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Texas State University-San Marcos
Exam 4 Review
Exam 4 Review
Texas State University-San Marcos
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Biology: Life on Earth with Physiology (9th Edition)
What is gene regulation?
The ability to control which genes are used or not at any given time.
What are the 3 levels at which gene regulation occurs?
transcription, translation, and protein activity
What happens at the level of transcription in gene regulation?
Regulation determines which genes in a cell are expressed.
DNA -> mRNA
What happens at the level of translation in gene regulation?
Regulation determines how much protein is made from a particular type of mRNA.
What happens at the level of protein activity in gene regulation?
Regulation determines how long the protein lasts in a cell.
What is genetic engineering?
What was the goal of the Human Genome Project?
To determine the nucleotide sequence of all the DNA in our entire set of genes (our genome)
What did the Human Genome Project discover?
That there are 20,00-25,000 human genes and they only make up 2% of the total DNA.
What are the main goals of modern agriculture?
To grow as much food as possible, as cheaply as possible, with minimal loss from pests.
How are the goals of modern agriculture achieved?
Through genetic engineering.
What is recombinant DNA?
DNA altered to contain genes or portions of genes from different organisms.
What are transgenic/GMOs?
Plants or animals that have modified DNA.
What are benefits of transgenic crops?
The decrease in applications of pesticides which saves fuel, labor, and money.
Need less water and nutrients so can be sold cheaper.
What can genetically modified plants be used for?
To produce medicines
What are benefits of transgenic animals?
To produce Kevlar or medicines and to produce more milk.
What are drawbacks of GMOs?
GMO's can cause allergies, illnesses, organ failure, cancer, and death in those who consume them.
What's a safety concern about GMOs?
They are harmful and yet are still on the market and make up the vast majority of US crops.
What is puberty?
A stage of development with rapid growth and the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics in both sexes.
What does brain maturation at puberty cause?
The release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).
What do LH and FSH stimulate?
Testosterone, estrogen, and steroid hormones.
What is testosterone?
The male sex hormones that is produced by the testes.
What is estrogen?
The female sex hormone that is produced by the ovaries.
What does testosterone and estrogen make?
Steroid hormones (lipids)
What is a follicle?
The egg and the layer of smaller cells surrounding the egg.
What is the corpus luteum?
A temporary gland that is formed from follicle cells that are left behind and enlarge.
What does the corpus luteum secrete?
Both estrogen and progesterone/
What do estrogen and progesterone do?
Stimulate the development of the uterine lining and help control the menstrual cycle
What happens in the uterine tube?
The egg encounters the sperm and gets fertilized.
What's the endometrium?
The inner lining of the uterus that is richly supplied with blood vessels and nutrients.
What's the cervix?
A ring of connective tissue that encircle a tiny opening that closes off the outer end of the uterus.
Where does CG come from?
The corpus luteum.
Where does CG go?
It is excreted in the urine. This is how urine strip pregnancy tests work
What happens when the egg is not fertilized?
-The corpus luteum disintegrates
-Estrogen and Progesterone levels fall
-thickened endometrium disintegrates
-uterus contracts and squeezes out excess endometrial tissue
What is menstruation?
When the uterus contracts and squeezes out the excess endometrial tissue, causing the flow of tissue and blood.
Where is the acrosome located?
Atop the nucleus in a specialized lysosome.
What does the acrosome contain and why?
Contains enzymes to dissolve protective layers around the egg, enabling the sperm to enter and fertilize it.
Where's the mitochondria located in sperm?
Behind the head in the midpiece.
What is the function of mitochondria in sperm?
To provide the energy needed to move the tail (long flagellum).
What's the purpose of the flagellum on sperm?
To propel the sperm through the female reproductive tract.
What's the scrotum?
A pouch that hangs outside the main body cavity.
Why does the scrotum external and not internal?
Because the external scrotum keeps the testes a few degrees cooler than the body.
What do cooler temps promote in the scrotum and testes?
Where are the testes located?
In the scrotum
What's the epididymis and vas deferens and what do they do?
They are tubes that store and conduct sperm.
What is the function of the urethra?
To conduct urine out of the body and sperm out of the body during ejaculation.
What are the 3 glands that are important for semen?
Seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral gland.
What is the job of the seminal vesicle?
To counter the acidic vagina with basic pH and the fluid that is high in sugar
What's the job of the prostate gland?
To allow sperm to move more freely due to fluid with a basic pH and consistency
What's the job of the bulbourethral glands?
To neutralize traces of acidic urine that may be left in the urethra.
The prevention of pregnancy
What's a vasectomy?
An operation in which the vas deferens leading from the testis can be severed and tied, clamped, or sealed.
What's tubal ligation?
An operation in which the uterine tubes can be clamped or cut
What do hormone treatments do?
Prevent ovulation with just enough progesterone
What do barrier methods do?
Prevent sperm and egg from meeting through the use of male and female condoms
What do IUD's do?
Prevents implantation if sperm does fertilize the egg
What is spermicide and what does it do?
Comes as a gel or foam and kills sperm on contact.
What does the "morning after" pill do?
Acts primarily by preventing ovulation, but may also prevent implantation.
What are the symptoms of Gonorrhea and is it curable?
Symptoms are painful urination and discharge in both males and females.
Treated with antibiotics (curable)
What are the symptoms of Syphilis and is it curable?
Symptoms are ulcers or lesions on outer sexual organs or even on cervix, rash, fever, pregnancy complications, neurological symptoms, and even death.
Treated with antibiotics (curable)
What are the symptoms of chlamydia and is it curable?
Symptoms are fever, painful urination, burning, and discharge in males and females.
Is curable through antibiotics
Can cause eye infections and blindness
What does HIV/AIDS do and is there a cure?
Causes immune deficiency and is fatal in all cases.
No cure but some treatments can slow the progression
What are symptoms of genital herpes and is it curable?
Symptoms are painful, burning, or itching blisters on the genitals.
No cure, but antiviral drugs can help reduce the severity.
What is trichomoniasis?
Small single-celled organism that causes itching and burning in genitals and discharge
What do crab lice do?
Live and lay eggs in pubic hair. Can also spread other infectious diseases. killed with insecticides and not prevented by condoms.
What were Watson and Crick developing?
A 3D model of DNA
What did Wilkins and Franklin discover?
How to take x-ray pictures of microscopic things
What lead to the discovery of the DNA structure?
The collaboration between Watson, Crick, Wilkins, and Franklin.
What are the three components of a nucleotide?
Phosphate, sugar (monosaccharide), and a base
What are the four bases of a nucleotide?
Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Thymine (T), and Cytosine (C).
What's the shape of DNA?
What's the double helix DNA structure made of?
Two nucleotide strands that connect together (like a ladder) and the helix is when the nucleotide strands are then twisted like a corkscrew or staircase.
What makes the backbone?
The sugar and phosphate. The phosphate group of one nucleotide bonds to the sugar of the next nucleotide in the same strand. (Covalent bond)
What are the complimentary base pairs?
What does DNA replication produce?
Two DNA double helices, each with one original strand and one new strand
What are the 3 ingredients for DNA replication?
Parental DNA strands
What are helicases?
Enzymes that pull apart the parental DNA and unzip the double helix by breaking the hydrogen bonds
What's semiconservative replication?
When the resulting DNA has one old parental strand and one new strand.
What are the 5 types of mutations?
1. point mutations
When do point mutations occur?
Change in a single base pair (to individual nucleotide)
When do Insertion Mutations occur?
Occur when one or more new nucleotide pairs are inserted into the DNA double helix
When do deletion mutations occur?
Occur when one or more nucleotide pairs are REMOVED from the double helix
When does inversion occur?
Occurs when a piece of DNA is CUT OUT of a chromosome, TURNED AUND, and RE-INSERTED into the gap.
When does translocation occur?
Occurs when a CHUNK of DNA is REMOVED from one chromosome and ATTACHED to ANOTHER
What does Messenger RNA do?
Carries DNA gene info from nucleus to cytoplasm
What does Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) do?
Forms ribosomes: where proteins are synthesized
What does Transfer RNA (tRNA) do?
Brings amino acids to the ribosome
What are the bases of RNA?
A, U, C, G
U instead of T
What is transcription?
When the information in a gene is copied into RNA. (DNA -> RNA)
What are the 3 stages of transcription?
What happens in initiation?
The DNA helix is split near the start of the gene (unzipped)
What happens in elongation?
RNA polymerases pair RNA nucleotides with the DNA until the end of the gene
A with U, C with G
Only one side of the DNA is copied
What happens in termination?
Short series of DNA bases (termination signal) signals the end of the gene
mRNA strand is released and DNA re-zips
What are exons?
Strands of DNA that truly code for a protein
What are exons interrupted by?
What are introns?
What happens to Introns?
They are clipped out of mRNA which is RNA Splicing.
What is Translation?
when mRNA, tRNA, amino acids, and a ribosome synthesize with OPPOSING base pairs
What happens when RNA is "translated" to proteins?
Changing from one kind of biological molecule (nucleic acids) to another (proteins)
What are mutations?
Changes in the DNA sequence caused by mistakes during replication or by various environmental factors
What are the 5 categories of mutations?
Inversions, translocations, deletions, insertions, substitutions
When do inversions and translocations occur?
Occur when CHUNKS of DNA are broken apart and REATTACHED
When does deletion occur in translations?
Occurs when ONE or MORE nucleotides are added to the gene sequence
When does insertion in translation occur?
Occurs when one or more nucleotides are ADDED to the gene sequence
What do deletions and insertions in translations cause?
What are frameshift mutations?
A misreading of a gene's codons during transcription or replication
What happens when a substitution occurs?
An incorrect nucleotide takes the place of a correct one.
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