Connected to the inside of the fibrous joint capsule.
Extracapsular ligaments are located where?
Outside the joint capsule.
Intracapsular ligaments are located where?
Inside the joint capsule.
Articular cartilage lines what? and is made up of what?
Lines the ends of bones and is made of hylaine cartilage.
What are Menisci or articular discs and where are they located?
They are fibrocartilage pads. They can 1. Subdivide a synovial cavity 2. Channel the flow of synovial fluid 3. Allow for variations in the shape of the articular surfaces 4. Restrict movements at the joints.
What are fat pads and where are they located?
Fat pads provide protection for the articular cartilages and serve as packing material for the joints as a whole. They are normally found in the periphery of the joints, lightly covered by synovial membrane.
What is osteoarthritis?
Wearing away of the articular carilages.
What is Rheumatoid arthritis?
When the body attacks the synovial membrane. It is an auto-immune disease.
What is a gliding joint (also known as a plane, or planar joing), and one example?
Plane joints have slightly flattened or slightly curved faces. The relatively flat articular surfaces slide across one another, but the amount of movement is very slight due to ligaments. LOCATIONS: End of clavicles Between carpal and tarsal bones
What is a hinge joint and one example? (This joint is monoaxial)
A hinge joint permits angular movement in a single plane, like opening and closing a door. EXAMPLES: Knee Elbow
What is a Pivot joint and one example? (This joint is a monoaxial)
Pivot joints only allow rotation. EXAMPLE: Joint that is made with the Atlas and the Axis.
What is a ellipsoidal joint (Aka Condylar joint) and one example? (Biaxial joint)
In this joint, an oval articular face nestles w/in a depression on the opposing surface. EXAMPLE: Condylar joints connect the fingers and toes with the metacarpal and metatarsal bones.
What is a saddle joint and one example? (Biaxial joint)
Saddle joints have complex articular faces. Each one resembles a saddle because it is concave on one axis and convex on the other. EXAMPLE: Moving your thumb.
What is a Ball-and-socket joint and one example? (Triaxial joints)
In a ball-and-socket joint, the round head of one bone rests within a cup-shaped depression in another. EXAMPLE: Shoulder Hip joints
What is angular movements?
Inc. or Dec. angle between bones.
What is flexion? Demonstrate it.
Dec in angle between surfaces of articulating bones.
What is extension? Demonstrate it.
Inc in the angle between the surfaces of articulating bones. (Return to anatomical position)
What is hyperextension? Demonstrate it (not too much xD)
Extension that goes past anatomical position.
What is abduction? Demonstrate it.
Movement of a bone away from midline.
What is adduction? Demonstrate it.
Movement of a bone toward the midline. (Your ADDing to your body)
What is rotation movements? Demonstrate it.
Movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis (may be medial or lateral)
What is circumduction? Demonstrate it.
Distal end of a bone moves in a circle while the proximal end remains stable.
What is inversion? Demonstrate it.
Sole of the foot inward. (so that the soles face toward each other)
What is eversion? Demonstrate it.
Movement of the sole of the foot outward. (So that the soles face away from each other)
What is Dorsiflexion? Demonstrate it.
Bending foot in the direction of the dorsum (upper surface)
What is plantar flexion? Demonstrate it.
Bending foot in the direction of the plantar surface (sole)
What is retraction? Demonstrate it.
Movement of a protracted part backward on a plan parallel to the ground.
What is supination? Demonstrate it.
Palm facing anterior, or superior.
What is pronation? Demonstrate it.
Palm facing posterior, or inferior.
What is elevation? Demonstrate it.
Movement of a body part upward.
What is depression? Demonstrate it.
Movement of a part of the body downward.
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