cause decline of Trinity; two expressions of rationalism
what is deism?
anti-miraculous, absentee God
reason and true religion are the same thing
God is creator, sets universe in order and in motion and then lets it run
Deist contributions: ethical awareness and humanitarian concern
Scripture is authoritative and not authoritative
Trinity falls by the wayside-poorly attested in Scripture
how is Deism authoritative and not authoritative?
authoritative-affirms God as creator and its moral and ethical teachings are valuable
not authoritative- Jesus not God
what is unitarianism?
does not affirm the Trinity, but the unity, or single personhood, of God
God is present unlike Deism
Jesus is example not God
what did the Persecution of Hussites do?
influx of Moravians and Bohemians in 1722 in Germany
who is Zinzendorf?
elector, allowed Moravians and bohemians to establish a village(Herrnhut)
what was German Pietism like?
Daily worship, strict discipline, though without vows or celibacy, arranged marriages, children raised away from their parents
where did the German Pietist mission?
hard places ( Greenland, Guiana, Egypt, and S. Africa, England and N. America
patient and devoted
ignored racial distinctions
what happened in 1742?
Moravian Church recognized in Prussia
what happened in 1749?
Moravian church recognized in England
and part of state church in Germany
what are the dates of Voltaire?
what happened to Voltaire?
incarcerated in the Bastile; exile in England; response to absolutism, irrational religion, superstition, oppression, and unfair judicial system
what happened in 1734?
Letters of the English
praised English reasonableness-pluralism to Lock and Newton
what did France do in response to Letters of the English?
French translation outlawed and burnt
V's works adn enlightenment values were eventually celebrated
when did the great awakening start?
who was the preacher of Massachusetts?
who was the preacher of Wales?
Harrison Howell and Daniel Rowland
who was the preacher of England and America?
who was the preacher of Great Britain?
John and Charles Wesley
who is Jonathan Edwards?
what happened in 1734?
series of sermons, most famous, Sinners in the Hands of and Angry God
what was sinners in the hands of an angry God about?
just wrath of God against sin and contrasted it with the provision of God for salvation
what happened in 1737?
John Edwards-a faithful narrative of the surprising work or God in the Conversion of Many Hundred Sould in Northampton
who is George Whitefield?
touring precher, eventually moving outdoors when churches overflowed or didn't open their door to him
who is John Wesley?
what happened in 1735 to John Wesley?
Boat pietist; Land-moravian Spangenberg
Denies future wife sacrament- saying her heart wasnt in the right place
what happened in 1738 to John Wesley?
Moravian influence of Peter Bohler
taught self-surrendering faith, an instantaneous conversion, and a joy in believing
John had religiou experience at anglican society
what happenedd in 1739 to John Wesley?
invited by Whitefield to field preach
early on he will be attacked by mobs
breaks with Moravians and organizes his first "Methodist" society, which has smaller bands
what happens in 1742 to John Wesley?
classes of about 12 people, each under a leader, becoming a characteristic feature of Methodism, though older bands continue.
what did John Wesley believe in?
Preaching by men adn women though not ordained, mostly because few clergy sympathetic with the movement
Christian Perfectionism-Wesley believed it possible for a Xn to attain right ruling motives--love to God and to his neighbor--and that such attainment brought freedom form sin
Salvation evidences itself in a life of active, strenuous to the will of God
Arminian not Calvinist; Catholic spirit
what happened in 1769 to John Wesley?
missionaries officialy sent to America
what happens in 1784?
ordains ministers to send to America
what happens in 1795?
Methodist church officially established in England
what was John Wesley's sermon style?
instead of reading a sermon that advanced a theological argument that might be quite dense, pastors sought to elicit a response, a response that was more than mental assent, but one that included a heartfelt decission that would find further expression in the daily live of their parishioners, thus manifesting evidence of God's grace
who is Charles Wesley?
who were Pietists?
spener and wesleys
who were rationalists?
Diesm and Unitarianism
who were skeptics?
who were spiritualists?
who is Frederick the Great?
King of prussia in 1740
Reinstalls Christian Wolff(deist) at Halle University
makes Voltaire his chamberlain
what are the dates for Hermann Reimarus?
who is Hermann Reimarus?
deist quest for the historical Jesus. thought new testament was a fabrication
who is Denis Diderot?
first modern encyclopedia(including articles from Deists
what are the dates of David Hume?
who is David Hume?
atheist and third of British empiricists (locke, berkeley, and Hume)
developed systematic natural philosophy
challenges Xn and philosophical proofs
what happens in 1755?
Lisbon, Portugal destroyed by earthquake
Voltaire-no good God who would guide virtuous and punish sinful; God is not in control and people are essentially weak and helpless
what are the dates of Jean-Jacques Rousseau?
who is Jean-Jacques Rousseau?
a new romantic, who said that people needed to look to nature for their answers
the earthquake was an argument against people living in cities
what did Rousseau believe?
Deist-more emotional about God; Gods presence in creation and in humans
repudiated idea of original sin;
humans needed to get rid of all the accretions of society, returning to a more natural order
Creation good because God is good.
what is Romanticism?
more to humans than cold reason.
Who is Robert Burns?
British Romantic Poet
Auld Lang Syne
To a Mouse
To a Louse
who is William Wordsworth?
Lyrical Ballads (with Coleridge)
The prelude & Lines Composed a few miles above Tintern Abbey
who is Samual Taylor Coleridge?
Rime of the Ancient Mariner
who is Ralph Waldo Emerson?
"Nature"-1836, transcendentalism, espousing the individual's intuition vs. established religion
who is Henry David Thoreau?
Walden and Civil Disobedience
who is Nathaniel Hawthorne?
twice-told tales, dark romanticism
Scarlet Letter, The House of Seven Gables
what is the period of Revolutions?
what happens to Catholicism?
catholic nations make bishops answerable to the crown rather than to Rome
what happens to the Jesuits during the Revolution period?
hated throughout Europe-outlawed by 1760s
what happend in 1773?
Pope forced to dissolve Jesuits
what happens in 1814?
what happens in 1776?
Declaration of Independence- all men are created equal-deist Thomas Jefferson
what happens in 1787?
what happens in 1791?
Bill of Rights- provides for religious liberty
who is George Liele?
freed Slave; first black ordained by Baptist in Georgie to preach
what happened in 1773?
George Liele ordained in Georgia
what happens in 1780?
George Liele goes to Jamaica-First American overseas missionary
Started a church there
what happened in 1804?
new jersey the last northern state to abolish slavery, doing so completely in 1846
what happens in 1816?
African Methodist Episcopal Church- first, major black denomination
what happened in 1829?
Oblate Sisters of Providence- first black monastic order- founded in Baltimore for care and education of black girls
Joseph smith discovers American tribes are the lost tribes of Israel-Moroni returns from dead to tell him so
what happens in 1827?
Mormon Church organized
what happens in 1830?
Book of Mormon published
what happens in 1840?
baptism for the dead
what happens in 1843?
polygamy is common
what happens in 1844?
Joseph Smith dies
what is Anglican?
reform of prison and schools
what happened in 1784?
MP William Wilberforce- member of Parliament
what happens in 1807?
Slave trade abolished, slavery still continues
what happens in 1833?
Slavery abolished in most of british empire
when do anglicans get to america?
what do Anglicans do in america?
declare independence and become Episcopalians
what are the dates of William Carey?
who is William Carey?
Father of Modern Missions
what happened in 1792?
William Cary helped found Baptist Missionary Society, originally known as Paricular Baptist Society for Propagating the Gospel among the Heathen
what happens 1793?
William Carey missionary in India- translated Bible
what happened 1801?
Britain and Ireland become United Kingdom
what happened in 1813?
Baptist union- national organization of churches and ministers, particular only; Baptist organized
what happened in 1891?
merger of general and particular
who is Danielle O'Connell?
what happens in 1789?
Declare Rights of Man
what happens in 1799?
Napoleon becomes first consul (chief magistrate) and later emperor
what happens in 1804?
Napoleon emperor of Austria
what happens in 1814?
Napoleon defeated by rest of Europe
what happens in 1800-1810s?
South American gains freedom
who is Immanuel Kant?
what is Critique of Pure Reason?
Perception from without+form given by innate laws of mind=knowledge
what are the points of Critique of Pure Reason?
We can only know what our minds make of what has come into them from without
Contra deist-no such thing as pure reason. Reason has its limits
Absolute knowledge of what is beyond experience is unattainable by purely intellectual processes
what is Critique of Practical Reason?
Answering with conduct means one feels a categorical imperative- a command that is without conditions-the sense of do your duty
what are the points of Critique of Practical Reason?
If humans ought to do their duty, they can>freedom>sphere of moral order
Immortality provides for self to reach highest good
God-God exists only as a hypothesis in pure reason, but in practical reason, God becomes a conviction
what happened in 1799?
Religion: Speeches to its Cultured Despisers
what is Religion: Speeches to its Cultured Despisers about?
Gave up the attempt to base religion on reason, be it pure or practical
Religion is not form of knowledge, system of morality, but a feeling
what happens 1821/22?
what is The Christian Faith about?
feeling=profound awareness of the existence of the One
on whom all existence depends. Its clear and specific content is our absolute dependence on God. It is not based on rational faculties or moral sentiment, but it does have significant consequences for our reasoning and ethics
what are the dates for Charles Darwin?
what did happened between 1831-1836?
Darwin sailing expedition on HMS Beagle
what happened in 1835?
Darwin was at the Galapagos Islands
what happened in 1859?
On the Origin of Species- finches closely related but adapted, natural selection, mutation
what happened in 1871?
The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex- applied to humans
when was the Second Great Awakening?
who is Charles Finney?
Father of Modern Revivalism
what happened in 1821?
Charles Finney quit law practice, and then set out on evangelistic tours
what are the New Measures of Charles Finney?
nothing new, Finney produced system designed to produce results
unseasonable hours for sevice
naming of specific individuals in prayer and sermons
allowed women to pray in meeting of mixed gender
taught Wesley perfectionism
what are Lectures on Revivals of Religion about?
Revivals would become customary periodic celebrations in many churches as a result of the Second Great Awakening
what was taking up causes in the Second Great Awakening?
American Anti-Slavery Society organized--a great rift will grow between northern and southern evangelicals over the issue of slavery
what happens from 1861-1865?
Civil War in U.S.
what happens in 1862-1863?
what happens in 1833 in the Oxford movement?
John Keble-Assize Sermon on "National Apostasy"
who is is John Keble?
begins Oxford movement
Britain an ex-Xn nation, thrown off Episcopal Rule
reducing by 10 the number of bishops in the Irish church
what is the relationship between Anglican Church to Roman Catholicism?
Three branches of Ancient Xnity= Orthodox, Anglican, and Catholicism
who is John Henry Newman?
39 Articles(1563) and Council of Trent compatible
1845-Newman becomes Catholic
what happens in 1835?
D.F. Strauss (Germany)
miracles are myth
what are the dates of Soren Kierkegaard?
who is Sorn Kierkegaard?
Father of Existentialism: stressed paradoxical and existential aspects of Xn faith
what is paradoxical?
God became man and bridge gap. It makes no sense, but if it did, It wouldnt be divine or worth knowing
what is existential?
truth that is true for me
what happens in 1845?
Potato Blight in Ireland
Many Catholics emigrate to England and America
what happens in 1839-1842?
what is Opium War?
British go to war against China, asserting the right of British merchants to import opium into China, despite the Chinese Imperial decrees that forbid it. The British Win
what are the treaties because of the Opium war?
British will get Hong Kong
British open 5 ports to British trade
made provision for the presence of missionaries
what are the dates for David Livingstone?
1813-1873 to Africa
who is David Livingstone?
Brittish missionary and expolorer, taking Christianity, civilization, and commerce, and to natives; first European to see what is now called Victoria Fall-eventually the Brits and other nations go for territory in Africa
what happens in 1853-1854?
Commodore Matthew Perry-display power; opening of Japan
what happens in 1859?
America in Japan
discover vestiges of Christianity from Xavier's time treaties mixed results with no real success
what happens in 1848?
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
Religion is the opiate of the masses
what happens in 1859?
Darwin-On the Origin of Species--animals; adaptation, natural selection, and mutation
what happens in 1871?
Darwin-The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex-humans
what are the dates for Pius IX?
what are the dates for Vatican I?
Papal Infallibility-ex Cathedra
what happened in 1854?
Dogma of Immaculate Conception- Blessed virgin Mary conceived without original sin
what happened in 1864?
Syllabus of Errors-opposed such things as
separation of church and state
freedom of worship
freedom of press
public schools under state supervision
who is Otto Von Bismark?
unites Germany under his rule
Balance of power in Europe until 1914
Persecutes Catholics for a while Centre Party
what are the dates for Dwight L. Moody?
what are the dates for Ira Sankey?
what happened in 1872?
Moody and Sankey go to England-beginning of his revivals
Continues preaching in US
what happened in 1886?
Chicago Bible Institue
Moody Bible Institute: education, broadcasting, and publishing
What happened in the 1840's?
the holiness movement; renewed emphasis in Wesley's Xn perfectionism
second work of grace
what were the revivals of the 1840s?
Baptism by the holy spirit
filled with the holy spirit-instantaneous conversions accompanied by radical transformations
who started the Salvation army?
William Booth and Catherine Munford
what were the goals of The Salvation Army?
spiritual and physical welfare of the urban poor--Food, shelter, work, and so forth. No alcohol, strict discipline
in the US in 1880s
what is Pentocostalism?
fastest growing form of Christianity ever.
where does Pentecostalism start?
William Seymour (black minister) in California
what happens in 1905?
William Seymour is dismiss because of Pentecostal doctrine included women
what happened in 1906?
Azusa Street Mission in LA- Pentecostal fire, a third blessing, baptism in the Holy Spirit
what happens in 1906-1909?
black and white, various denominations origin of most charismatic groups
what are the mixed responses of Pentecostalism?
Holiness churches split
Traditional churches split
Disagreement over Trinity versus Unity
what is Assembly of God?
Pentecostal denomination in US urban and rural populations, missionaries overseas
what is the mid 1800s reaction to Protestant Liberalism?
Age or reason>Deism, Unitarianism, Atheism> Historical and critical studies of Scripture in Europe
what is Nietzsche?
God is dead
what is historical-critical studies?
questioned historical authenticity of Bible, denied extraordinary and miraculous, and held great optimism concerning humans and their capabilities to usher in a new age of joy, peace, and abundance
what are examples of Historical-critical studies?
missions, Livingstone, industrial revolution, Darwins theory starting to come forth
what did protestant liberals do?
responded to intellectual challenges of their time, like, Philo, Justin Martyr, and Clement of Alexandria
what does fundamentalism do?
assault on christianity
what happens in 1878-1897?
1895-meeting of evangicals at the Niagara Bible Conference at Niagara Falls, New York
what are the 5 fundamentals the cannot be denied without falling into the error of liberalism?
inerracy of scripture
divinity of Jesus
Jesus' death as substitutionary atonement
Jesus' physical resurrection and impending return
what was the first denomination to take up fundamentalism?
Presbyterian, then spread particularly in the South
what are The Fundamentals: A Testimony to the Truth?
12 volume set containing 90 essays; were published by wealthy businessmen
what is the reaction to The Fundamentals: A Testimony to the Truth?
interrupted by 2 world wars, but forms the foundation for the fundamentalism controversy that will affect every major Protestant denomination in the the late 20 century
what does fundamentalism give rise to?
new interpretations of the Bible
what is dispensationalism?
the idead that the history of God's work is divided into different dispensations-seven to be exact
what happens in 1909?
what are the dates for Albert Schweitzer?
who is Albert Schweitzer?
Theologian, musician, philosopher, physician, and medical missionary
Quest of Historical Jesus
what is The Quest of the Historical Jesus?
1910 English translation of 1906 German book, edited and revised in 1913
Response to Protestant Liberalism
Reviewed all work on "historical Jesus" back to the late 1700s
what does Albert Schweitzer assert about Jesus?
must be interpreted in the light of Jesus' own convictions. Xns should take seriously the imminent end of the world just as Jesus and Paul did, and live accordingly
what are the dates for Walter Rauschenbusch?
what happened in 1892?
Brotherhood of the Kingdom
what is the Brotherhood of the Kingdom?
Challenged disparity between demands of gospel and misery in which the urban masses lived
Economic liberalism, the law of supply and demand that regulates the marketplace, results in great inequity and social injustice
Laws need to be enacted to help the poor and promote justice
what was the goal of the Brotherhood of the Kingdom?
move past individualistic salvation and toward realization of hte Kingdom of God on earth, hence a gospel that has ramifications for society, a social gospel
what are the dates for Pope Leo XIII?
what does Pope Leo XIII believe?
Catholicism's war with modernity not working and begins going in opposite direction of Pope Pius IX
what is Rerum Novarum?
supports workers' rights
calls for social justice
says both capitalism and socialism have flaws
calls for formation of Catholic labor unions
what does Pope Leo XIII do?
Instructs priests to organize welfare
opens vatican archives
encourages study of science and writing of unbiased history
allows Catholics in a limited way to take part in biblical scholarship
who is Alfred Loisy?
oversteps, accepting liberal skepticism about the Bible and orthodoxy
Condemned and excommunicated
what happens in 1910?
World Missionary Conference
a move toward
-cooperation in mission work
-social justice efforts
what happens between 1914-1918?
what are the results of WWI?
long downturn in churchgoing
As economies recover, people will trust in politics instead of religion
what happens in 1917?
what are the dates for Karl Barth?
what happens in 1922?
Karl Barth commentary on Romans (2nd revised edition)
what is the commentary of Romans 2nd edition about?
begins a new era of theology
focuses on God and lets God be God
God is gracious and judging
Barth's guide was Scripture
rejects Protestant Liberalism
what is Church Dogmatics?
13 volume magnum opus
what was Church Dogmatics about?
a Christocentric treatment of the World of God/Revelation, God, creation, and reconciliation
what is Karl Barth called?
Father of Neo-orthodoxy
a theology of the word-Jesus Christ
what happened in 1934?
Barmen Declaration-Karl Barth
what is the Barmen Declaration?
sent to Hitler
1935-Karl Barth forced to resign
what happens in 1919?
Prohibition legalized with the 18th amendment
what happened in 1925?
Scopes trial in Tennessee
what happened on October 29, 1929?
Black Tuesday begins Great Depression end in 1947
what happens in 1933?
Roosevelt repeals the amendment
when is the Vatican II?
what are the dates for Pope John XXIII?
what was the purpose of Vatican II?
aggiornamento-a bringing up to date
Christian and human unity
-Pacem in Terris-april 1963
what are the dates for Pope Paul VI?
what did Pope Paul do?
dialogue with the modern world
-the medicine of mercy
-council desired to express itself in direct biblical language
-dogmatice constitution on the Church
Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation
Dogmatic Constitution on Ecumenism
what is Dogmatic Constitution on the church?
infallibility of the bishops when exercising authority with the pope
clergy and laity
what is Dogmatic constitution on Divine revelation?
church tradition still affirmed
Tradition & Bible
attention to scripture, becomes central
mass in vernacular
what is Dogmatic Constitution of Ecumenism?
protestants and anglicans are christians
Eastern Orthodox Church is understood as being directly descendant from the apostles
when is Pacem in Terris?
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