Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
What happened in the 1956 Hungarian revolt?
-Oct. 23 Hungarian people revolted against the USSR
-They appealed to the U.S. for help
-Ike refused to help, avoiding to start a global war.
-Nov. 10 the Soviets crushed w/ Hungarian Rebellion
[used massive brutality & bloodshed/ 2,500 Hungarians killed in the fighting/ 26,000 Hungs were charged & imprisoned/ 13,000 Hungss were executed]
- Many Hungarians were bitter w/ the U.S. for not helping
What happened between JFK and Khrushchev at the Vienna Summit in June, 1961?
Kennedy and Soviet leader Khrushchev met in Vienna, Austria
- Khrushchev took a hard line & threatened intentions of denying access to Berlin
(planned to put pressure on “testicles of the West”)
- Kennedy did not back down, promised to not withdraw from Berlin (in East Germany)
- Some felt that Kennedy was too weak
- Some felt that Khrushchev underestimated JFK
- Both felt uneasy from meeting
- Like they needed to prove something
What were effects of the Cuban Missile Crisis?
+ Soviets felt Khrushchev came off as weak & indecisive
+ Oct. 1964, he was removed from power
-He was replaced by Alexei Kosygin
-A “hot line” was installed
-Connected Washington D.C. & Moscow
(To be used only in times of crisis)
+ Set the tone for a modest policy of detente
+ Relaxation of tensions during Cold War
How did Roe v. Wade decision backfire on Nixon’s “conservative” movement attempt with Supreme Court?
By the end of 1971, Nixon had appointed four new members of the U.S. Supreme Court
He chose individuals that he considered to be “conservative”
Ironically, this “conservative” court made a controversial decision
- In January, 1973, the U.S. Supreme Court issued the Roe v. Wade decision
- This legalized abortion
How did OPEC cause fuel crisis in U.S?
Who did Soviet Union invade in 1979 that led to their version of Vietnam War?
Reagan was slow to react. Thought it was only in homosexuals, African-Americans, & drug users.
In 2007, 35 million ppl in the world have HIV. 1.6 million died that same year, including 260,000 children.
Reagan sped up the collapse of the soviet union.
However, the Cold War victory belongs to all previous presidents who participated:
- Harry S. Truman
- Dwight D. Eisenhower
- John F. Kennedy
- Lyndon B. Johnson
- Richard Nixon
- Gerald Ford
- Jimmy Carter
- Ronald Reagan
Who was former President of Ford Motor Company, had an MBA from Harvard and was over the Defense Department?
After Joseph Stalin died, who was the new Soviet leader who had only disdain for the United States?
Who wanted lasting peace for all Americans and warned against the Military Industrial Complex?
What happened from 1945 to 1957, when about 77.3 million Americans were born?
Diner’s Club cards, McDonald’s, Disneyland and television
-Advertisers used television
-Television had greatest impact of 1950’s
22nd Amendment was ratified (February 27th, 1951)
[It limited Presidents to two terms. Dem. Harry Truman could not run again]
1952= Eisenhower 34th president
Democrats selected Illinois Governor Adlai E. Stevenson
Republicans chose Dwight D. Eisenhower
His V.P. Running Mate was Richard M. Nixon
Campaign slogan: “I like Ike”
Campaign Issues: North Korean War & Fighting/Containing Communism
The Warren Commission was created
Headed by Supreme Chief Justice Earl Warren
It had seven committee members, one general counsel and 15 assistant counselors
Concluded Oswald acted alone (September 24th, 1964)
Order Question: Brown v. Board of Education, Four African-American college freshmen have a “sit-in” at a restaurant in Greensboro, NC, Rosa Parks refuses to give up a bus seat, the 22nd Amendment is added
- He exposed the hypocrisy of American life
- He said while “every man was created equal,” African-Americans were excluded
- He said the U.S. fought against dictatorships,
yet we had racism at home
- He made points that Americans had difficulty arguing against
- On April 15th, 1947, Jackie Robinson broke the racial barrier in baseball
He signed and played for the Brooklyn Dodgers
He is in the MLB Hall of Fame and his #42 is retired ball MLB Teams
Rosa Parks refused to give up a bus seat in the “whites only” section
+ Four African- Americans were told to move, three did & Rosa Parks refused, was arrested
+ Pacifist leader Martin Luther King, Jr., joined in
- King led a massive boycott of Montgomery Bus Systems
- Launched boycott movement throughout South
(He believed in peaceful methods of civil rights protests) From Dec. 2nd, 1955 to Dec. 20th, 1956 (381 days)
Victory, city ordinance changed, sit anywhere on buses
-May 17th, 1954, the landmark case of Brown v. Board of Education was decided (Topeka, Kansas)
This reversed the previous 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson case: “separate but equal”
- It ruled that facilities were inherently unequal- Schools were ordered to integrate
Many states followed the ruling of desegregation
- Some states in Deep South refused
- They delayed, disobeyed and diverted funds
- Some, physically prevented entrance
The Arkansas Nine
Sept. 1957, Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus disobeyed the law.
He refused to let nine African-American students enroll at Little Rock’s Central High School
- He mobilized the National Guard.
- Eisenhower sent in federal troops to escort the children to their classes
The “Sit-In” Movement
Eisenhower Builds the Highways
- The Interstate and Federal Highway Act of 1956 (June 29th)
- This was his biggest domestic success
- More than 42,000 miles of interstate freeways were built
- He appropriated $25 billion for this program
- He believed in improving American infrastructure
- Ike & staff preferred investing in super bombers
- He wanted to downsize the military and spending
- He felt that a Massive Retaliation threat & believed U.S. Air Forces would work the best with the Soviets
- Strategic Air Command (SAC)
- US Air Force could drop nuke bombs on Soviet Union, anytime, anywhere, constantly in the air.
- The Soviets focused on the development of expensive global ballistic missile technology
- Ike didn’t like the weapons development race between U.S. & Soviets
- Wanted to spend fraction of US Budget on Military
- Ike believed in developing a “deterrent”
+ Palestinians & neighbor Arab Nations enraged
- Palestine has (since) not been given their own separate state
- Led by Egypt, the Arab Nations attacked Israel
- Israeli War of Independence in 1948
+ Hatred toward Jews & the United States has grown
- Most of world’s oil comes from the Arab Nations
+ US support of Israel has led to strained relations w/ Arab Nations
Israel & Arab Nations have fought many wars:
- Tensions remain high in Middle East to this day
In 1968, which former Attorney General was the most obvious choice for President before being assassinated?
In 1981, who became the first female Supreme Court Justice in U.S. History?
Gerald Ford became Nixon’s Vice President after which person resigned due to being charged with criminal tax evasion?
Who was the person that was the first woman on a presidential ticket as V.P. candidate in 1984?
Order Question: the U.S. forms the Southeast Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO), the Soviets launch Sputnik I into Space, Alaska and Hawaii become the 49th and 50th states to join the Union, the USSR forms the Warsaw Pact
- The CIA claimed the newly elected government had connections with communists
+ In reality, they wanted a friendly Iranian Government with the West (U.S.)
+ They wanted to make sure the West (U.S.) had access to Iran’s oil
- The CIA installed the Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlevi as Ruler
- He would rule Iran for the next 26 years, until 1979
- The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
- Included Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, Iran, Venezuela and many others (12 total)
- Purpose was to protect the interests of the countries involved, as a group
What was the key event that starts American interests in Vietnam?
- The 1958 National Defense and Education Act (NDEA)
- This gave $887 million dollars for the improvement of U.S. schools
- Americans would go back to work and focus on science
The U-2 Spy Plane Incident
May 1st, 1960, an American U–2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union
- The U.S. was slow to admit it
- The Soviets, w/ American pilot & crashed plane, could prove it
- President Eisenhower would take blame & responsibility
- This caused more problems in Cuba
1. First presidential national televised (4) debates between JFK & Nixon
2. Nixon was sick, not shaved & looked awful
3. JFK, was clean, tan, relaxed, sharply dressed.
4. About 80 million viewers
5. After the debate, polls gave JFK a slight lead b/c most Americans only watched the 1st debate.
Though before 1st debate, he trailed Nixon
6. The next 3 debates Nixon looked much better.
7. People who listened to debate on radio felt Nixon won & people who watched TV believed JFK won.
- Medical Care for elderly
- Ending Racial Discrimination- Tax Reforms and Tax Cuts
JFK had opposition from both Democrats and Republicans
Most of what he proposed would not be passed until after his death
South Vietnam Coup 1963
Pres. JFK approved Secret CIA planned coup to assassinate SV’s Pres., gaining control of S Vietnam.
JFK & leader Khrushchev met in Vienna, Austria
Krushchev threatens to deny access of Berlin
- put pressure on the “testicles of the West”
- JFK promised not to withdraw from East Berlin.
The Bay of Pigs 1961
US supports invasion of Cuban Exiles @ the Bay of Pigs. CIA trained & led operation, JFK approved.
The Cuban Missile Crisis 1962
- US spy planes take pics of new missiles in Cuba
- These were nuke missiles aimed at US
Order Question: the CIA performs a coup and Ngo Dinh Diem, leader of South Vietnam, is assassinated, the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, Fidel Castro and his communist supporters come to power in Cuba, the Cuban Missile Crisis
Who chartered buses that went through the South to try to end segregation?
+ 2nd Shooter (Grassy Knoll)
Lyndon B. Johnson
Sworn in & became the 36th President in the U.S.
4th & most recent V.P. to replace an assassinated President
- From Texas (Democrat)
Wanted to continue JFK”s policies
Known for the “Johnson Treatment”
He would get in one’s face
Be pushy and egotistical until he got his way
What were the many parts of the Civil Rights Act?
- LBJ was a Civil Rights Supporter
- Civil Rights Act was passed on July 2nd, 1964
- Banned racial segregation in schools, facilities & public places
- Banned racial discrimination in private
- It invalidated Jim Crow Laws in Southern States
- Given powers to enforce:
- 14th Amendment – Guaranteeing Citizenship
- 15th Amendment – Right to Vote
Major victory for African-Americans
January 4th, 1965, Johnson gave his “Great Society” speech (state of union)
Massive government spending programs:
+ War on Poverty
+ Medicare and Medicaid
+ Immigration Reform
+ Education and Public Broadcasting
+ Uphold and enforce Civil Rights protections
Basically an expansion of FDR’s “New Deal” Policies
Early 1960’s “Freedom Riders” chartered buses
Went through South trying to end segregation & Anglo mobs were violent so JFK sent Federal Marshalls to protect the “Freedom Riders”.
April, 1963, MLK Jr. launched peaceful demonstrations in Birmingham, AL
Police & authorities responded w/ extreme, high-pressured water hoses. Hosed sit-in protestors
Americans watched TV & Public Opinion changed
Several Race Riots that took place in the 1960’s
- From NY to LA, CA
Violence – Both Anglo-Ameri. & African-Ameri.
1964, North Vietnamese gunboats attack the destroyer U.S.S. Maddox
No casualties, but the U.S. sends planes to attack North Vietnam defenses
This becomes known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident
1. Led to the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution that Congress passed on August 7th, 1964
2. Led to President Lyndon Johnson’s “blank check”
3. Led to the escalation of American involvement in the Vietnam War
To use U.S. Military to stop communist aggression
During Johnson’s second term, more & more US soldiers were sent to Vietnam
End of 1965 - 184,000 U.S. soldiers in Vietnam
End of 1968 - 586,000 U.S. soldiers in Vietnam
The economic costs of the war were tremendous
The U.S. was spending $30 billion each year
U.S. soldier deaths were rising each year as well
1966 – 6, 143 U.S. soldiers died / 1967 – 11,153 U.S. soldiers died / 1968 – 16,592 U.S. soldiers died
Americans frustrated as deaths totals increased
Located mostly in jungles in & near South Vietnam
Order Question: James Meredith tried to attend the University of Mississippi, the “I have a Dream” speech was given, martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated, the Civil Rights Act is passed
More than 80,000 communist troops attacked more than 100 towns & cities. After two months of fighting, the Tet Offensive was defeated
- Even though Tet Offensive was halted, it felt like an American Defeat
- Media TV Crews were on Live TV during the battle
The Tet Offensive proved the war was not coming to a close
- Americans felt like they had been lied to
- American support for the war dropped tremendously
- Americans wanted out of the war
With LBJ not running, Former Attorney General Robert Kennedy seemed the most obvious choice
However, June 5th, 1968, he was assassinated
-Dem., chose Hubert Humphrey, from Minnesota
- George Wallace, Alabama, offered 3rd party choice. American Independent Party. Promoted segregation
Republicans turned to former Vice President Richard Nixon
+Campaign Issue was primarily Vietnam War
However, Civil Rights was a close second
+Violent Anti-War Demonstrations took place at National Conventions
- Results: Nixon won with 301 Electoral Votes to Humphrey’s 191
Required corporations on federal payroll to establish “goals and timetables”
- This was for hiring African-American employees
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created
- Designed to protect Human Health & Environment
This enforced OSHA formed on December 29th, 1970
Clean Air Act was signed
-Greatly expanded Fed Power to protect environment
Endangered Species Act was signed
- Enhanced Federal Power to protect animals
- Nixon would also increase appropriations (money) for Medicare and Medicaid
+ Since, the U.S. Gold reserve was rapidly declining
Aug. 1971, Nixon removed the U.S. Dollar from Gold
Gold no longer backs the US Dollar (off the Gold Standard)
+ US Government backs the U.S. Dollar = fiat currency
Using U.S. systems, Free Market, Labor, Military, ect.
+ The U.S. Government guarantees its value and worth
Most nations in world (today) have a fiat currency
July, 1969, Nixon announces a policy of Vietnamization "Nixon Doctrine"
- Eventually, the plan called for 540,000 U.S. Soldiers to be brought home
They would be replaced by U.S. trained Vietnamese Soldiers
Nixon appealed to the Silent Majority
These were Americans who quietly supported the Vietnam War
What happened after Nixon sent U.S. troops into Laos and Cambodia to halt the enemy use of the Ho Chi Minh Trail? (3)
- The Media reported to American People
- Americans became infuriated
- This sparked more Anti-War Protests
Know these Amendments: 26th Amendment, 25th Amendment, 24th Amendment, 23rd Amendment
Order Question: the Tet Offensive, the Kent State University Incident, U.S. Astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin land on the moon, Congress passes the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
The Pentagon Papers revealed real intentions of U.S., such as:
+To avoid a humiliating defeat
+To expand the war
+The Secret CIA assassination of South Vietnam’s President
These were never reported to the media
The American People felt “lied to”
Became the credibility gap
China and Soviet Union no longer allies.
The Truman Doctrine became out of date
Split because different national interests and diff interpreration of communist ideoligies.
Timeline Question: Nixon agreed to a cease-fire that pulled out all remaining U.S. Troops in Vietnam, Nixon goes to China to meet with premier Mao Zedong, The Military (selective service) Draft ended, Congress passed The War Powers Act, Israel and Arab Nations went to war in the “Yom Kippur War”, U.S. Vice President Spiro Agnew resigns
Why did Gerald Ford believe he should pardon Richard Nixon?
- To get America moving forward
- To avoid issues of a potential trial of Nixon
- To stop all questions regarding Nixon; he had to govern
- Nixon resigned as President and was disgraced
- How much more punishment did he merit?
republican: Gerald Ford
Democrats: Jimmy Carter
Issue: Scandals, bringing trust back to the White House, Economy, and Cold War.
Results: Carter won 39th President
1979, Carter reorganized the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
He created two new departments on Oct. 17th, 1979
-The Department of Education
-The Department of Health and Human Services
Carter urged for Human Rights in America & around the world. For African Rights in Rhodesia, Africa
- Under pressure, nation changed name to Zimbabwe. Nation achieved Dem Independence
Dec. 2nd, 1980, Carter signed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act
Set aside 103 million acres of national park land in Alaska
the goal was to "conserve" energy
Led to the creation of the following:
National Energy Act
Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act
What was the incident the specifically resulted in the military disaster Operation Eagle Claw?
- This took place on April 24th, 1980
- This military operation was a disaster
- Six helicopters were sent in
- Due to a very fine sand cloud (haboob) one crashed
- Eight American soldiers were killed
- Americans blamed Carter
- Return the Shah (Pahlevi) to Iran for trial
- Return of Shah’s (Pahlevi) Wealth to Iranian People
- Admission of guilt and apology from U.S. for past actions in Iran
- A U.S. promise to not interfere in Iran in the future
Carter refused and froze Iranian assets (Iran responded by not exporting oil to US)
+ In office a little over two months, he was shot by the deranged John Hinckley
- 1 of 6 shots entered under armpit, lodged in lung
+ Reagan was taken to George Washington University Hospital
- Before his operation, Reagan said “Please tell me you’re all Republicans”
- Reagan would recovered in 12 days & returned to office in 79 days
- The near death of Reagan inspired Americans
His humor and positive outlook increased his approval rating increased to 73%
Reagan’s Star Wars (SDI) would lead to new openness and reform with the Soviets
- Glasnost - Openness
- Perestroika - Reform
- Storage and examination of Roswell (1947) Alien spacecraft and bodies
- Testing of aircraft based on alien technology
- Meetings and communications w/ extraterrestrials
- Development of energy or strategic defense initiative (SDI) weapons
- Development of time travel & teleportation technology
- Activities w/ One World Government or Majestic 12
- Various theories and debates remain unsolved
Sign up for free and study better.
Get started today!