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Post-traumatic stress disorder was first diagnosed as a mental disorder after this event in history
Recent research has determined which of the following regarding the etiology of anxiety disorders?
a factor known as anxiety sensitivity makes some vulnerable to anxiety disorders
Which of the following is not a factor that plays an important role in the etiology of somatoform disorders?
Which of the following class of mental disorders has the greatest prevalence in our culture?
Sam is despondent and his doctor is very concerned about the possibility of Sam committing suicide because Sam is in the age bracket when suicide is most common. How old is Sam?
Julie is experiencing delusions of grandeur and persecution along with a general lack of being in touch with reality. Julie is likely experiencing this type of mental disorder.
Jack is experiencing extreme motor rigidity, is very withdrawn from his surroundings much of the time, and at other times is mentally disorganized and fragmented. Jack is likely experiencing this subtype of schizophrenia.
Sanjay has a genetic predisposition to the mental disorder schizophrenia. Research has shown that he will increase his chances of manifesting the disorder through the recreation use of this drug.
Anna has been diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. She is likely to have all of the following symptoms, except _____.
high blood pressure
That psychologists use the concepts diagnosis, etiology, and prognosis when describing psychological disorders reflects the usefulness of the _____ of abnormal behavior.
Etiology refers to the
apparent cause of a condition
Which of the following terms refers to the future course of a condition or illness?
Dr. Underhill is reviewing the records from a patient who has just been referred for treatment. He is carefully considering the symptoms that have been documented, and is attempting to identify the type of psychological disorder the individual is most likely to have. Dr. Underhill is currently focusing on
Behavior that interferes with an individual's social or occupational functioning may be considered to be
The system used by psychologists to classify psychological disorders is the
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV)
The DSM classification system is said to be "multiaxial." This means that the system
asks for judgments about individuals on numerous separate dimensions
The anxiety disorder characterized by a chronic high level of anxiety that is exhibited by constant worrying and is often associated with physical symptoms such as heart palpitations and muscle tension is
generalized anxiety disorder
The cartoon character Charlie Brown, with his extreme dread, pessimism, worrying, and brooding, could be diagnosed as having
a generalized anxiety disorder
A phobic disorder is characterized by
persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation
While a person with _____ experiences anxiety only in certain specific situations, a person with _____ experiences anxiety in a wide variety of situations.
phobic disorder; generalized anxiety disorder
Agoraphobia is a fear of
going out to public places
Maria is afraid to leave her home to go shopping or even to go to work. She avoids all public places. MOST likely Maria has
An unwanted thought that repeatedly intrudes upon an individual's consciousness is called
Which of the following is NOT a common symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder?
One line of evidence that indicates biological factors contribute to anxiety disorders involves
the neurotransmitters GABA and serotonin
Ali has a psychological disorder, and her doctor has prescribed a drug that affects the levels of GABA in her nervous system. Based on this information, it is most likely that Ali is being treated for
an anxiety disorder
The cognitive approach to explaining the etiology of anxiety disorders maintains that people who are more likely to develop anxiety disorders tend to do all of the following EXCEPT
have a pessimistic explanatory style
The psychological disorder characterized by a history of a wide assortment of physical symptoms is
Conversion disorder is characterized by
The major difference between a somatization disorder and a conversion disorder is that
somatization disorders involve a wide variety of organs and symptoms; conversion disorders involve loss of function in a single organ system
Which of the following personality traits appears to be related to the likelihood of developing a somatoform disorder?
A type of dissociative disorder characterized by sudden loss of memory concerning a limited period of time, usually after a particularly stressful or traumatic event, is
Frank witnessed a horrible car accident but cannot remember anything about it. Frank appears to have
Which of the following statements is NOT correct? The separate personalities that coexist in an individual with dissociative identity disorder
are usually all aware of the existence of the other personalities
The primary explanation for the etiology of dissociative amnesia and dissociative fugue involves
responses to excessive stress or trauma
Emotional disturbances that affect one's physical, perceptual, social, and thought processes are referred to as
It is MOST accurate to state, while an individual with a unipolar disorder experiences episodes of _______, a person with a bipolar disorder experiences episodes of _______.
depression; both depression and mania
The primary distinction between the level of depression exhibited in major depressive disorder compared to a normal depression associated with everyday life is that in major depressive disorder the depression
is of a longer duration; involves a greater impairment of adaptive behavior
(Both of the above)
Carly has had intense feelings of sadness for the past several weeks. She has very little energy and has stopped going out with her friends. She has lost her appetite and rarely cooks. Carly feels her situation is hopeless and that she only has herself to blame. MOST likely Carly has
major depressive disorder
After several weeks of feeling gloomy and being socially withdrawn, Marco has suddenly become extremely sociable and talkative. He doesn't seem to need any sleep, and he becomes irritated when his friends tell him to slow down. Marco's behavior is consistent with
Correlations between mood disorders and a variety of structural abnormalities in the brain suggest that reduced volume in the ____ is related to depression
Jose has a psychological disorder, and his doctor has prescribed a drug that affects both the levels of norepinephrine and serotonin in Jose's nervous system. Based on this information, it is most likely that Jose is being treated for
In his investigations of the cognitive factors that might contribute to depression, Seligman found that people with a pessimistic explanatory style are especially vulnerable to depression. These individuals tend to attribute their setbacks to ____, and draw ____ conclusions about their personal inadequacies.
personal flaws; global, far-reaching
According to Susan Nolen-Hoeksema, depressed people who tend to ruminate about their depression
remain depressed longer
The central feature or symptom of schizophrenic disorders involves
disturbed or irrational thought processes
One symptom of schizophrenic disorders involves an individual having false beliefs that are maintained even though the beliefs clearly are out of touch with reality. These beliefs are referred to as
Susan has withdrawn from social contact with others. She spends most of her time alone in her bedroom. She has stopped going to her job and no longer talks to her family on the phone. Additionally, Susan neglects her personal hygiene and rarely bathes, brushes her teeth, or changes clothes. Susan's behavior BEST illustrates which symptom of schizophrenia?
deterioration of adaptive behavior
Tony believes that he is Thomas Edison, and he is convinced that his neighbors are spies who are trying to steal his inventions. He believes the neighbors break into his house and search for plans for new inventions when he is not home. Tony's symptoms are MOST consistent with those seen in
The subtype or category of schizophrenia that is characterized by a severe deterioration of adaptive behavior with symptoms of irrational thought, emotional indifference, and social withdrawal is
A two-category scheme for classification of schizophrenia has been suggested as an alternative to the older four categories. These two categories are based on
predominance of positive or negative symptoms
Research with CT scans and MRI scans suggests that there is an association between chronic schizophrenic disturbance and
enlarged brain ventricles
The prevalence estimates of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorders are roughly comparable across diverse cultures. This finding lends support to
the pancultural view of psychological disorders
The stress-vulnerability model of schizophrenic and mood disorders emphasizes the unifying theme in psychology that
heredity and environment jointly influence behavior
The term that is used in the broadest sense to refer to all of the diverse approaches used in the treatment of mental disorders and psychological problems is
Freud used _____ to treat his clients' problems.
Therapists who emphasize the application of learning principles in treatment use the _____ approach to psychotherapy.
The text uses the term psychotherapy to refer to _____ used in the treatment of mental disorders and psychological problems.
all the diverse approaches
Which of the following people would be the LEAST likely to seek therapy?
married black male with less than 12 years of education over the age of 65
The theoretical difference between a clinical psychologist and a counseling psychologist is that
the clinical psychologist specializes in the treatment of mental disorders; the counseling psychologist specializes in the treatment of everyday adjustment problems.
The use of verbal interactions between the client and therapist designed to enhance the client's self-knowledge and thus promote healthful changes in personality and behavior BEST describes
Freud believed that psychological disorders are caused by
unconscious conflicts left over from early childhood.
Laura is encouraged by her therapist to talk about absolutely anything that comes to her mind. Over the course of each session as her train of thought wanders she usually talks about a variety of topics. From time to time her therapist comments on her statements; Laura's therapist can be BEST described as using the technique of
Freud considered _____ to be the most direct way to access the patient's unconscious or the "royal road to the unconscious."
Largely unconscious defensive maneuvers by a client intended to hinder the progress of therapy BEST describes
______ is to transference as __________ is to resistance.
Client-centered therapy emphasizes
providing a supportive climate for clients.
Clients play a major role in determining the pace and direction of their therapy and work together with their therapist as equals in _____ therapy.
In client-centered therapy Roger believed that is critical for the therapist to provide
a warm, supportive and accepting climate.
Using theory and research to better understand the positive, adaptive, creative, fulfilling aspect of human nature is known as
Advocates of positive psychology maintain the field has focused too heavily on
pathology, weakness, and suffering
The MOST important aspect of group therapy is that group members
provide acceptance and emotional support
Therapists who think the primary role of therapy is to assist a client in changing his or her maladaptive behavior employ
"What has been learned can be unlearned" is a central assumption of
Joseph Wolpe developed
In systematic desensitization, a new _____ response is substituted for the old _____ response.
Aversion therapy is a therapy designed to
The type of therapy in which a problem drinker is given a drug that induces nausea when combined with alcohol is called
Learning principles associated with operant conditioning and observational learning are utilized in
social skills training
Social skills training utilizes the techniques of
modeling, behavioral rehearsal, and shaping
Earl is an extremely aggressive child who often hits other children when he can't get his own way. Earl is now seeing a behavioral therapist who has discussed appropriate ways of interacting with peers, and has shown Earl several videotapes of children resolving conflicts in nonaggressive ways. Earl has also engaged in "role play," during which the therapist has provided corrective feedback and positive reinforcement. In this case, the therapist is using
social skills training .
You make an appointment to see a therapist and, at your first meeting the therapist tells you that he believes that most psychological disorders are a result of negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs. What type of therapist are you seeing?
Cognitive therapy was originally developed as a treatment
Bryson was surprised by his first psychotherapy session. When the session was over the therapist gave Bryson a homework assignment. She asked Bryson to record any thoughts that came to his mind when he experienced a setback at home or in his job. In this case, it appears that Bryson is seeing a therapist who uses
Beck's cognitive therapy
Clients receiving _____ are taught to detect and evaluate their negative self-defeating thoughts and statements
Valium and Xanax are two types of
The primary therapeutic drug treatment for schizophrenia involves
Compared to traditional antipsychotic drugs, atypical antipsychotics
have less risk for tardive dyskinesia
In comparison to lithium, mood stabilizers such as valproate are
equally as effective in treating bipolar disorder and have fewer adverse effects.
The difference between TMS and DBS is that in DBS
brain activity is altered through an electrode implanted directly into the brain tissue
Which of the following is NOT one of the criticisms that have been raised concerning the impact of managed care on mental health care?
delays in providing service result in spontaneous remission of psychological disorders in nearly 25% of cases
Many managed care systems hold down costs by erecting barriers to access. These barriers may include all of the following EXCEPT
requiring service providers to be re-certified every six months
The community health movement emphasizes all of the following EXCEPT
reduced dependence on medication to treat psychological disorders
Deinstitutionalization means that
whenever possible, the mentally ill should be treated at community-based facilities that emphasize outpatient care
Which of the following statements concerning homeless individuals is true?
approximately 1/3 of the homeless suffer from a severe mental illness
Which of the following is NOT a conclusion of Seligman's research comparing the effectiveness of different approaches to psychotherapy? People with
panic disorder respond best to cognitive therapy.
Which of the following people beginning antidepressant therapy should be MOST closely monitored for suicide
a 14 year old high school freshman
The major emphasis in client-centered therapy is to provide the client wit
feedback and clarification
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is now primarily used to treat patients suffering from
severe mood disorders
_____ is to Aaron Beck as client-centered therapy is to _____.
Cognitive therapy; Carl Rogers
Person perception refers to
the process of forming impressions of others
Research on physical attractiveness has shown that
we tend to ascribe desirable personality characteristics to good-looking people
Joel and Kirk both work with a stock brokerage firm. Joel is considered to be extremely attractive, and Kirk is considered to be average in appearance. Based on research that has investigated the effects of physical appearance in person perception, you should predict that
Joel will tend to receive better performance evaluations than Kirk, for equivalent work
Widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular group are BEST described as
If many Americans were to believe that all Muslims are terrorists, it would be BEST described as
When people estimate that they have encountered more confirmations of an association between social traits than they have actually seen, we say they have experienced
the illusory correlation
Eric has joined a new fraternity. Based on the research conducted by Krebs and Denton, if the other fraternity members now consider Eric as part of their ingroup, they are more likely to
view him in a generally positive light
Attribution refers to
inferences that people draw about the causes of their own behavior and the behavior of others
When the causes of a person's behavior are attributed to personal dispositions, traits, abilities, and feelings, it is
an internal attribution
Jane's eight-year-old son brought a note home from school today stating that he was involved in a fight at recess. Which of the following is an example of an external attribution that Jane might make to explain her son's behavior?
the other child probably started the fight and he was protecting himself
Weiner suggested that when making attributions for success and failure, people focus on the _____ dimension concerning causes that contribute to the behavior.
When an observer is biased in favor of making internal attributions in explaining others' behavior, the observer is making
the fundamental attribution error.
Observers tend to attribute actors' behavior to _____ factors and actors tend to attribute their own behavior to _____ factors.
Consistent with the fundamental attribution error, when an acquaintance fails an exam, you would tend to attribute their failure to the _____ and if you fail an exam, you would tend to attribute your failure to the _____.
lack of intelligence; difficulty of the exam
Putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes is referred to as
Individuals from Eastern cultures tend to perceive the world more as more _____ forming complex, causal attributions about individuals and events
According to the _____ we tend to date people who are similar to ourselves in physical attractiveness
The tendency of males and females of approximately equal physical attractiveness to select each other as partners is referred to as the
Couples with _____ personalities are rated as _____ satisfied with their relationships.
The fact that we tend to like people who like us illustrates which of the following principles involved in interpersonal attraction?
There is research that suggests that couples are happiest when they _____ their partner.
Which of the following is a characteristic of passionate love?
Steve and Stacey have been a couple for several years. Their love is characterized by warm feelings and affection. They enjoy spending time together and describe themselves as lovers and friends. Steve and Stacey's love is BEST described as
A romantic relationship characterized by high levels of commitment and intimacy is BEST described as reflecting
Sternberg proposed that the _____ component(s) of love peaks early in a relationship and then decreases.
According to Sternberg, long-term, older relationships are dominated by
commitment and intimacy
Good looks and physical proximity are _____important in relationships that start on the Internet
According to evolutionary theorists, which of the following factors is likely to be the MOST important for a female seeking a prospective mate?
When asked to rate men who would be short-term partners' women valued what trait?
Which of the following statements is MOST accurate concerning attitudes?
people are more likely to be attracted to someone with similar attitude
The beliefs people have concerning the object of an attitude describes the ____ component of an attitude
The beliefs people have concerning the object of an attitude describes the ____ component of an attitude
Which of the following is NOT one of the crucial dimensions of attitudes?
Expertise and trustworthiness are two factors that affect the ____ of a source of a persuasive communication.
Imagine a popular star baseball player with many endorsement contracts for sports drinks, athletic apparel, and personal care products is arrested for abusing his pregnant wife. The companies whose products he endorsed felt that as a result of his arrest _____ and cancelled his contracts and stopped showing the advertisements in which he appeared.
his likability would decrease
In general, messages that present _____ arguments are effective in persuasion because that style of argument tends to increase the credibility of the source.
When advertisers use extremely attractive models to demonstrate their products, they are relying, in part, on the power of _____ to change consumers' attitudes.
A person experiences an unpleasant state of tension when related attitudes or beliefs are inconsistent or contradict each other according to
cognitive dissonance theory
According to dissonance theory, how do people usually reduce dissonance
by changing their cognitions
According to the elaboration likelihood model of attitude change, when persuasion depends on factors such as the attractiveness and credibility of the source or emotional responses by the receiver, it is referred to as the
Carmen has been invited to a party. Immediately after receiving the invitation she meets with a group of friends to discuss what they plan to wear to the party. Carmen then makes the decision on what she will wear. Carmen's party dressing behavior demonstrates
Asch's "line study" clearly demonstrated that people _____ alter their behavior so that it conforms to the behavior of others.
Asch found that two key factors influencing conformity were
group size and group unanimity
Subjects in _____ study concerning _____ were instructed to administer increasingly strong electric shocks to another subject when the other subject made a mistake
The "typical" subject in Milgram's study experienced _____ psychological distress _____ to administer stronger electric shocks.
considerable; but continued
The typical prison guard in the Stanford Prison Simulation
behaved in an abusive and malicious manner toward the prisoners
The primary explanation(s) suggested to explain the behavior of the prison guards and prisoners in the Stanford Prison Simulation was
social roles and situational factors
Which of the following BEST fits the social psychological definition of a group
the board of trustees of a college
The bystander effect refers to
people are less likely to provide needed help when they are in groups.
Diffusion of responsibility refers to the
tendency of others to assume that someone else will take responsibility in a crisis.
A reduction in effort by individuals when they work in groups as compared to when they work by themselves is referred to as
Which of the following is NOT a factor that REDUCES social loafing
the group is large
Group discussion resulting in strengthening a group's dominant view and shifting it to a greater extreme is known as
The risky shift phenomenon is MOST closely associated with
The group polarization effect implies that
when most of the group members initially favor a cautious decision, discussion will cause the group to adopt an even more cautious decision.
According to Janis, what is a key cause of groupthink?
strong group cohesion
Which of the following is not a component of prejudice?
When social identity is threatened a common strategy is
show favoritism for members of the ingroup
What should you do when you are given information that is inconsistent with conventional wisdom?
determine how the conclusion was reached
Making a small request in hopes of getting someone to agree to a larger request later is known as
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