Mixed model (climate + human hunting) Megafaunal ? slow reproductive rate which affects survival of species ( Ice Age Americans adapted to a dramatically different world Ice zones in Post Glacial Lifezones & Full Glacial Lifezones in NA have everything different. Climate change arguments: Colder/warmer? Wetter/dryer? Micro vs Macro climates? - looks at Macro, but not at micro Extinctions earlier or later? Refugium (stable climate area) Extinctions all occurred at different rate!!! ISOTOPES Protons (atomic # - so what element it is) + Neutrons (mass #) RALEIGH DISTILLATION ? residual vapour fraction/ moist. Earths climate record: the 4 million year perspective How many previous glacial cycles had the megafauna survived prior to humans arrival into North and South America? Megafuna had survived 22 glacial cycles The younger dryas was no colder than the previous lows, and also warm summers Know the 7 unique features of this extinction event and why they support the overkill, or anthropogenic, argument for megafaunal extinction? What was the magnitude? What animals were hit the hardest? How do we define megafauna? What happened to the large ocean animals? Were the megafauna replaced or did they leave vacant ecological niches? Did the extinctions affect all the continents equally, and if not, WHY? Were these extinction events small like islands or large scale like continent wide phenomena? Were the simultaneous or spaced out? What about the islands of Madagascar and New Zealand? Overkill hypothesis (anthropogenic argument of megafaunal extinction) Culture (human) v genes (animals) Humans prefer biggest meat packages Specialist: reduced variability Generalist: high variability Large mammals are fewer in number than small ones CLOVIS AS BIG-GAME SPECIALIST!!! 33 sites w/faunal evidence UNIQUE 1. Magnitude - largest extinction event in a long time 2. It hit BIG MAMMALS much harder than small (1/2 worlds megafauna were killed in this period) 3. large ocean animals were immune b/c there are no humans in the ocean ( not driven to extinction 4. the megafauna were not replaced by new species as would be expected Competition between species for same niche, but they weren?t replaced b/c niches weren?t occupied ( Australia 15-16 animals were extinct Largest wild camel population in the world (post 1788) 5. the extinction did not affect all continents equally NA ? lost 73% (36 species) SA ? lost 80% (46 species) Australia ( 1 of 16 survive) Europe (loses only 7 species) Africa (loses only 2 of 44) Co evolution w/ hominids! 6. happening on continents (large scale), not islands w/small and vulnerable ecosystems Magnitude NA, SA, Australia 7. NOT SIMULTANEOUS Americas (12 ? 11,000 yrs ago) Australia (50,000 yrs ago) Madagascar elephant bird (1000 AD) New Zealand moa (1000 AD) Eurasia & Africa over time! Island extinctions All suffered from post-contact extinctions Fire Introduced species Dogs and rats & overhunting drove them to extinction New Zealand Large flightless duck, coot and goose Moas 10 ft tall and 500 lbs All species alive when the MAOI ARRIVED, climate was great *** *killing and forest clearance caused MOA extinction! Madgascar Giant ELEPHANT BIRD, TORTOISE, LEMURS, HIPPOPOTAMUS, Humans arrive 1000 AD Climate Change + humans = extinctions Often saying humans killed the last dying breed QUESTIONS REMAIN Exotic germ theory No evidence to support, purely hypothetical, humans bring diseases and so do animals HUNTING can lead to EXTINCTION b/c large mammals reproduce slowly humans kill for specific things in animals, they don?t dry all the meat to be useful humans aren?t eating everything, choice cuts! ( you can GROW! To drive a species to extinction 1% annual grate in population = 2.4 total rate fertility Modelizing colonization: Optimal conditions: out of 1 million Americans, 80,000 only made the crossing 3.4 % AGR 4 surviving kids w/20 years of life expectancy At this rate, 10,000,000 in just 340 years South America onward! 8000 miles from Alaska to tip of SA 8 miles a year, most H&G do this in a day In a growing population, this is easy Clovis ( Folson
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