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A 17-year-old girl still in high school has just become pregnant. What advice should she be given about her nutrient intake during pregnancy?
A low-birthweight baby is nearly 40 times more likely to die in the first year of life than is a normal-weight baby. (t/f)
A nursing mother produces about _____ ounces of milk a day.
A pregnancy weight gain of _____ pounds is recommended for women who are at their appropriate weights.
A pregnant woman should strive to meet her DRI for _____ by increasing intakes of milk, cheese, yogurt, and other foods rich in this mineral, or by taking a 600 mg supplement daily.
A sudden, large weight gain during pregnancy is always a danger signal. (t/f)
A woman has gained 30 pounds in her first two months of pregnancy and has been diagnosed with gestational diabetes. What should she know about her health risks from this condition?
this condition usually goes away after the baby is born
A woman who craves nonnutritious substances during pregnancy
*may have a nutrient-poor diet
*is experiencing pica.
(a & B)
A woman who has just become pregnant is used to drinking 2 pots of coffee a day. What adjustments should she make in her caffeine consumption?
she should limit coffee consumption to one coffee cup a day
Alcohol consumption by women during pregnancy can result in all of the following EXCEPT:
blindness in infants.
All of the following are recommended for vegetarian women who are pregnant EXCEPT:
An advantage for the mother of breastfeeding her infant would be:
conserving her iron stores for several months.
An estimated 85% of children with type 2 diabetes are:
An initial goal for management of overweight and obesity in children is to encourage moderate weight loss. (t/f)
* hold weight steady while they grow taller.
* slow their rate of gain
An obese woman is trying to get pregnant with her first baby. What recommendation would you give her?
she should try to achieve a healthy pre-pregnancy weight first
Billy is a 6-month-old infant. Which of the following foods should Billy consume?
Characteristics of breast milk include that:
*its sodium is low
*its protein is largely alpha-lactalbumin
Cindy experienced malnutrition late in her pregnancy. Which of the following organs of the infant will most likely be affected?
Constipation during pregnancy should be relieved by:
* high fiber diet
* plentiful water intake
It is desirable to begin feeding the infant iron-fortified cereals by about _____ months.
Most babies are born with enough _____ to last about half a year.
The stage of human gestation from eight weeks after conception until birth of an infant is called a(an):
The two weeks following fertilization are considered to be a critical period developmentally for the zygote (t/f)
Which of the following is the single most potent indicator of an infant's future health status?
Which woman is at risk of not developing a healthy placenta?
a woman with anorexia nervosa who is restricting her food intake
Women who have uncontrolled high blood glucose levels during pregnancy may experience complications such as:
You are counseling a pregnant woman who is experiencing "morning sickness." To alleviate this condition you tell her to:
sip a carbonated beverage before getting out of bed.
nibble on a soda cracker before getting out of bed.
(a & B)
The weight that pregnant women put on is nearly all fat tissue. (t/f)
A 2-year-old toddler is going through periods of food jags where she is concentrating on only one or two favorite foods to eat. Should her parents be concerned about her nutritional status?
yes, because she may not get adequate iron intake from the foods she selects
A child's appetite fluctuates after the age of:
A parent who wishes to protect her child from lead toxicity would do all of the following EXCEPT:
feed the child additional protein.
A young child who used to like bananas now gets nauseated if he has to eat them. This has happened ever since he became ill two months ago from spinning on a carousel immediately after eating a banana in the playground. This would be an example of a:
Absorption of _____ appears to increase with aging.
After the age of 50, the intake recommendation for energy assumes a _____ percent reduction in energy output per decade.
An adolescent girl is drinking diet colas instead of milk because she wants to control her weight. What advice would you give her to aid in developing peak bone mass?
she needs to eat high-calcium snacks such as low-fat cheese
An elderly woman in a nursing home no longer goes outside to enjoy the sunshine and fresh air, has reduced her meat intake because her dentures don't fit well, and has recently been having difficulty concentrating on conversations with others. This may be leading to a deficiency of which vitamins?
vitamin D and vitamin B12
Hormones that regulate the menstrual cycle also alter:
* food intake
Lois is a 65-year-old female who participates in an exercise class at least three times a week. In addition, she drinks six glasses of water each day and consumes a lot of fresh fruits and vegetables and whole-grain breads and cereals. Lois has high blood pressure, takes medication for her hypertension, and experiences constipation frequently. Which of the following is the most likely cause of her constipation?
Older adults should drink at least _____ cups of fluid a day to provide needed water.
School lunches are designed to provide at least _____ of the recommended intake for certain nutrients.
The best way to determine if a teenager is growing normally is to:
compare his or her height and weight with previous measures taken earlier.
The life-threatening food allergy reaction of anaphylactic shock is most often caused by:
eggs, peanuts, and milk.
Ways to prevent a child from choking include:
( b &C)
avoiding dangerous foods such as chips and popcorn.
encouraging the child to sit when eating.
What changes are seen in water balance as we get older?
our thirst mechanism does not work as efficiently so we may forget to drink fluids
What is the most important nutrition concern for the person with Alzheimer's disease?
prevention of weight loss
Which of the following can interfere with the absorption of certain antibiotics?
(a & C)
Which of the following foods should be used infrequently in order to control dental caries?
Which of the following is NOT a cause of "hyper" behavior in children?
too much sugar
A 45-year-old man who is overweight and has several family members with heart disease is concerned about developing it. Which risk factor does he have the ability to improve or change?
A deficiency or toxicity of even a single nutrient can weaken the body's defenses considerably. (t/f)
A main difference between a person contracting an infectious disease or a chronic disease is:
some infectious diseases can be cured with medications but chronic diseases cannot.
A man with pre-hypertension is trying to keep his blood pressure from going higher. Which of the following dietary changes might help?
remove the salt shaker from the table
According to recommendations for reducing CVD risk, the percentage of calories from saturated fat in the diet should be no more than _____ percent.
All of the following are actions on the cell in formation of cancer EXCEPT:
all carcinogens damage or change the cell's genetic material to cause cancer.
All of the following are risk factors for CVD EXCEPT:
diastolic blood pressure of 80.
An atherogenic diet is characterized as one that is:
high in saturated fats.
high in trans fats.
Effects of protein-energy malnutrition on the body's defense system include:
the skin becomes thinner with less connective tissue.
antibody secretions and immune cell number are reduced.
In dietary recommendations to decrease the risk of CVD, trans-fatty acids are classified with _____ fat.
Individuals with hypertension being treated with diuretics should consume foods rich in:
Jack's physician has placed him on a diet recommended to control his blood cholesterol. In order to follow this plan Jack would:
consume £ 200 mg cholesterol per day.
consume less than 7% of calories as saturated fat.
Metabolic syndrome with its cluster of factors raises the risk of CVD. (t/f)
Obesity is a risk for certain cancers such as colon, breast, endometrial, pancreas, and kidney cancer.
The epigenome on the DNA strand has the responsibility of:
regulating the expression of genes by turning them on or off.
The role of inflammation in development of atherosclerosis includes:
white blood cells being sent to the site by the immune system to try to repair the damage.
Thirty minutes of brisk walking on at least 5 days a week can improve the odds against heart disease. (t/f)
To help prevent hypertension Americans should limit their sodium intake to _____ mg per day.
Wherever dietary fat consists mostly of _____ fats and fish, fruits, and vegetables are eaten in abundance, blood cholesterol and the rate of death from heart disease are low.
Which of the following holds the key to maintaining the best possible immune system support?
Which of the following raises HDL concentration?
Which of the following would be a good suggestion for making small changes in the type of fat in your diet for better health?
instead of a snack of potato chips and sour cream dip eat baked tortilla chips and salsa
Which of the following would be the best way to add more fruits and vegetables to your diet?
keep a bag of baby carrots in the refrigerator for snacking
You have a friend with AIDS and are trying to support his nutrition status. Which of the following would you do?
cook foods thoroughly and practice cleanliness
A processing technique that preserves food by boiling it and sealing it in an impervious container is called:
Billy loves to eat raw seafood and does so frequently. As a result, Billy runs the risk of suffering from:
Characteristics of foods that have undergone extrusion include:
they usually have had colors added to them.
they have undergone considerable nutrient losses.
Current evidence indicates that moderate intakes of artificial sweeteners pose no health risks. (t/f)
Frozen foods' nutrient content is similar to that of:
How does modified atmosphere packaging protect foods?
it excludes oxygen needed by many bacteria
If pesticides have been used on fresh fruits and vegetables, what do you know about the safety of those foods?
most pesticides can be removed by thoroughly washing the foods
Joe is planning a trip to Mexico and wants to practice food safety while traveling. You would tell Joe to:
One difference between toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium botulinum in foods is that:
Staph toxins are heat stable and survive cooking.
One purpose of genetic engineering is to:
make crops resistant to diseases.
Organic foods reduce harm to the environment because they are produced by sustainable agriculture methods such as:
raising animals in natural surroundings with access to the outdoors.
Results of commercial drying of foods include:
it eliminates microbial spoilage.
it eliminates the water in foods.
The best way to keep chilled foods safe is to:
refrigerate them immediately after getting home from the grocery store.
The best way to reduce the possibility of incidental contaminants getting into foods while microwaving is to:
use glass or ceramic containers for heating foods in the microwave.
The difference between foodborne infection and foodborne intoxication is that:
foodborne intoxication results from chemicals produced by microbes.
The potato salad you brought to the picnic potluck in the park has been sitting out for 4 hours during the meal on a hot sunny day. What should you do with the leftover servings once the meal is finished?
throw away the leftovers because they have been at an unsafe temperature too long
The proper way to wash hands when handling foods is to:
wash hands with soap and warm water for 15 seconds.
The word organic on the label is NO guarantee that a food is:
To avoid cross-contamination of foods:
it is good practice to keep a separate cutting board just for raw meats.
What can be said about fresh produce and foodborne illness?
produce grown close to the ground may be irrigated with contaminated water
Which of the following is(are) not intentionally used in or on foods?
Which of the following statements is true concerning the GRAS list?
It stands for "generally recognized as safe."
It includes a list of additives believed to be safe.
Which of the following would be least likely to lose any vitamin C during the freezing process?
You are interested in using a preservative which will prevent fruits from undergoing changes in color and flavor caused by exposure to oxygen in the air. Which of the following would you use
You are selecting salad ingredients for your dinner in a grocery store and see puffy sealed plastic bags containing mixed cut salad vegetables. Should you select this product?
yes, because modified atmosphere packaging has been used
A benefit of cardiorespiratory endurance training is that:
the heart muscle grows larger and stronger.
A benefit of resistance training is that:
high resistance and few repetitions will build strength.
A female athlete weighs 120 pounds before a race and 115 pounds after the race. How much fluid should she consume?
A person who continues exercising moderately for longer than _____ minutes begins to use less glucose and more fat for fuel.
A varsity sprinter is considering taking caffeine pills before his competition to help his performance. What information would you give him?
he needs to be aware that sport governing bodies prohibit high doses of caffeine
An athlete takes vitamin and mineral supplements prior to competition because he believes they can enhance performance. How would you respond to this practice?
The practice does not improve performance because there is not enough time for them to be combined with other appropriate parts so they can do their work.
An endurance athlete can lose _____ of fluid an hour.
Anaerobic glucose breakdown produces a compound called _____ that accumulates in the tissues and blood.
Any meal should be finished at least _____ hours before an athletic competition.
3 or 4
Calculate the protein needed for a male runner weighing 152 lb who is training for an upcoming competition. He participates in sprints and hurdling races.
83 - 117
Calculate the recommended daily protein intake for a female marathon runner weighing 126 pounds.
69 - 80 g
During exercise the optimal beverage for replacing fluids is:
Examples of aerobic physical activity include all of the following EXCEPT:
using weight machines.
For athletic performance, the diet should consist of all of the following EXCEPT:
supplements high in protein.
Glycogen depletion occurs after about _____ hour(s) of vigorous activity.
How many grams of carbohydrate would an athlete need to consume to ensure full glycogen and other nutrient stores and to meet energy needs if he consumes 2800 calories?
In the early minutes of an activity, _____ provides the majority of energy the muscles use to go into action.
Iron-deficiency anemia impairs physical performance because iron helps deliver the muscles' oxygen. (t/f)
Muscle growth is stimulated by:
physically demanding activity.
Muscles respond to the overload of exercise by gaining:
One thing to consider when attempting to increase daily physical activity for health is to:
begin with an activity such as brisk walking for moderate intensity.
Progressive weight training is NOT associated with:
reduced lean body tissue.
Protein is needed by the body to support an exercise program because of its role in:
repairing muscle tissue after exercise.
Recommendations have been established for moderate physical activity because:
physically active people live longer than those who are inactive.
is a normal adaptation to endurance training
Sports drinks offer some advantages over water for athletes who:
need to replenish electrolytes.
Sports nutrition experts recommend that endurance athletes consume _____ percent of their energy from fat.
Strategies which help endurance athletes maintain their blood glucose concentrations for as long as they can include:
eating a high-carbohydrate diet regularly.
taking in glucose during endurance activities.
The advantage for athletes of using sport drinks for fluid replacement is that:
they have a pleasant taste which encourages consumption.
The amount of protein needed for physical activity varies depending on:
the amount of training in a particular exercise an athlete has had.
The body's need for _____ far surpasses that for any other nutrient.
The first symptom of dehydration (besides thirst) is:
The health benefits of being physically active include all of the following EXCEPT:
reducing the amount of sleep needed each day.
The most important antioxidant related to physical activity is:
The role of lactate in enhancing muscle gain is to:
stimulate muscle growth from resistance exercise.
The term ergogenic:
implies that the product has special work-enhancing powers.
is associated with supplements claimed to benefit athletes.
To consume an adequate amount of B vitamins, magnesium, and chromium an athlete should eat:
To emphasize muscle endurance in weight training, you would combine less resistance (lighter weights) with more repetitions. (t/f)
To prevent hyponatremia during prolonged events, athletes should:
favor sports drinks over water.
eat pretzels in the last half of a long event.
When designing a fitness routine that is intended to help muscles gain strength and size, what must you consider?
muscles need a day or two of rest to refuel and repair
Which of the following are most prone to iron deficiency?
Which of the following athletes would use the least protein for fuel during exercise?
Gary, who consumes a carbohydrate-rich diet
Which of the following enhances flexibility?
Which of the following is not a component of fitness?
Which of the following nutrients is important for athletes because it is needed for the formation of collagen?
Which of the following statements regarding carnitine is true?
It is a nonessential nutrient.
Which of the following would NOT be appropriate as part of a pregame meal?
high-fiber cereal with low-fat milk
Which statement about the best way to schedule daily physical activity is accurate?
moderate-intensity activity can be divided into smaller sessions throughout the day
Why would you tell someone not to drink alcohol before engaging in an athletic event?
because it is a diuretic
because it impairs temperature regulation
Active people do not need extra fluid in cold weather. (t/f)
A person's absorption of calcium varies based on:
vitamin D status.
A young woman wanting to build maximum bone density should do all of the following EXCEPT:
increase her intake of meat protein.
After about 25 years of age, regardless of calcium intake, bones begin to lose density. (T/F)
Calcium absorption declines in the elderly because:
aging skin is less efficient at making vitamin D
many elderly people get inadequate sun exposure.
During an exercise activity the body will cool down by:
sweating to carry heat away from the surface of the body.
How much water and fluid beverages (in cups) should a man consume each day, under moderate environmental conditions and given a normal diet?
Over half of the body's magnesium is stored in the:
Phosphorus is critical to the acid-base balance in cells because of its role in:
creating buffers to maintain the correct pH.
The DASH diet is more effective in reducing blood pressure than just decreasing sodium alone because it includes which of the following guidelines?
greatly increase intakes of fruits and vegetables
The chlorination of water is of concern because:
deaths from organisms in untreated water are high in other parts of the world.
The first sign of dehydration is:
The more processed a food:
the more sodium it contains
the less potassium it contains.
The principal food source of chloride is:
The strongest genetic influence on the development of osteoporosis is:
the maximum bone mass that can be attained during growth.
When your body gives the thirst signal it is important to:
drink fluids to relieve the symptoms of dehydration.
Which characteristic of water is represented by its ability to act as a lubricant?
Which of the following groups absorbs the least amount of calcium?
Which of the following impairs iron absorption?
Which of the following is the most abundant mineral in the body?
Which of the following is the most accurate statement about the body's need for water?
too much plain water consumption can cause a dangerous condition known as water intoxication
Which of the following minerals hardens and stabilizes the crystals of teeth and makes the enamel resistant to decay?
Your best friend complains that she is tired all of the time and has a problem concentrating. In addition, she likes to chew ice. Which of the following is your friend likely to have?
A body mass index of 25.0 to 29.9 in an adult indicates:
A healthy person starting with average body fat can live totally deprived of food for as long as six to eight weeks due to:
A person who is trying to gain weight and muscle mass will have the best outcome by:
choosing nutrient- and energy-dense foods to help build new body tissue.
A very-low-carbohydrate diet may be accompanied by:
A woman weighs 210 pounds and is 65 inches tall. Calculate her BMI.
A woman who is a varsity soccer player has a BMI of 32, a waist circumference of 32, and 30 percent body fat. What would you say about her body composition?
she is within recommendations for waist circumference and percent body fat
All of the following are involved in signaling satiation EXCEPT:
Characteristics of bulimia include all of the following EXCEPT:
the victim is unaware that her behavior is abnormal.
Characteristics of victims of anorexia nervosa include:
they come from middle- or upper-class families.
they tend to be perfectionists.
Donna weighs 160 pounds. How many grams of fat should Donna consume in order to meet the DRI recommendation, if she consumes 1600 calories a day?
Fad diets are successful in the short term because they:
*induce a calorie deficit.
Hunger makes itself known roughly _____ hours after eating.
If a person uses fasting to lose weight, how will his or her body react?
the body will break down fat into ketone bodies to provide fuel
James is trying to gain weight. Which of the following would you suggest to help James with his goal?
Choose milkshakes instead of milk.
One pound of body fat is equal to _____ calories.
Successful treatment for a young woman with anorexia nervosa includes:
stopping the cycle of weight loss and establishing regular eating patterns.
The DRI Committee recommends at least 130 grams of carbohydrate a day
The accumulation of excess visceral fat in the body may lead to health complications because:
it can lead to chronic inflammation, which has been linked to heart disease.
The definition of a food desert is:
an area where only convenience stores and fast-food restaurants are close.
The psychological desire to eat is referred to as:
The theory that a person with more adipose tissue containing energy-wasting proteins will be leaner is referred to as the _____.
brown fat theory
The three kinds of energy nutrients can be stored in the body as:
Which of the following foods has the greatest energy density?
vanilla ice cream that weighs 39 grams and is 155 calories (155/39)
Which of the following is based on weight and height and used in clinical settings to assess weight status?
Which of the following types of foods sustain satiety longer than other foods?
high in fiber
high in protein
You go to the movie theater after eating dinner and smell the popcorn in the concession stand. Although you are full, you start salivating and your stomach grumbles, so you buy a bag to eat during the show. This is an example of what signal for eating?
You have chosen to treat yourself to one weekly mocha latte coffee, which has 215 calories. This could add how much to your body weight in a year's time?
Your aunt is seriously considering having gastric surgery to help her lose weight because previous weight-loss diets have been unsuccessful. What information would you give to help her make her decision?
it is a serious decision because of the lifetime medical and nutrition supervision needed after surgery
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