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Where our nervous system receives and represents stimuli from the environment. Where sensory receptors absorb raw physical energy. It is where the raw energy is transformed into neural signals are sent to the brain
It is the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events
From the bottom up- is perception and sensation, then attention, then memory, then thinking action. PAMT
Since it is subjective, it is evaluated using psychophysics.
1) Absolute thresholds
2) Signal Detection Theory
3) Just Noticeable Difference
4) Subliminal Stimulation
It is the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time. And it varies with age. (the older we get, the harder hearing or eye sight).
The theory seeks to understand why people respond differently to the same stimuli and why people’s reaction changes in different circumstances. Detecting a stimulus is jointly determined by the signal and the subject’s criterion (bias). It assumes that there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a person’s experience, expectations, motivation and level of fatigue (bias). Measuring of our hits to false alarms.
It is the minimum difference a person can detect between any two stimuli half the time.
Weber’s Law is involved. Weber’s law describes that for stimuli to be perceived as different, they must differ by a constant minimum percentage (proportion) rather than the constant amount.
-Define what subliminal messages are.
This type of stimuli is below one’s absolute threshold for conscious awareness. Even though they are not consciously perceived, it supposedly influences people’s judgments, attitudes and behaviors. Examples in class: move theatre Coke and popcorn, improving memory and self esteem tapes- no effect but the subliminal advertising in the lab with Chinese character and emotion faces showed some sort of influence.
What do short and long wavelengths represent?
Short wavelengths represent blue colors and have high frequency (ßà)
Long wavelengths have a lower frequency and represent red colors.
Green is represented by a small amplitude (up and down)
Where does light enter the eye?
The cornea and the lens
-What does the cornea do?
It protects the eye and bends light to provide focus.
-Where does light pass through?
-What is the pupil?
A small adjustable opening
-What is the iris?
A colored muscle surrounding the pupil.
It fine-tunes the focusing of the light.
-How are objects focused on the retina with farsightedness?
-Define what accommodation by the eye means.
It is the process by which the eye’s lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina.
-What is the process of visual perception?
1) Visual information is sent to the brain
2) It is then constructed into component features (feature detectors in brain that recognizes shape)
3) These are then composed into a meaningful perceived image
4) Which is then compared with previously stored images to be finally recognized.
-Define what parallel processing is.
It is the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously- such as the brain looking at color, movement, form and depth all at once. It is the brain’s natural mode of information processing for many functions. It can be compared to serial (step by step processing).
-Compare the Young-Helmholtz trichromatic (three-color) theory to the opponent-process theory of vision.
The Young-Helmholtz theory suggests that the retina contains three different color receptors- one most sensitive to each RGB color. When stimulated in any combination, they can produce the perception of any color. It is supported by the color- deficient vision.
The Opponent-process theory suggests that the opposing retinal processes enable color vision. Ex: stimulated by green and inhibited by red and vice versa. It is supported y the afterimage effect.
-Sound travels through air at 750 mph- sound is much slower than light which is why you see lightning before you hear thunder.
- How are high and low frequencies represented?
High frequency represents high-pitched sounds but they have short wavelengths.
Low frequency represent low-pitched sounds but they have low wavelengths. Great amplitudes have loud sounds.
- How are we able to locate sound?
The auditory system detects small differences between right and left ear. It is able to measure the just noticeable difference.
1) Place theory: (REMEMBER PLACE CODE)- the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea’s membrane is stimulated.
2) Frequency theory: (REMEMBER FREQUENCY CODE)- the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch.
1) Sound waves are collected in the outer ear.
2) It is then funned through the auditory canal to the eardrum
3) The ear drum then vibrates the three bones- hammer, anvil and stirrup in the middle ear to the cochlea.
4) These vibrations cause hair cell movements, which then send neural messages to the auditory cortex.
A type of hearing loss that is caused by damage to the mechanical system of the ear, such as the cochlea.
-What causes sensorineural hearing loss?
It is caused by damage to the hair cell receptors or auditory nerves. It is most often caused by aging or prolonged exposure to noise. Digital hearing aids can help by amplifying vibrations.
-What does sensory compensation mean?
When people lose one channel of sensation, they tend to be able to compensate with a slight enhancement of other sensory abilities. Blind musicians are more likely to have perfect pitch.
It is the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts.
-Define what a vestibular sense is.
It is the sense of body movement and position- including the sense of balance.
-Understanding pain: What is the gate control theory?
It is the theory that suggests that the spinal cord contains a neurological “gate” that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on the brain. The ‘gate” is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers. The gate is closed by the activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain.
-How does sensory interaction work?
It is the principle that one sense may influence another. Smell influences the way we taste things.
-some odors trigger a combination of receptors, in patterns that are interpreted by the olfactory cortex.
-What is perception?
It is when we selectively attend to, and process a limited number of information taken in through sensation and block out all other information.
-What is the cocktail party effect?
-What is perceptual organization?
-it is when we transform the sensory information into something more meaningful- meaningful perceptions must be organized.
-Define what visual capture is.
It is the tendency for vision to dominate the other senses.
Define what gestalt is.
It is an organized whole. We tend to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes. Ex: Necker cube and dog house. The whole may exceed the sum of its parts
It is the organization of the visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (ground)
-What is grouping?
-What are the five different grouping categories discussed in lecture and in the textbook?
1) proximity- where we group nearby figures together (the six lines as three bars)
2) similarity- group figures that are similar as a group (triangles and circles)
3) continuity- perceive continuous patterns as one (wavy line on top of straight line)
4) connectedness- because they are uniform and linked, we perceive each set of two dots as a single unit (the dumbbells)
5) closure- we fill in gaps to create a complete whole object
-What is depth perception?
A function of our ability to see things in three dimensions which enables us to estimate their distance from us and it depends on acquired knowledge. It also depends on binocular and monocular cues.
-What are binocular cues?
They are depth cues that depend on retinal disparity (both eyes), by comparing images from the retinas in the two eyes, the brain computes distance. The greater the disparity between the two images, the closer the object.
-What is perceptual consistency?
It is the ability to recognize objects as being the same despite changes in size, shape and brightness.
-What is shape consistency?
Like a door being open
-What is size consistency?
-What is lightness constancy/brightness contrast?
Like the shadows- when you put something next to something dark, it’ll look lighter but it’ll be the same color as another dark color next to something bright.
-What is color constancy?
It is when you perceive familiar objects as having consistent color even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object. It depends on context (like the color that surrounds it)
-You lack experience of perceptual interpretation if you lost vision in the beginning of life. They cannot distinguish figure from group or interpret colors. Objects that they had learned by touch, they couldn’t recognize by sight.
-Define perceptual adaptation.
The ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field. (ex: the inverted glasses)
-Define perceptual set.
It is a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another. They greatly influence (top-down). Ex: that story that was done in class. Our experiences, assumption and expectations influence our perceptions.
-Define what a schema is.
What you see is influenced by perceptual set. Ex: face of lady vs. jazz player.
-What are context effects?
Like the rabbit in the magician’s cabinet and the “eel on the wagon”.
-Define what parapsychology is.
It is the study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psycho kinesis.
-Define what extrasensory perception is.
The claim that perception can happen apart from the sensory input. It includes telepathy, clairvoyance and precognition.
-Define what telepathy is.
It is mind to mind communication- one person sending thoughts to another.
-Define what clairvoyance is.
Perceiving remote events- sensing that a friend’s house is on fire.
-Define what precognition is.
It is the “ability” to perceive future events.
-Define what associative learning is.
It is learning that certain events occur together.
-Define what conditioning is.
It is the process of learning associations
-What are the 4 principles of classical conditioning?
-Who is Watson and what did he do?
He founded behaviorism and wanted to make psychology a testable science. He was behind Little Albert.
-What is systematic desensitization?
It is like getting over phobias or smoking. It’s the repeated pairing of a CS without the US that can be used to extinguish classically conditioned responses.
-What are some of Pavlov’s contributions to science?
Most organisms can learn through classical conditioning. The process of learning can be studied objectively.
-Give three examples of modern applications of conditioning.
1) Drug counselors advise former addicts to keep away from places thaty they associate with previous highs.
2) Alcoholics are conditioned with aversion therapy (remember clockwork’s orange)
3) Patients with phobias taking small steps to overcome them.
-What is the biology of conditioning?
Its like what we naturally fear- a fear of snake is worse than the fear of a flower. This is just how natural selection favors traits that aid survival. An example of this would be taste aversion to a food that gave you food poisoning- like a bad hangover from tequila.
-Compare Classical conditioning to operant conditioning
Classical conditioning involves new associations between an already held automatic response and a new stimuli whereas operant conditioning involves new associations between behavior and its consequences (env). With classical conditioning, the organism doesn’t control the outcomes but with operant conditioning, the organism is able to control outcomes. With operant conditioning, the behavior is strengthened by a reinforcer or diminished by a punisher.
-Who is behind Operant conditioning?
-What does the Skinner box involve?
It is where the pigeon/rat pressed lever to receive pellet
-Different reinforcement schedules have differing levels of success. What are the ones mentioned in class and in the book?
1) Continuous vs. intermittent reinforcement. Continuous is very easy to extinguish. Intermittent is random and not consistent- its harder to learn and longer to forget.
2) Variable vs. ??
A positive reinforcer strengthens the response through presentations of a positive stimulus (like food after a bar is pressed), whereas a negative reinforcer strengthens the response through removing an aversive stimulus (like electric shock).
What are some applications of Operant Conditioning to real world?
-For clinical purposes such as with biofeedback
-For employees by giving them reinforcement with cash, time off, or vacations for impovements.
-Teachers use gold stars, toys, recess time
-Animal trainers use food
-What is punishment?
It is a negative event that follows the undesired behavior that decreases the likelihood of that response.
What is the difference between punishment and reinforcement?
With both positive and negative reinforcers, the responses are strengthened, but with punishment, the responses are decreased.
What are the four main drawbacks associated with punishment? (with children)
1) Behavior is only suppressed, it’s not forgotten
2) Punishment teaches discrimination (read up again on textbook)
3) Punishment can teach fear4) Physical punishment may increase aggressiveness by modeling aggression
What is the overjustification effect?
It is when people overestimate the degree to which behavior is caused by extrinsic rewards and underestimate the degree it is caused by intrinsic motivation.
Where are mirror neurons located?
They are located in the frontal lobe next to the motor cortex.
What is an example of observational learning?
Bandura’s Bobo doll experiment. When they were in the nonaggressive condition, the child totally ignored the Bobo doll. But when they were in the aggressive condition, they were also aggressive. Pattern- if female watching female be aggressive, they are more aggressive. Same goes for males.
What are the factors that influence observational learning?
1) If the model is the same sex and behaves in a gender-role congruent way.
2) If there is a positive relationship between the observer and the model
3) If the consequences of the model’s behavior are positive rather than negative
4) If the model is in a position of power.
-What are the two kinds of effects from media violence?
1) Short term effect- where there’s an increase in hostile behavior, feelings and attitudes
2) Long-term effect- where there’s a repeated exposure of media violence leads to chronic hostility, and desensitization to real- world violence.
-What are some criticisms of lab studies?
The exposure to violence is brief and controlled.
Aggression may be sanctioned and even encouraged
It lacks in external validity (though this was later proven to have the same as in natural settings).
-Your aggressive behavior in 3rd grade does not predict how much TV violence you will watch 10 years later. But your preference for watching TV violence in 3rd grade can predict your aggressive behavior 10 years later.
-Violence does not sell- watching aggression makes it less likely to remember the commercial.
Define what a flashbulb memory is.
It is a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event. May be due to emotion- triggered hormonal changes. More likely to be accurate directly after the event than years later.
What is the order of the information-processing model?
A stimulus goes to the sensory memory which then you will need attention going into it for the short term memory and then you’d need encoding for long term memory.
Define what sensory memory is.
It is the immediate, initial recording of sensory info
Define what short term memory is.
It holds a few items briefly
Define what long term memory is
LTM can be relatively permanent and can act as a limitless storehouse
Compare automatic processing to effortful processing.
Automatic processing involves the unconscious encoding of incidental info- like you don’t pay attention to the sequence of events during your day but you can somehow remember them later- like where you went and for how long.
Effortful processing involves encoding that requires attention and conscious effort. What helps effortful processing is the rehearsal of those things, which will make memories more durable and accessible for later.
What are the different methods of encoding discussed in class?
1) Mnemonic 2) Chunking 3) Hierarchies
Define what long term potentiation is.
It is increased synaptic activity so that there are more efficient neural circuits and less NT released. It is an increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation.
Define what recalling means.
It is the ability to retrieve information not in our conscious awareness
Define what context effects are and give examples.
It is when the context where you encode something matches the context where you retrieve the information, you tend to remember them better. Examples of such are déjà vu and mood congruent memory.
Define what absent-mindedness means.
It is the inattention to details that produces encoding failures.
Define what transience means.
It describes storage decay over time.
Define what blocking means
It is the inaccessibility of stored information
Define what misattribution means.
It is confusing the source of information
Define what suggestibility means.
It is the lingering effects of misinformation
Define what bias means.
Bias are belief-colored recollections (want to believe one thing)
List the five causes of forgetting discussed in lecture.
1) Retrieval failure
2) Proactive interference
3) Retroactive interference
4) Motivated forgetting
Define what retrieval failure is.
It is due to the lack of relevant cues and can be compared to the tip of the tongue phenomenon.
Define what proactive interference means.
It is when you can’t remember the new info because you’re stuck on memorizing the old or earlier info.
Define what retroactive interference means.
It is the phenomenon that when you learn new information, it could take the place of the old information.
Define what motivated forgetting means
It means remembering things differently than what actually happened.
Define what motivated cognition means.
It is when you want to remember things that portray the self in a more positive light.
Define what repression means
It is the defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings and memories from own conscious.
Can’t remember new information except implicit information
Can’t remember any old information
What causes amnesia and what are some syndromes?
It can be caused by damage to the prefrontal cortex and it can involve Korsakoff’s syndrome (drinking and malnutrition) and confabulations (made up things you think to be true).
What are the three steps of memory?
Acquisition, storage and retrieval.
What are the factors that influence the way you ACQUIRE new information?
The time that you view the event, lighting conditions.
-How focused you are at the time with how you are feeling at the moment.
-Focus effect where when the weapon is present, it is difficult to pay attention to anything else but the culprit.
-It can have something to do with the own-race bias where people are better at recognizing faces of their own race than of different races. Ex: mex clerks
-It is the tendency for false positive (when you don’t have something and the claim is that you do) to become integrated into people’s memory of an event. –An example of this is the experiment with the car crashes- smashed, hit, contacted verbs.
What is the “lost in the mall procedure” claim?
It claims that suggestive information can lead some participants to claim information as their own experience.
What can the malleability of memory do?
Changing beliefs or memories can influence what people think or do later.
How could I be so wrong with remembering?
It may be a function of source monitoring: such as when you saw a stop sign but was later questioned about the yield sign.
How can you make retrieval a biased or fair process?
Biased ones would be putting pressure on that person to pick someone and fair would be to tell them that the suspect might not be there.
An example would be the same experiment and biased instructions made people more likely to make a false identification.
What are the three aspects of Retrieval?
1) Foils (all should look same)
2) Instructions (biased or fair)
3) Format (the lineups)
4) Avoid familiarity biases- when people forget where they saw the face (may have seen the face before but it doesn’t match up to the actual person you need).
How can we use our skills at decoding non-verbal behavior?
We’re not good at detecting deception- only slightly better than chance.
What was Zuckerman’s findings with why people are bad at detecting deception?
-There is a mismatch between the behaviors that actually signal deception and those used by the perceivers to infer deception.
What are the four channels we use to evaluate deception?
Words, Face, Body and Voice. But Words and Faces are easily controlled so they are unreliable factors in detecting deception. The Body is more revealing since people make fidgety movements. The Voice is the best cue because when people lie, the pitch of voice rises and there are more hesitations.
Can confidence be another cue to whether or not they are lying?
No, because their deception may be unintentional- witnesses become more confident if they think someone else agreed with them. Additionally, confident witness will also reconstruct other parts of their experience.
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