What were the reasons for the development of Minority theatre?
writers and performers choose to be identified with and work only within their minority culture; has existed along with mainstream theatre since the 19th century; within minorities can retain their identities, coping with loss and separation from their language and culture
How is ethnic theatre a form of protest?
helps escape stereotypically degrading portrayals by society, part of civil rights movement (spurned activism and Afr Am pride, lead to development of other movements by other minorities
What has been the progression in acting for minorities?
first not allowed to perform, then later allowed, but only played stereotypes
Who is Ira Aldridge?
1st famous AA actor, performed Shakespearean roles in England and Europe; inducted into Theatre Hall of Fame after death
Who helped create the Federal Negro Theatre Project?
FDR's new deal, created new generation of AA theatre artists
Who was the first black director? What did he first direct?
Lloyd Richards, A Raisin in the Sun
Who wrote and directed and produced Fences?
August Wilson; Lloyd Richards, "
What were Luis Valdez and Cesar Chavez involved in?
organizing farm workers in CA to act and founding the Teatro Campesino to support farm workers strike
What are the three groups of Latino theatre?
Chicano, Cuban American, and Puerto Rican
How have changes in governmental support substantially affected theatre in this country?
support 33% less than 10 years ago, shift from annual subscriptions to single ticket sales, fewer new plays, large-cast shows, musicals or large-set productions, increased pressure on development and corporate/individuals donations
What is a style of Regional Not-for-Profit?
What is a style of Resident Professional Not-for-Profit?
Two broad movements in contemporary American Theatre?
traditional and avant-garde
What does the traditional style of theatre involve?
follows structure theme and approach of William, Miller, Hansberry, Albee; Sam Shepard (Buried Child, Fool for Love, True West and A Lie of the Mind), David Mamet (American buffalo, Glengarry Glen Ross, Oleanna, Cryptogram); Both combine high art with techniques borrowed from popular entertainment--film, pop music, melodrama--and blur the distinction between reality and abstraction. attack ideals of American life
What does the avant-garde style of theatre involve?
challenges preconceived notions of theatre; provides alternatives; expressionism, futurism, surrealism, Theater of cruelty (Antonin Artaud). Poor theater (Jerzy Growtowski, no scenery or spectacle; relied on performers), happenings: unstructured events; art can happen anywhere; popular in the 60s; multimedia: combining theatre with other visual arts; performance art: combines theatre, dance and media
What is involved in Experimental Theatre?
entire theatre space is performance area, text is often reworked or improvised, some off-broadway theaters are experimental
What is musical theatre a combination of?
high art (Opera) and low art (Burlesque), music and comedy, business and show
What are the five types of musical theatre?
Opera (drama set entirely to music), Operetta (scenes of dialogue alternating with songs), Musical Comedy (light, comic story interspersed with popular music), Musical (evolved out of musical comedy), and Revue (series of individual, independent songs and comic sketches)
What was the most popular entertainment of the 1900s?
Vaudeville and Ziegfeld's Folies
What does Ziegfeld's Folies encompass?
minstrels, vaudeville comedy, European operettas, burlesque and London-style musical reviews (involved song, dance, and comedy sketches with amazing sets, shimmering colors/lights, sleek, stylized and beautiful)
What are the Follies now known as? Burlesque?
Rockettes; Strip club dancers
Who is George M. Cohen?
son of Vaudeville parents, child star, 1902 stared in 1st Broadway production, starred, wrote and produced over 40 shows in 30 years, musical mythologizes American, develops idea of Broadway star
Who is Irving Berlin?
first songs performed at 14, 1911 1st composer incorporate popular music (ragtime) into musical, though ragtime was scandalous, make it safe for Broadway, 1914-1962 composed 30 musical for Broadway, 1920s sold songs to Ziegfeld's Follies, paved way for Victor Herbert and Jerome Kern
Who is Jerome Kern?
1927 Showboat 1st plot-driven (book) musical, along with Hammerstein combined European operetta with American musical theatre
What was unique about the Golden Age of Musical Theatre?
stories told with integrated dancing and singing which gave variety and unity to the form, time of Rogers and Hart, Rogers and Hammerstein, Oklahoma, My Fair Lady, Bock and Harnick, Fiddler on the Roof (end of Golden Age)
What age was the 60s-90s? What also occurred?
age of the choreographer; musical theatre becomes much more fragmented, musicals are a concept or dance driven with no traditional story line, time of Chicago, Jerome Robbins and West Side Story, and Julie Taymor and the Lion King
What is the scene designer's job?
recreate the visual world of the play
What does the scene designer ask him/herself?
where and when takes place (historical v. contemporary, realistic v. non-realistic, inside v. outside, multiple locations?)
What types of items do scene designers use?
drops, flats (soft and hard), platforms, turntables, wagons, scrim, cyc, special effects (screen projections, film/video or still), props (set and hand)
What is a scrim or a cyc?
What are the major elements of scene design?
1) line (outline or silhouette of stage elements) 2) mass/composition (balance and arrangement of elements) 3) texture (feel of surfaces and fabrics) 4) color (shadings/contrasts of color combinations) 5) rhythm (visual repetition of shape, color and texture patterns) 6) movement (how action unfolds within and between scenes)
What are the steps in the design process?
1) design concept 2) ground plan 2 dimensional blueprint 3) front, rear, and top elevations 4) rough sketches (thumbnail) 5) 3 dimensional white model 6) complete model
Sometimes designers are asked to create the total theatre environment, which includes?
designing entire theatre space, rearranging spectator seating, and determining relationship of playing space to the audience
How did scene design evolve throughout western theatre?
1) Greeks (facade of stage house represented a palace or other building) 2) Medieval (mansions small symbolic set pieces represented Noah's Ark, Jesus' manger) 3) Spanish/English Renaissance (bare rectangular, platform stage, tiring house represented the background) 4) Scenery appeared with the development of the proscenium stage in Italy in the 16th century 5) Robert Edmond Jones (American Designer, said theater is to resemble life, responsible to be more than reproduction)
What is important about costume design?
1) most personal of the visual elements in theatre 2) perceived as one (actor and costume merge) 3) costumes add color, shape, texture, and symbolism 4) makeup, hair, masks, and personal accessories important components
What do costumes tell us about the character and the world of the play?
position and status, sex, occupation, relative flamboyance or modesty, independence or regimentation, dressed for work or leisure; routine event or special occasion
What are the seven requirements of a costume?
1) help establish styles (historical, modern, futuristic) 2) indicate historical period and locale 3) nature of individual characters or groups in play (stations, occupations and personalities) 4) show relationships among character (major from minor, contrast groups) 5) symbolically convey significance of individual characters to themes in play (non-human and fantastical) 6) Needs of individual performers; actors must move freely and change costumes quickly from one to another 7) consistent with other visual elements in the production
What is the costume design process?
1) reads scripts (notes age, gender, physical qualities, special traits) 2) meet with director and other designers to discuss the "look" of the play 3) sketches (style, shape, outline, colors and fabrics) 4) move to renderings with swatches attached 5) meet with cast, measure each performer 6) costumes can then be pulled or built 7) must be coordinated with other visual elements (scenery and lighting)
What must costume designers be aware of?
1) line (shape and silhouette) 2) cut of clothing 3) color 4) fabric 5) accessories (fringe, lace, ruffles...)
What are additional costume elements?
1) makeup 2) hairstyles and wigs (denotes period and social class) 3) Masks (extension of the performer, face large than life or non-realistic)
What is the director's primary responsibility? What is his/her job?
A director in western theatre needs to tell the story through words--dialogue with actors--and in pictures
Where does the director fit in the hierarchy of a production?
Second only to the producers who fund the production.
What is the director's process?
1) Choosing a script (analyzing it, developing a concept, design and blocking) 2) Casting (open or closed audition, or interview) 3) Rehearsals (table work, blocking, character and line work--off book, run throughs, tech weekend (dry and wet), dress rehearsals, previews, performances)
How as the title of director or person typically appointed change over time?
1) Greek and French Renaissance Theatre=playwright [Moliere and Aeschylus] 2) medieval=pageant master [Jean Fouquet] 3) actor-manager (lead as well as director) [Thomas Betterton, Henry Irving] 4) Modern stage director (supervises all elements to create a unified vision) [Duke of Saxe] 5) Auteur (French for author) [Akalaitis-woman]
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