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1) What is infiltration?
C) Water soaking into the ground
2) The ________ describes the path water takes as it moves between the land, the ocean, and the atmosphere.
A) Hydrologic Cycle
3) What percentage of Earth's water is in the form of seawater?
4) What is the geologic definition of a stream?
D) A channelized body of water flowing down gradient
5) The ________ is an elevational point that divides an entire continent into large drainage basins.
B) Continental Divide
6) ________ is the area at the headwaters of a stream where most of the sediment is derived.
A) Sediment Production
A) Sediment Capacity Zone
8) What is the wetted perimeter of a stream?
D) The amount of flow in contact with the banks and bed of the channel
9) What is the longitudinal profile?
B) The cross-sectional area from the headwaters to the mouth
10) How will channel velocity change along the longitudinal profile of a stream?
C) Velocity will start low and gradually increase toward the mouth due to increasing discharge downstream
11) What is the mouth of a stream?
C) The location where streamflow ends
12) Which of the following beds would be easiest for a stream to erode?
D) Lined with silt
14) Which of the following particle sizes is most likely to make up a stream's suspended load?
15) Which part of a stream's sediment load moves the slowest?
A) Bed Load
16) ________ is the maximum load of solid particles a stream can transport per unit time.
17) ________ is a measure of a stream's ability to transport particles based on size rather than quantity.
18) In terms of competence, if the velocity of the stream triples, the impact force of the water will increase ________ times.
19) During what periods would streams see the greatest erosion and transportation of sediment?
20) What is the term for sediment deposited by streams?
21) In which part of a stream's course would one typically find bedrock channels?
D) Bedrock channel
23) A ________ stream consists of a complex network of converging and diverging channels that weave around channel bars.
C) Braided stream
24) Which of the following locations is a likely place to find a braided stream?
D) Flowing from the terminus of a glacier
B) The downward limit of erosion
26) What is the ultimate base level?
C) Sea level
27) A(n) ________ stream is a stream that is in equilibrium and is neither eroding or depositing material, but simply transporting it.
A) Graded stream
D) The edge of a resistant ledge over which a stream flows, becoming a waterfall
29) ________ are flat areas along streams that are created by the deposition of alluvium and is subject to periodic inundation.
30) How many subdeltas have been formed by the Mississippi River in the last 6,000 years?
A) A stream that existed before uplift in a region
32) What is a flood?
B) When discharge in a river exceeds the river's capacity
1) What percentage of the Earth's water is in the form of groundwater?
2) What percentage of Earth's liquid freshwater is in the form of groundwater?
3) Which of the following materials is most readily dissolved by water?
4) Which of the following characteristics is not true or groundwater?
D) Rarely contains dissolved solids
5) Which of the following is not a factor that will influence infiltration of groundwater?
A) Acidity of precipitation
6) The ________ is the point in the subsurface where 100% of the pore spaces are filled with water.
B) Zone of Saturation
A) Water table will rise
8) How will the water table respond when there is a drought?
B) Water table will fall
9) What is porosity?
A) Volume of pore space in a material
B) Ability to transmit water
11) Which of the following materials would make the best aquitard?
12) In order for an aquifer to use useful for human consumption, what kind of porosity and permeability should it have?
B) High porosity, high permeability
13) What force pushes groundwater from pore space to pore space when below the water table?
B) Hydraulic Gradient
14) Which 19th century scientist developed the equation that determines the discharge of an aquifer with the following equation:
D) Henri Darcy
15) ________ is a term used to describe how the water table around a well becomes lower as water is taken from the subsurface.
16) What is the term used to describe the hypothetical line the water in a confined aquifer would rise to if it weren't trapped?
A) Potentiometric surface
17) Which of the following regions is famous for its artesian wells?
C) Western South Dakota
18) What groundwater feature forms where the water table intersects with the Earth's surface, creating a natural outflow of groundwater?
B) Volcanic activity
20) What geologic process is responsible for warming the water at Hot Springs National Park?
D) Normal geothermal gradient
21) What mineral substance is makes up most geyser deposits?
23) ________ is a term for bacteria that are found in the high temperature, chemical-rich geothermal features like Octopus Pool at Yellowstone National Park.
24) In which country were geysers were first identified and described?
25) Which of the following accounts for the largest usage of groundwater in the United States?
B) Agriculture and irrigation
26) Which environmental issue will most commonly affect groundwater aquifers in coastal or island areas?
D) Saltwater contamination
27) Which of the following materials would be the best natural filter, removing contaminants from groundwater over a long period of time?
B) Slightly clayey sand
C) Land subsidence
29) What feature is going to develop if a well is withdrawing more groundwater than an aquifer can naturally replace, resulting in a dimple in the water table?
A) Cone of Depression
30) Which region inspired the term karst topography?
C) Republic of Slovenia, in the former Yugoslavia
32) The general term used to describe cave deposits is ________.
33) While on vacation, you visit a local Imax theater and see a movie about cave diving in the Yucatan Peninsula. In one of the caves they dive in, which is currently filled with water, you notice the divers swimming past some stalactites and stalagmites. If the water table is now above the level of the ceiling of the cave, what does the presence of the cave decorations indicate about past water table levels?
B) The water table was much lower and the features were formed by water dripping from the ceiling into an air-filled chamber
34) Stalactites start out as hollow tubes called ________.
A) Soda Straws
1) What percentage of the Earth is currently covered by glacial ice?
3) When was the last glacial maximum in North America?
A) 18,000 years ago
5) Which of the following is not an example of alpine glaciation?
B) Ice Sheet
7) ________ is an elevation point above which snow remains throughout the year.
8) Which crevasse will form parallel to the terminus as a glacier moves over a change in slope?
10) ________ is an erosional method where meltwater penetrates fractures in subglacial bedrock and freezes.
11) What shape will glacial troughs generally display?
12) A ________ is a small, circular lake that will occupy a cirque.
14) A(n) ________ is a pass in a divide created by headward erosion between two cirque glaciers.
15) Which part of a glacier is responsible for abrasion and plucking?
17) ________ is fine silt generated by glaciers that can be carried for long distances by the wind.
18) ________ is unsorted, unstratified, bimodal sediment directly deposited by the glacial ice.
D) Terminal moraine
20) Which of the following best explains the formation of a medial moraine?
B) A ridge of till carried down the center of glacial ice
C) Outwash plain; valley train
22) What bodies of water are formed when a stagnant block of glacial ice becomes partly or completely buried in glacial sediments, eventually melting?
D) Kettle lakes
23) Which moraine would be most useful for tracing valuable gold deposits back to their bedrock source area?
C) Lateral moraine
24) Which of the following descriptions does not specifically to outwash sediments?
A) Sediment accumulates in a hole in the ice
26) Why would businesses find eskers to be economically important?
D) Provide easily accessible sand and gravel deposits
27) ________ form when narrow masses of stratified sediments are deposited between a glacier and the valley wall.
B) Kame terraces
29) How does isostatic rebound affect a glacial landscape?
A) A depressed crust will rise after glacial retreat
30) What is a pluvial lake?
B) A lake that fills due to increased precipitation in a cooler, wetter climate
A) Lake Bonneville
C) Louis Agassiz
33) What was the most recent episode of glaciation in North America?
D) Wisconsin Episode
C) North America
35) Which glacial erosion feature will likely contain a waterfall today?
B) Hanging valley
36) Which of the following is not part of the Milankovitch Cycle?
38) Which of the following glacial episodes is colloquially known as "Snowball Earth," when almost the entire Earth was covered with ice?
B) 600 million years ago
39) How would plate tectonics explain the glaciation at the end of the Paleozoic Era, when no evidence of glacial ice can be found in high latitude areas of North America and Eurasia?
C) The continents were joined to form Pangaea, which was located around the South Pole
40) The amount of incoming solar radiation coming in at ________ helps to determine whether or not a planet will be going into an Ice Age.
D) 65° N
41) The glaciers in ________ began forming 30 million years ago.
42) What as the name of the ice sheet that covered North America west of the Canadian Rockies?
D) Cordilleran Ice Sheet
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