to the carbon with highest H. Hydrogenation - slow reaction used with platinum, palladium, rhodium. Benzene - simplest aromatic compound, colorless, liquids or solids, insoluble in water, soluble in nonpolar solvents, oxidized by O 2 , undergo substitu tion reactions (nitration, alkylation, halogenations.) require strong acid such as H 2 SO 4 , AlCl 3 , FeBr 3 . Alcohols- soluble in water, ? b.p.?solubility. Ethers- ?b.p. slightly soluble. Amines- offensive odors. Most not water soluble, small are.Bases.React with acids=salt. Oxidation of Alcohols- primary 1C2H- aldehyde. Oxidation agents - K 2 Cr 2 O 7 + KMnO 4 . Reduction agents - NaBH 4 , LiAlH 4 , H 2 . Carboxylic Acids- O atoms(-charge), OH(+charge)?dissolves readily in H 2 O, OH group=acidic.React w/bases to form carboxyl ate anions. Ex.CH 3 CO 2 H(Aq)+OH - (Aq)?CH 3 CO 2 - (Aq)+H 2 O .Carbox acids+alcohol= Ester ification. Strong acids as catalyst.O (alcohol)? ester.Two part name.alcohol+C.A. Polymers- thermoplastics -soften and flow when heated+harden when cooled. Thermosetting plastics -initially soft-set to a solid when heated +cannot be resoftened. Adding functional groups to polymers changes properties.. teflon has fluorine. Insoluble. HDPE - hard+toughExMilk bottles. LDPE- softer+more flexible.Ex Sandwich bags. CLPE cross linked rigid and inflexible. Condensation Polymers - give off water. Can be between monomers with two functional groups.ex. Carboxylic acid and alcohol-terephthalic acid. Polyamide- ex. Nylon. Catalytic cracking- crude oil?alkanes?alkenes. Free Radical Reactions- extremely reactive, unspecific. retrosynthetic analysis- thinking backwards to make molecules in different ways. Polymer-melting/softening range vs. pure compound w/ sharp melting point.ss Carbox Acid Aldehd Ketone Ester Amide Phenyl Ether Alcohol Alkyl Halide Toluene Properties of Alkanes - methane, ethane, propane, buta ne- gases @room temp.Molar Mass? Melting and boiling point. Colorless. Noticeable Odors. Insoluble in Water. Burn readily in air. Free Radical Reactions -replacement of H atom by Cl 2 . Cycloalkanes - tetrahedral carbon atoms joined together in ring. Strained Hydrocarbons- unfavorable geometry is imposed around carbon; weaker C-C bonds and bonds readily undergo ring opening reactions. Alkenes- geometric isomerism and increased reactivity. Diene- more than one double bond. Ex. Butadiene. Properties of Alkenes and Alkynes - colorless, low molar mass compounds are gases, ? masses = liquids + solids. Markovnikov?s rule - when a reagent HX adds to an unsymmetrical alkene the hydrogen attaches glycerol
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