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Central New Mexico Community College
Central New Mexico Community College
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Which portal of entry is most often used by microorganisms?
Mucous membranes of the respiratory route.
Which of the following diseases utilizes the respiratory tracts as its portal of entry?
One disease that can be transmitted by the parenteral route is...
Which is the portal of entry for chlamydia?
When pathogens enter the skin, they usually...
Enter through the hair follicles and sweat ducts.
All gram-negative bacteria contain
What is the action of kinases?
Break down fibrin
Which organism produces an exotoxin?
Which organism produces erythrogenic toxin?
Colstridium tetani causes the disease tetanus by producing a(n)
Which virus irreversibly stops mitosis?
Herpes simplex virus
Which virus causes basophilic inclusion bodies to accumulate in the nucleus?
Which of the following refers to the visible effects of a viral infection?
What are the granules found in the cytoplasm or nucleus of some virus-infected cells called?
Why is it difficult for antibodies to destroy HIV?
They cannot reach the binding site for CD4 on the surface of the virus.
Which of the following does NOT contribute to fungal disease?
What type of organism produces saxitoxin?
Which of the following toxins is an alkaloid that can cause hallucinations resembling those produced by LSD?
Which of the following eukaryotic organisms can attach to a host by a sucking disc?
What is the causative agent of elephantiasis?
Arthropods provide a portal of exit for microbes in
Sneezing is a portal of exit for the...
Pathogens that are discharged from the respiratory tract cause what disease?
Infections transmitted from the skin include...
Which of the following diseases can be transmitted by a biting insect?
Septic shock can result from using antibiotics to treat...
Gram-negative bacterial infections
Which of the following prevents microorganisms from entering the lower respiratory tract?
Which of the following is NOT part of the body's first line of defense?
The so-called ciliary escalator functions by
Moving microbes towards the throat
The pH of skin that is believed to discourage the growth of many microorganisms is
3 to 5
Which of the following bacteria neutralizes stomach acid, allowing the bacterium to grow in the stomach?
What do the granules released by NK cells contain?
Granzymes and perforin
Which leukocytes function to produce toxins against certain parasites?
Which of the following is classified as an agranulocyte?
What substances released by damaged cells intensify the effects of inflammation?
During inflammation, there is activation and increased concentration of a group of proteins in the blood called...
The attraction of phagocytes to microorganisms is called
Which macrophages are located in certain tissues and organs of the body?
Fixed macrophages that are found in the liver are called...
The indigestible material in the phagolysosome is called the...
Which of the following organisms produces membrane attack complexes?
Complement proteins are numbered
C1 to C9
Interferons are produced by certain animal cells after being stimulated by
How many principal types of interferons do humans have?
Which antimicrobial peptide do sweat glands produce?
Some bacteria evade the complement system by means of their
Which host defense is more effective against gram-positive bacteria than gram-negative bacteria?
Which chemical factor digests peptidoglycan in perspiration, tears, and saliva?
What inhabits cell wall synthesis, forms pores in plasma membranes, and destroys DNA and RNA in microbes?
What process intensifies the effects of interferons?
What do the activated fixed macrophages secrete to bring about vasodilation, increased permeability, and clot formation?
The high temperature in a fever increases the production of
How many classes of antibodies are there?
How many antigen-binding sites do most human antibodies have?
A typical antibody monomer has
two identical light chains and two identical heavy chains.
Generally, antibodies recognize and interact with specific regions on antigens called...
The stem of the Y-Shaped antibody monomer is called the _________ region.
Which receptors act as warning flags of an invading organism?
An antigenic foreign substance that has a low molecular weight is called a(n)
Most antigens are composed of
proteins or large polysaccharides
In opsonization, antigens that are coated with antibodies are susceptible to
IgG antibodies inactivate microbes by blocking their attachment to host cells in the binding process known as
Approximately how many genes are associated with the diversity of the human immune system for recognizing the vast amount of possible antigens?
What is the activation and proliferation of specific B cells termed?
Plasma cells are formed after the proliferation of which type of cell?
A collection of genes that encode molecules of genetically diverse glycoproteins found on mammalian nucleated cells is called the
major histocompatibility complex
__________ is the changing of antibody classes without changing the antigenic specificity.
Maturation of the T cells takes place in the
Where are MHC II proteins found, and what cells recognize them?
APCs; T helper cells
T cells are classified by certain glycoproteins on their surface called
clusters of differentiation
Which cells combat autoimmunity as their primary function?
T regulatory cells
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes attach to the target cell and release
The relative amount of antibody in the serum is referred to as the
The antibody that is formed in the secondary response is mostly
A person who has had measles will develop ________ immunity.
Naturally acquired active
A toxoid, such as the tetanus toxoid, conveys _______ immunity.
artificially acquired active
What type of immunity is conveyed when exposed individuals are given antibodies by injection?
artificially acquired passive
Which antigen-presenting cells play a key role in helping your immune system differentiate self from non self?
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