Exam one chapters 1-5
- George Mason University
- Psychology 465
- Exam one chapters 1-5
Last Modified: 2011-07-09
Related Textbooks:History of Psychology
**socrates, plato, and aristotle contributions led to..
*created basis for fields of natural science and philosophy
**described natural causes for psych. conditions
*holistic treatments (mind and body)
*descriptions of behavioral problems
**theories of temperment and motivation.
>>trained in templer.. rejects. Disease >> natural causes... natural heals.
*emphasis on patient.
The Art of healing.
Women hysteria >>wandering uterus.
"Truth lies in every mind"
Individuals skills measured by body - head (reason) chest (courage)
*Form for every object or quality in reality (humans, animals, love, etc.)
Aspatial.. does not exist ins pace. No physical form or location.
not in mind >> "extramental"
Atemporal (not in any time period.. not beginning or end)
Deductive + inductive/observational approach.
*epilepsy >> brain disharmony not by divine intervention
Imbalance of humors>> cause disease/ affects personality
17 books, describe structure and functions of body.
Diseases of soul arise from passions>> anger, fear, grief, envy, lust.
**TALK TO SOMEONE to free ones self** (Patience, therapist relationship)
*math relationship.. physical world and psychological experience.
**lute string length= sound heard.
Mind >> particles.. able to influence/ be influenced by external world.
Minds content >> shown by arrangement + experience.
1- objects/ events/ people linked through relative similarities.
2- objects/ events/ people linked through relative differences.
inductive approach to science >>observe carefully as it presents itself..
Study nature by recreating events.
Newtonian Universe >> God was important.
18- question church.
Truth would emerge through truth. not accept as truth if doubt.
"I think, therefore I am"
*Apes= capable of language.
rejected by church.
People need to be run by strong centralized monarchy >> hereditary so not conflict about whose in power.
Social contract btwn govrn and people.
*gov job to protect personal liberty and equality >> check and balances.
"Blank piece of paper"
*how minds developed.
Talked about simple and complex ideas
Reflections (internal operations of mind >> thinking, reflecting, knowing)
body >> take care of physical health
start early >> high influence when young, educate children as early as possible.
Punishment- do not. will break spirit.
Rewards- do not. show parents approval/disapporval
*knowledge comes from experiences.
Published : An essay towards a new theroy of vision/ Treatise Concering the Principles of Human KNowledge.
**empiricist** >> focus on analysis of sensory processing.
EXPERIENCE = differ perceptions of objects.
God perceived everything. If it makes a sound- does exist.. god can hear it.
>>humans should be studied w/ scientific method. part of nature<<
Made up of>> impressions/ ideas
1- resemblance (sometimes an object reminds us of another .. similar)
2- continguity>> 2 things are experienced together, we associate them.
3- Cause and Effect >> if one thing follows another.. associate
**biological basis of association.
Observations are attempted to describe the neurological correlates of mental activity.
Located mental faculities in brain.. external world acts on air sensory organs.. causes vibrations.
Vibrations + ideas >> associated after occurring same time.
Combine >> complex ideas.
*external events give rise to sensations which are followed in consciousness by ideas... >> streams of associated ideas.
...external events >> sensations >> consciousness of ideas >> streams of associated ideas.
*summarized british empiricism.. association = guiding principle for a theory of how mind is structured/operates.
>>external world acts on our sensory organs and causes vibrations
*Vibrations and ideas became associated after occurring simultaneously a number of times.
*These associations combine further to create complex ideas.
*Biological basis of associationism, which anticipates phsyio psych.
Set psych aside as field separate from philosophy and science.
**responded to lockes Essay Concerning Human Understanding w/ >> New Essays on Human Understanding.
*coinvented calculus with Newton
**experience necessary for knowledge. 1/4 is innate.
Mind isn't blank sheet. intelligence allows our experience>> knowledge.
*knowledge gained ^^ necessary truths.
**truths that are proven through logic and reason and not by experience.
"How is experience possible?? How do we gain knowledge from experience??"
*nativist position >> certain intuitions >> inborn and do not depend on experience.
psych not true science, cant conduct true experiments- observing mental states would modify mental states being observed.
>>anthropological observations of actual behavior of people way to study<<
12 in human mind >> Language, time, space, cause and effect, reciprocity, reality, existence, and necessity.
2- philosophical foundations
*descartes- mind separate from soul.
>>subject to own rules/ principles >>science of psychology.
2 major philsophical orientations:
>>first systematic studies of the spinal cord (frogs)
Distinguished between voluntary and involuntary movement.
1- near skin
2- interior towards middle.
**specific energies of nerves >> each nerve produces a unique sensation regardless of how its stimulated. **for a given nerve .. any stimulation will produce the same effect.
Opposed vitalism (life force in all living things)
*leading authority >> visual and auditory sensory systems<<
measure reaction times, to determine speed of nerve impulse.
*able to show reaction times took enough time that they must involve the movement of material, physical entities as opposed to being an instantaneous decision of mind.
1st study of localization of brain.
1- reinforced that brain is location of mind.
2- reinforced that mental functions can be located in brain
3-reinforced idea of individual differences.
*personality change/ lost ability to work/plan/organize
disease (look at brain postmortem when a patient manifests some specific mental or behavioral problem that is not correlated with any injury) *Paul Broca
speech production >> lost ability to move right side of brain..
Autopsy >> lesion on left side of the brain "brocas area"
imp implication...the cortexes of the two hemisphere through identical >> had different functions.
*stimulation of 1 hemisphere moved opp side of body.
ID'd motor cortex
*id'd neuron as basic unit of nervous system
*incorrectly thought neurons touched one another and that's how they communicated.
*concluded neurons dont touch... synapse.. nerve impulse bridge gap.
Destroyed part of cortex
*learning is not localized in any area of the cortex.. cortex acts like a system
*more damage to cortex >> worse learning becomes.
Words From Our Students
"StudyBlue is great for studying. I love the study guides, flashcards, and quizzes. So extremely helpful for all of my classes!"
Alice, Arizona State University
"I'm a student using StudyBlue, and I can 100% say that it helps me so much. Study materials for almost every subject in school are available in StudyBlue. It is so helpful for my education!"
Tim, University of Florida
"StudyBlue provides way more features than other studying apps, and thus allows me to learn very quickly! I actually feel much more comfortable taking my exams after I study with this app. It's amazing!"
Jennifer, Rutgers University
"I love flashcards but carrying around physical flashcards is cumbersome and simply outdated. StudyBlue is exactly what I was looking for!"