Center of front tire to center of back tire.
*typically not gathered at a scene, they mask one another.
1. Tire Track Width
3. Turning Diameter
4. Relative positions of multiple turning tracks
1. Issued in the name of the state of Texas
2. Must identify what is to be seized or where (specifically) is to be searched
3. Must be signed by a magistrate
1. Consent- must be legit, can be withdrawn
2. Exigent Circumstances- clear and present danger
3. Stop & Frisk/Terry Stop
4. Plain View
5. Automobile in Motion
1. Probable Cause
2. Authority Search
3. Securing the Scene
4. Document the scene
5. Collect physical and latent evidence
6. Document, mark, and perserve evidence
7. Release the scene
3. Polar Coordinates
1. Assist the victim and prevent any changes to victim
2. Search for and arrest the suspect if that person is still on the scene
3. Detain any witnesses
4. Protect the crime scene
5. All movements, alterations, or changes made to the crime scene should be noted and communicated to crime scene investigations.
1. Information Management
2. Manpower Management
3. Technology Management
4. Logistics Management
1. Physical evidence recognitions
3. Proper evidence collection
6. Scene reconstruction
1. Case #
2. Item #
4. Date & Time
5. Who Collected it
Relies on fluorescence of materials.
Examples: Biological Stains, Fingerprints, Gun Shot Residue, Broken Glass, Hair Fibers
Forensic Photography Methods
Identification of footwear
Elimination of Footwear
Participation in the crime
Location of impressions
Rebuttal or confirmation of Alibis
Linking scenes of crime
# of perpetrators
Photographs taken directly over evidence.
-Useful for detail
1. Outer Cuticle
3. Central Medulla
Derived in whole from animal or plant sources.
EX. wool, mohair, cashmere, furs, and cotton.
Straight to wavy
Fairly evenly distributed, fine pigment
Moderate shaft diameter, with little variation
The cross-section is oval
Coarse and straight shaft, with little diameter variation
Dense pigment distributed unevenly
Presence of a continuous medulla
The cross-section is round
Dense pigment distributed unevenly
Variations in the diameter of the shaft
Fragmented or absent medullae
The cross-section is flattened
Characteristics of the medulla
The scale patterns of the cuticle
Can last for 6 years. The hair must be pulled to be lost. Follicle is attached to the root by the papilla.
*If pulled a follicular tag is left, which can be used later to test the mitochondrial DNA
Lasts only 2-3 weeks
Hair keeps growing but the bulb shrinks
Lasts for 2-6 months
Hair becomes naturally loose and sheds
The main body of the hair, composed of spindle-shaped cortical cells.
Contains pigment bodies, which contains the melanin and cortical fusi.
Small, dark, granulated structures that vary in size, color, and distribution.
*Typically distributed toward the cuticle in humans
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