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West Chester University of Pennsylvania
exam 6 (opioids, handout)
exam 6 (opioids, handout)
West Chester University of Pennsylvania
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Drugs and Behavior: An Introduction to Behavioral Pharmacology (6th Edition)
any drug, either natural or synthetic in origin, that has properties similar to opium or its main active ingredient, morphine.
the term that should be used only to refer to drugs of natural origin
(derived from opium)
term that should be used in reference to all opiate-like drugs, including opiates and synthetic drugs
narcotic analgesics or narcotics
opioids are also frequently referred to as what two terms?
the main natural source of opium
Papaver somniferum (poppy) had its origins here.
opium is the ___ that exudes out of scratches made in the seedpods of the poppy after the ___ have fallen off.
- the scratches are made one day; the next day, the (first word) is scraped off and compressed into cakes of opium.
morphine and codeine
the two main active ingredients in opium
a semisynthetic opiate made by adding two acetyl groups to the morphine molecule (diacetylmorphine or diamorphine).
heroin is how much more lipid soluble than morphine and, therefore, gets to the brain gaster and in higher concentrations?
morphine's generic name
meperidine (aka pethidine or Demerol)
drug that appears to have similar pharmacological and behavioral effects as morphine.
- shorter acting
Methadone & LAAM
two drugs that have a much longer duration of action than morphine and are much more effective when given orally.
sold as Percocet (if mixed with acetaminophen) or Percodan (if mixed with aspirin)
more notorious formulation of oxycodone
- tablet that contains many times the oxycodone of a regular tablet but in a slow-release form.
- designed to give long-term pain relief to arthritis sufferers
the best known "designer drug" based on the fentanyl molecule
designer drug created in an attempt to synthesize pethidine
- metabolized into a toxin that destroyed the substantia nigra
- result: "frozen addict" - a person with severe symptoms of Parkinson's
a common ingredient in cough-suppressant medicines like Robitussin.
- does not have an effect on opioid receptors, but appears to have effects similar to PCP.
a pure antagonist that will block the action of any other opioid
country of people who invented the practice of opium smoking
tincture of opium
aka laudanum, which was opium dissolved in alcohol.
1898 by Heinrich Dreser
heroin was invented when and by who?
Morphine is a base with a pKa of about __
"chasing the dragon"
newer form of smoking heroin
- oil-rich, relatively pure heroin is heated on metal foil until it vaporizes. the user then inhales it through a tube, chasing the smoke so as not to miss any.
nalorphine and naloxone
the two most important opioid antagonists that are poorly absorbed from the digestive system.
lungs, liver, spleen
after absorption into the blood, most opioids are concentrated where in the body? (3 places)
basal ganglia, amygdala, periaqueductal gray
within the brain the brain, opioids are concentrated in what 3 areas?
2 hours, 3-6 hours, 24 hours
half-life of morphine =
half-life of codeine =
90% of morphine is eliminated how long after administration?
compared to other opioids, methadone has an extremely long half-life of ____ because it becomes bound extensively to blood proteins and is not available for metabolism.
Harrison Narcotic Act
In the U.S., all opioids were banned by what act in 1914?
methadone and LAAM
synthetic opioids with much longer half-lives
endorphines or enkephalins
the body uses endogenous opiate-like chemicals called ____ or ____ as both neurotransmitters and neuromodulators.
mu, kappa, delta
3 opioid receptors
which opioid receptor is responsible for reinforcing and many analgesic effects?
periaqueductal or central gray
one opioid system involves the spinal cord and a part of the brain known as the _______ or ______ which is thought to mediate some of the analgesic properties of the opioids.
nucleus accumbens; respiratory center
opioids also activate the ______ and depress the _________.
opioids cause a _____ state.
- when taken intravenously, they cause _____, or feelings of intense pleasure resembling orgasm.
_____ cause feelings of pleasure and rushes at high doses in experienced users but often have unpleasant effects on inexperienced subjects.
diminished sex drive & sexual performance
chronic opioid use causes what 3 things?
intellectual or physical
if doses are not too high, chronic opioid use does not interfere with ____ or ____ abilities
opioids ___ the behavior of nonhumans responding on both positively and negatively reinforced schedules.
opioids slow ________ responding at doses that do not affect escape but do not increase ________ behavior.
TRUE or FALSE
opioid withdrawal symptoms, although unpleasant, are not life threatening.
most attempts to treat chronic heroin use have a very high relapse rate of about what percentage?
methadone or LAAM or buprenorphine
The most popular current treatment for chronic heroin use is maintenance on a long-acting opioid such as (3 answers)
increase activity at low dose
result of Morphine dose-response curve
methadone, buprenorphine, tramadol
3 pharmacological treatments of opioids
blocks reuptake of NE and 5HT which combats depression
helps block some withdrawal symptoms
rapid anesthetic assistance
precipitated withdrawal, almost instantly
helps aid w/ physical dependence
large relapse rate
not highly regarded
Siegel's Model of Classical Conditioning
(Content-specific tolerance) or Contextual or Associative
CS > US > UR
Cues >Drugs > Drug Effect
CCR (opposite direction of drug's effects)
3 groups of rats in the Siegel Model lab
DE (distinctive environment)
where the cues occur
all groups in DE are given Morphine
after 8 sessions, what is done first on Test Day?
all groups in DE given Morphine
wait 30 mins
Hot Plate or Tail Flick
Look for latency to respond (how long?)
4 steps on Test Day of Siegel's Model
which group of rats are most tolerant to morphine after test?
which group of rats are least tolerant to morphine after test?
in DE, all groups are given massive amount of Heroin
On Test Day of the heroin experiment, what is done?
dependent variable on heroin test day
DOCs (drug onset cues)
the difference between the results of unpaired and saline group is due to what?
process of DOCs
early drug effect serves as a cue for the later, bigger drug effect
cue serves as CS for US
so, ___ elecit CCRs
less tolerance with SC
more tolerance with IV due to DE (no early DOCs)
- Paired group in DE > SC of Morphine result?
- Paired group in DE > IV of Morphine result?
CS1 CS2 > Food
tone > CR
light > less CR
CS > US (Acquisition)
CS --- US (doesn't occur)
Cues > No Drug
carry out treatment until Spontaneous Recovery is gone
partial recovery of extinguished response due to passage of time
occasion setters (OC); CS
in the example of quitting smoking:
sight of pack of cigs =
OC (CS > no US) not followed by feel of nicotine
so if you quit smoking for 6 months, go into a bar, see a pack of cigs & get craving, what's that called?
AO > antiopiate peptides
> CCKb functions as AO and will reduce analgesic properties of MU opioids
CCKb > antiopiate
Cues > Heroin produces/elicits CCKb
CCKb to restore homeostasis
the receptor that has a diffuse distribution throughout the limbic system, including the hippocampus and the amygdala, and throughout the thalamus and the locus coeruleus.
the receptor that is located in the limbic system, including the hippocampus and the amygdala, but in regions that do not overlap with the mu receptor distribution.
the receptor that has a third distinct distribution that includes the nucleus accumbens, the VTA, the hypothalamus, and specific regions of the thalamus.
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