argue for the existence of innate ideas, generally believe that some knowledge and abilities are inner.
We gain knowledge through experience **all ideas are result of experience >> knowledge is experience w/n the world.
All phenomena can be explained by laws of nature.
we have "life" in us, infleunce epxerience. Functions of living organism are not all explained by laws of physics/chemistry. Life is sometimes self determining.
all living things made up on atoms in ceaseless motion
All things are composed of matter and all phenomena >> including ideas and consciousness and result of material.
coming to a conclusion based on reasoning. Follows logic from general premises/laws.
moves from specific facts/observations to general conclusion
branch of philosophy concerned with nature and scope of knowledge. addresses >> what is knowledge/ how acquired/ what do we know and how do we know?
**socrates, plato, and aristotle contributions led to..
the philosophical study of purpose
Ancients sough to..
predict and control events in world.
Inquiry about nature of being human started w/..
Greek and Roman thinkers *created basis for fields of natural science and philosophy
Two parent disciplines of psychology
Natural Science and philosophy. >> came from philosophy then took aspects of natural science
Early Greek Medicine priests were...
doctors. knowledge from greek god of medicine > asclepius
Greek physician who dissected animals. **replace templer medicine w/ observational/rational approach*
Alcmaeons successor. **described natural causes for psych. conditions *holistic treatments (mind and body) *descriptions of behavioral problems **theories of temperment and motivation.
>>trained in templer.. rejects. Disease >> natural causes... natural heals. *emphasis on patient.
Hippocrates and Observational Skills
Hemispheres >> contralateral. The Art of healing. Women hysteria >>wandering uterus.
Rationalistic approach. "Truth lies in every mind"
Sensations unreliable. >>cannot trust our representations of reality.
Individuals skills measured by body - head (reason) chest (courage)
Plato *Form for every object or quality in reality (humans, animals, love, etc.) Aspatial.. does not exist ins pace. No physical form or location. not in mind >> "extramental" Atemporal (not in any time period.. not beginning or end)
Truth would emerge through truth. not accept as truth if doubt.
"I think, therefore I am"
mind + bodies are separate entities.
body operates like machine.. god made man.
mind influences body.. body influences mind..
*man and animal are no different. *Apes= capable of language.
rejected by church.
our knowledge comes from experience in world.
closely tied to empiricism. knowledge gained from our experience is woven from associations we make between ideas.
*Leviathan >> book about why people form groups >> human need to keep aggression in check. People need to be run by strong centralized monarchy >> hereditary so not conflict about whose in power.
Tolerance of all people/ free speech/ freedom of religion.
Social contract btwn govrn and people. *gov job to protect personal liberty and equality >> check and balances.
An essay concerning Human Understanding
*experiences >> expiricists. "Blank piece of paper"
*how minds developed. Talked about simple and complex ideas
Locke: how do minds develop?
Sensations (contact w/ external objects that act on senses) Reflections (internal operations of mind >> thinking, reflecting, knowing)
come from sensations (hold, cold_
Combination of many ideas >> all complex ideas can be broken into component parts.
produced skewed view of world. (locke)
different sets of experiences >> different human understanding (locke)
Locke on EDUCATION
*epiricist >> all equal and capable of learning body >> take care of physical health start early >> high influence when young, educate children as early as possible. Punishment- do not. will break spirit. Rewards- do not. show parents approval/disapporval
*knowledge comes from experiences.
Published : An essay towards a new theroy of vision/ Treatise Concering the Principles of Human KNowledge.
**empiricist** >> focus on analysis of sensory processing.
EXPERIENCE = differ perceptions of objects.
God perceived everything. If it makes a sound- does exist.. god can hear it.
>>humans should be studied w/ scientific method. part of nature<<
Made up of>> impressions/ ideas
the basic sensations, raw data of experience (see red, feel hot) (Hume)
"faint impressions" ... not as vivid. Developed from impressions (Hume)
Lum'es three law of Association
*explain how complex ideas >> ideas and impressions
1- resemblance (sometimes an object reminds us of another .. similar) 2- continguity>> 2 things are experienced together, we associate them. 3- Cause and Effect >> if one thing follows another.. associate
Published: Observations on Man, His Fame, His Duty, and Hist Expectations.
**biological basis of association. Observations are attempted to describe the neurological correlates of mental activity.
Located mental faculities in brain.. external world acts on air sensory organs.. causes vibrations. Vibrations + ideas >> associated after occurring same time. Combine >> complex ideas.
Two basic elements of mind >> sensations / ideas
*external events give rise to sensations which are followed in consciousness by ideas... >> streams of associated ideas.
James Mill: The senses
added senses to five classic >> disorganized sensations (tickling, itching,) sensations from alimentary canal... llusle sensations.
...external events >> sensations >> consciousness of ideas >> streams of associated ideas.
Published: Observations on Man, His Frame, His Duty, and his expectations.
*summarized british empiricism.. association = guiding principle for a theory of how mind is structured/operates.
Hartley's Bio Basis of Association
*located mental faculties in brain. >>external world acts on our sensory organs and causes vibrations *Vibrations and ideas became associated after occurring simultaneously a number of times. *These associations combine further to create complex ideas.
*Biological basis of associationism, which anticipates phsyio psych.
Mind- 1st psych journal. Set psych aside as field separate from philosophy and science.
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
*Germany **responded to lockes Essay Concerning Human Understanding w/ >> New Essays on Human Understanding. *coinvented calculus with Newton
**experience necessary for knowledge. 1/4 is innate.
"Intellect" according to Leibniz
gives us knowledge from God, ourselves, and human spirit.
Role of Experience (Leibniz)
the role of experience >> our experiences allow the intellect to emerge.
Leibniz **truths that are proven through logic and reason and not by experience.
"How is experience possible?? How do we gain knowledge from experience??"
*nativist position >> certain intuitions >> inborn and do not depend on experience.
psych not true science, cant conduct true experiments- observing mental states would modify mental states being observed.
>>anthropological observations of actual behavior of people way to study<<
"a priori knowledge"
"known before hand" - knowledge from intuitions
"a posteriori" knowledge
"knowledge after world"- knowledge we get after experience.
12 in human mind >> Language, time, space, cause and effect, reciprocity, reality, existence, and necessity.
Higher faculties of knowledge
Judgment, understanding, reason.
Major contributions to psych **Renaissance and Post-Renaissance Eras**
Scientific method >>observe and quantify psych phenomena. ... mathematical predictions re. certain variables and verify predictions.
2- philosophical foundations *descartes- mind separate from soul. >>subject to own rules/ principles >>science of psychology.
2 major philsophical orientations: *Nativism Empiricism
**inherited characteristics .. education is not important. No social reform or political involvement.
equal potential of all humans to learn. **environment on development and importance of education.** >>behaviorism
Robert Whytt (White)
Spinal cord necessary for reflexes to occur. >>first systematic studies of the spinal cord (frogs)
Distinguished between voluntary and involuntary movement.
under control of the will,with the origin in and requiring an intact brain.
controlled through spinal cord (reflex)
Dogs >> nerves leave spinal cord in pairs 1- near skin 2- interior towards middle.
one part of the spinal cord is responsible for sensation and other for movement.
**specific energies of nerves >> each nerve produces a unique sensation regardless of how its stimulated. **for a given nerve .. any stimulation will produce the same effect.
Hermann von helmholtz
materialist- physical matter is the only reeality. **living organisms >> reduced to physical, chemical, mechanical processes >> scientific method.
Opposed vitalism (life force in all living things)
*leading authority >> visual and auditory sensory systems<<
Spread of Nerve impulse
*helmholtz measure reaction times, to determine speed of nerve impulse.
*able to show reaction times took enough time that they must involve the movement of material, physical entities as opposed to being an instantaneous decision of mind.
1st study of localization of brain.
1- reinforced that brain is location of mind. 2- reinforced that mental functions can be located in brain 3-reinforced idea of individual differences.
Franz Josef Gall
*personality >> bodily appearance.
*phrenologys worst enemy**
Action proper* Action commune
removing/destroying part of animals brain to determine function.
using albation, to show functions of different brain parts.
was able to show that brain structures do not act entirely independently but are interconnected.
Phineas P. Gage
Explosion- lost left frontal lobe *personality change/ lost ability to work/plan/organize
Ways to study human brain
*injury >> gage disease (look at brain postmortem when a patient manifests some specific mental or behavioral problem that is not correlated with any injury) *Paul Broca
Tan speech production >> lost ability to move right side of brain.. Autopsy >> lesion on left side of the brain "brocas area" imp implication...the cortexes of the two hemisphere through identical >> had different functions.
Identified an area in L temporal lobe associated w/ speech comprehension - Werick'es Area
Electrical Stimulation of the Brain
The procedure of directly stimulating the surface of the cortex >> begin to map functions of the surface of brain "a scientific phrenology"
Eduard Fritsch & Edward Hitzig
stimulated brain of wounded soldier, noticed when he stimulated different pts- diff muscles would move.
*dogs *stimulation of 1 hemisphere moved opp side of body. ID'd motor cortex
Pachon and Delmas-Marsalet
discovered an area of brain for reward and reinforcement *showed there are pts of brain responsible for emotion.
developed tech. for staining brain *id'd neuron as basic unit of nervous system *incorrectly thought neurons touched one another and that's how they communicated.
Santiago Ramon y Cajal
used golgis method of staining brain *concluded neurons dont touch... synapse.. nerve impulse bridge gap.
studied learning in rats going through mazes. Destroyed part of cortex 2 conclusions- *learning is not localized in any area of the cortex.. cortex acts like a system *more damage to cortex >> worse learning becomes.
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