Glossary Artifacts- objects whose form is modified by human activity in some way Features- immobile artifacts Ecofacts- material remains not directly modified by human activity Sites- spatial cluster of artifacts, features, and/or ecofacts Context- an event in time which has been preserved in the Archaeological record Matrix- the surrounding soil/deposits Provenience- position of the find in 3 dimensional space Acquisition- process of obtaining necessary raw materials to make the object Manufacture- altering the raw materials into an object to be used Use-utilization of an object for its intended purpose, as well as for unintended purposes Deposition- process by which the artifact becomes a part of the archaeological record Ceramics- pottery Seriation- relative dating method in which artifacts from numerous sites, but same culture are placed in chronological order residue analysis petrographic analysis sherds- broken pieces of pottery Lithics- stone tools Ground stone-stone objects that are often ground down to a certain shape to be used as tools residue analysis mano/metate vs. quern/rubbing stone macehead axehead hammerstone- ovoid shaped tool that is used to strike lithic flakes off a lump of tool stone Chipped stone- cutting instruments Cores- body of stone from which the tools are made Debitage-waste left over from manufacture of chipped stone tools Chert Flint Obsidian Knapping Residue analysis Sickle blade Metal Most common are copper, bronze, and iron weapons, jewelry, needles Faunal remains- animal remains, typically bone, but also can be antlers, shells, or teeth needles, awls antler used in knapping Terracotta spindle whorls, figurines Taphonomy- study of what happens to artifacts after their deposition Archaeological excavation- the processing and recording of Archaeological remains Archaeological survey- two type: ground Reconnaissance and Aerial Reconnaissance pedestrian survey sub-surface survey probes shovel test pits- hole dug out with a shovel to determine whether the soil contains any cultural remains Sampling strategies and problems Ground reconnaissance- used to identify sites on the ground as well as attempt to assign dates to them Aerial reconnaissance- detects change in vegetation patterns or depth of soil to determine where buried structures may be Ground penetrating radar-radio waves are sent into the ground and they reflect off of the features Electrical resistivity- how weak or strong a current is Test excavations (test pits)- hole dug out with a shovel to determine whether the soil contains any cultural remains Wheeler-Kenyon method- excavation method that is done by digging within a series of 5X5 meter squares set within a larger grid Stratigraphy- study of the layers of deposits Law of superposition- where a layer overlies another layer, the bottom layer was deposited first Provenience (datum)- origin or the source of something or the history of the ownership or location of an object Locus/lot- portion of an excavated site for which artifacts seem to belong together Salvage archaeology- archaeological survey and excavation carried out in areas threatened by construction or other development Cultural resource management- practice of managing cultural resources Historical dating- determining dates using historical records Absolute dating- dating method that provides a specific year in which something happened Relative dating- dating method that helps determine chronologies by ordering artifacts in relation to one another Index fossil concept- Time markers- Cartouche- oblong inclosure with a horizontal line at one end, indicating that the text enclosed is a royal name Terminus post quem- “limit after which” Terminus ante quem- “limit before which” Three-Age System- the periodization of human prehistory into 3 consecutive time periods Stone-most remains are from the stone age Paleolithic- prehistoric era distinguished by the development of the first stone tools Mesolithic- prehistoric era where people are in transition between hunter-gatherers and agricultural Neolithic(new stone age)- period in the development of human technology Bronze- marks the beginning of complex metallurgical practices Iron- marks the beginnings of the use of iron for everyday tools Seriation- ordering of artifacts by style or form into chronological order Assemblage- group of different artifacts found in association with one another in the same context Typology- division of the human species by race Dendrochronology- “Tree-ring Dating” Radiocarbon dating- most important and widely used absolute dating technique Potassium argon dating-provides a date for when a rock solidified Chronology- dating method that puts time periods in a certain order BC/BCE-before Christ/ before common era AD/CE-After death/ common era BP Egyptian New Kingdom- period of time where many of the most important Pharaohs of Egypt were buried Valley of the Kings- Egyptian pharaohs were buried in the valley of the Kings from around 1550 BC-1069 BC Pharoah- ancient Egyptian rulers of all periods Antechamber- storeroom for various grave goods Annex-filled with goods Burial Chamber- filled with a giant gilded shrine with artifacts placed around the shrine Treasury-contained golden shrine containing canopic jars Sarcophagus-stone coffin Canopic jars- jars used during the mummification process to store and preserve the viscera of their own for the afterlife Bioarchaeology-scientific study of human archaeological remains Osteoarchaeology-study of human skeletal remains from archaeological sites Paleopathology- study of ancient diseases Paleodemography- study of ancient morality, fertility, and migration Genetics- science in heredity and variation in living organisms Sciatic Notch- Epiphyses- growth plates Pubic Symphysis- where pelvic bones join in the front Auricular surface- where the pelvis joins the sacrum in the back Osteomyelitis- inflammation of the bone due to infection Periostosis- inflammation of outer layers of bone Porotic hyperotosis- bone becomes porous as the bosy mines if for iron Rickets- vitamin D deficiency, bone becomes bent Osteoarthritis- bony spurs formed on adjacent parts of adjoining long bones and vertebrae Caries- dental cavities Trepanation- surgery in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the human skull Bone chemisty (strontium isotope analysis)- levels of strontium, lead, and oxygen are different in different places, the elements are absorbed by the body and deposited in the bones and teeth, knowing all this will make it possible to identify if a person moved there from somewhere or grew up in that place DNA- strands that make up the structure of your body Hunter-gatherer- people who rely on hunting and gathering as a way of obtaining food Levant- large area in Western Asia formed by the lands bordering the Eastern shores of the Mediterranean Carrying capacity- the size of a population the landscape can support Younger Dryas- around 11,000-9,000 BC the climate suddenly became colder and drier again Natufian- period when people were sedentary or at least semi-sedentary Sedentism- term applied to the transition from nomadic to permanent, year-round settlement Domestication- genetic modification of plants or animals to make them dependent on humans Domesticate- when a plant or animal becomes accostumed to human provision and control Agriculture- Small-scale Farming Intensive Agriculture- increased labor output into agricultural practices for greater output from the same batch of land Craft Specialization- allowed people to produce other things which could then be traded for food Secondary Products Revolution- occurs at 5000 BC in the near east( animals begin to be used for other products besides their meat, facilitates a greater level of production, intensive agriculture, and trade, new period of domestication, beginnings of intensive agriculture Irrigation- transportation of water away from rivers or other sources to fields Terracing- “steps” cut into the hillside to make greater surface area for the planting of crops Tokens- form of currency used by the Mesopotamians Bullae- “envelopes”of clay that were used to contain tokens Cylinder Seals- pieces of stone which contained the carving of a representational device that was unique to an individual Writing systems Sumerian pictographic- first form of writing system, derived directly from the shapes of tokens Kish Tablet- inscripted with proto-cuniform signs and is considered the oldest known written document Cuneiform- more abstract form of Sumerian Pictographic writing that is written with a wedge-shaped reed stylus Bone tags- tags made of bone that had names and places inscribed on them, earliest form of Egyptian writing, denoted ownership or identity to help ensure place in the afterlife Logographic system- Egyptian writing system where symbols represent what they depict Chinese- writing develops independently in China around 1500 BC Mayan hieroglyphs- only deciphered Mesoamerican writing system, called hieroglyphs, used around 3rd century BCE Syllabic system- system of writing in which one symbol represents a syllable of a word Syllabary- complete set of symbols Linear B- script used by the Mycenaeans in Greece during 1600-1200 BC, number of symbols seemed to indicate it was a syllabary Cypro-Syllabic- used between the 11th and 4th century BCE, replaced Greek alphabet Alphabetic systems- each symbol represent one sound (typically around 20-30 symbols) Proto-Sinaitic-first alphabet invented, invented by Egyptian prisoners, most alphabetic writing systems used throughout history Proto-Canaanite- direct descendant of Proto-Sinaitic, used from 1500-1050 BC primarily in the Levant Phoenician- direct continuation of Proto-Canaanite, used from 1050 BC-1st century BC Greek (Cadmian letters)- adapted from the Phoenician alphabet, vowels were added, adopted around 770 BC Etruscan- adopted the Greek alphabet, made some small changes around 700 BC Latin- descendant of Caerean version of Etruscan alphabet, around 600 BC, made small changes and is now the basis for most European and many non-European writing systems today Mixed systems- systems that use a mix of two different systems Egyptian hieroglyphs- independently developed in Egypt, very elaborate and complex system of writing Cuneiform Rebus principle- used-symbols represent the sound, not just what is being shown Scapulomancy- use of scapulae(shoulder blades) of animals, typically cattle, to predict the future Hieratic- cursive form of hieroglyphs, developed in Egypt shortly after the invention of Hieroglyphic writing( not ALPHABETS, symbols represented sounds, consonants, whole words, and ideas Coptic- language used by the Coptic church, a Christian religious sect still existing in Egypt, directly related to Egyptian language (dead language) Demotic- a script and stage of the Egyption language Abjad system- writing style where each symbol stands for one consonant Scribes- people who were specifically trained how to write, form of craft specialization Dead language- a language which is no longer spoken by native speakers ( may still be understood by modern people) Native speaker- someone who learned language by typical language acquisition Decipherment- process of determining the meaning of the symbols of a writing system Archaeological Evidence and Inference What are the four types of archaeological evidence? Artifacts, features, ecofacts, sites How do provenience and matrix relate to each other? Archaeologists have identified four main stages in the life of an artifact. What is the order of these stages that an artifact passes through? What occurs in each stage? Acquisition- process of obtaining necessary raw materials to make the object Manufacture- altering the raw materials into an object to be used Use- utilization of an object for its intended purpose, as well as for unintended purposes Deposition- The cultural remains that are left behind are rarely in their place of use (except in cases such as Pompeii where the natural disaster of a volcano preserved a moment in time). Usually, the artifacts that archaeologists find are trash deposits. What are the major types of artifacts? What type of information can each of these artifacts types provide archaeologists? What Ceramics(pottery) allows for construction of chronologies through change in style study of style and shapes and decorations can suggest connections to other cultures scientific analysis can determine the source of the clay used, firing technologies, and the contents of the vessel Lithics(ground stone, chipped stone) - give information on food production activities as well as warfare and other aspects of society The climate/environment affects how well archaeological remains are preserved. What are the affects(?) of certain climates/environments on the archaeological remains? What types of artifacts do we have little remaining evidence of? Tropical Climates worst for preservation heavy rains, erosion, acidic soils major root damage major damage from animals Temperate Climates variable temperature and fluctuating rainfall contribute to decay Dry Climate good for preservation lack of water prohibits survival of microorganisms responsible for decay Cold Environments good for preservation stops the action or microorganisms Wet Environments - Good for preservations, as long as remains are continually waterlogged from the time of deposition - anaerobic environment prevents action of microorganisms Paleobotanical remains provide evidence of ancient plants. What are the two methods that were discussed that archaeologists use to isolate paleobotanical remains? Reading: Sharer, R.J. and W. Ashmore. 2003. Forms of Archaeological Data, in Archaeology: Discovering Our Past, pp. 120-127. New York: McGraw-Hill. Archaeological Field Methods What are the four phases of archaeological research? What happens in each phase? What are the two main ways of collecting archaeological data? Research design - purpose of archaeological research is to answer a question about ancient society - NOT to collect artifacts - research design often includes a question, which can be very specific, or very broad Collection of Evidence depending on the question, there are a number of ways archaeologists can go about gathering data two main ways of gathering archaeological data: Survey and Excavation Analysis Publication Aerial survey/ reconnaissance vs. ground survey/ reconnaissance - how are each of these conducted? Know the following tools and methods: aerial photography, satellite imagery, sampling, transects, ground penetrating radar (GPR), electrical resistivity) Ground reconnaissance can be done on a regional or a more sitebased, local level strategy used depends on the research question used to identify sites on the ground, as well attempt to assign dates to them Pros -gives a detailed analysis of the material remains in a region -provides a broad view of the landscape -cheaper than excavation Cons -Significant time and labor investment -Sampling strategies can miss important sites -Sites may be deep underground/relatively undisturbed and artifacts may not appear on the surface Aerial Reconnaissance a sometimes easier way to perform an archaeological survey over specific portions of the landscape typically detects change in vegetation patterns or depth of soil to determine where buried structures may be Pros -Can be easy to obtain -Can identify underground remains -Does not always require travel to the site Cons -Cannot easily date the sites -Satellite imagery cannot always be obtained -Sometimes difficult to interpret Extensive vs. intensive survey What are the pros and cons of subsurface survey? Pros -Can achieve a more complete picture of an entire site more quickly than through excavation -Non-destructive -Saves excavation time Cons -Cannot date discoveries -Not always effective -Not always man-made features Archaeologists do not have the means to fully investigate a site or all sites in a region. For this reason, they sample. What kinds of sampling to archaeologists employ? How do archaeologists determine where to excavate? Find a site which seems to fit your research question, once picked, either used sub-surface techniques to detect where evidence of human activity should be, or perform test excavations to determine what areas might be more productive Excavations involve trying to understanding horizontal and vertical relationships of the cultural material. What can horizontal relationships tell us vs. vertical relationships? Human activity takes place horizontally in space, and change occurs vertically through time What is the Wheeler-Kenyon method? How is this different than other excavation techniques such as open-area and step-trenching? The wheeler-Kenyon method is an excavation method that is done by digging within a series of 5X5 meter squares set within a larger grid What is the Law of Superposition and why is it relevant to archaeology? Where a layer overlies another layer, the bottom layer was deposited first What is provenience? How is provenience related to archaeological loci/lots? Provenience means where something originated or the disposition of an artifact in a site, lots are usually dug up because a provenience was found What is the ratio between time spent excavating and the time needed to analyze the material that came out of excavation? One day of excavating= one week of analysis What are pros and cons of excavation? What is salvage archaeology and why is it conducted? -archaeological survey and excavation carried out in areas threatened by construction or other development - it is conducted to protect and preserve archaeological sites Reading: Renfrew, C. and P. Bahn. 2008. Archaeology, 5th edition. Chapter 3: Where? Survey and Excavation of Sites and Features, pp. 73-120, (optional: pp. 76, left ½ of 77, 80, 81, 84, 85, 92, 93, 98, left ½ of 99, 102-104, 106, 109-111). New York: Thames and Hudson. Dating Methods What are the three kinds of dating methods that archaeologists use? Which are considered ‘scientific?’ Historical, relative(scientific), and absolute(scientific) Why is Egyptian chronology important? How was/is it constructed? -Important because all the kings of Eygpt were listed on it dating back to 332 B.C. which makes it so when artifacts bearing their names are found in other parts of the Near East we can determine the earliest point in time in which something could have been made -Constructed through the use of Kings Lists: list of the names of the rulers of Eygpt and how long they ruled How do stratigraphy, the Law of Superposition, and seriation relate to each other? All are a form of dating objects What is the index fossil concept and how is it related to archaeology? What is dendrochronology? How is it conducted? What are its drawbacks? -Tree ring Dating -conducted by cutting a tree and examining its “rings” that vary in size each year based on environmental conditions -Drawbacks are tree ring dates only give the information on when the tree was cut down and wooden objects can still be used for many years after this What is radiocarbon dating? How is it conducted? What are its drawbacks? Conducted by measureing the proportion of Carbon-14 to Nitrogen-14 in organic materials Radiocarbon dating is form of dating that determines the date an organism died Dating is only effective until about 45,000 years old How did dendrochronology help refine radiocarbon dating? How did accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) help refine radiocarbon dating? -dendrochronology provide excellent ways of calibrating radiocarbon dates - with AMS a scientist can now count actual C-14 atoms instead of measuring decay rates What is potassium argon dating? How is it conducted? What are its drawbacks? - Form of dating very old deposits of volcanic materials - drawbacks are that it is only useful for deposits over 100,000 years old What is thermoluminescence dating? How is it conducted? What are its drawbacks? form of dating clay materials such as pottery conducted by heating ceramic artifacts up to over 932 degrees to measure how long it has been since the electrons were last released, once heated the escaping electrons produce light, the amount of which can be measured to determine how old a piece of pottery is drawbacks: not always as accurate as other dating methods, rate of irradiation must be known while it was in the ground What are the names of the time periods in the three age system? Stone, bronze, and iron The Stone Age is usually divided into three parts? What are they? Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, and neolithic Reading: Thomas, D. H. and R. L. Kelly. 2007. Chronology Building: How to Get a Date, in Archaeology: Down to Earth, 3rd edition, pp. 98-113. Belmont, CA: Thomson-Wadsworth. Designing Archaeological Research: What characterized the Egyptian New Kingdom? Who were some of the famous Pharoahs associated with this period? Period of time where many of the most important Pharaohs of Egypt were buried -Famous pharoahs were Thutmose III, Hatshepsut, Rameses II, and Seti I What is the Valley of the King’s? Where is it? Why is it located where it is (i.e. on the west bank and in this hilly region? Valley of the kings is where Egyptian pharaohs were buried located next to Nile river right across the city of Luxor Located there because of the places natural “pyramid” What is Deir el-Medina? Secluded village that the workers who built the tombs at the Valley of the Kings lived Theodore Davis was an American who had the commission to work in the Valley of the Kings. What important finds are attributed to him? Discovered a number of tombs at the Valley of the Kings Who was Lord Carnarvon? English aristocrat, became disabled after car accident, interested in Egyptology and began funding excavations in 1907 Who was Howard Carter? Who did he study archaeology under? What was positions did he hold? English Archaeologist, student of Flinders Petrie, from 1900-1904 he was the Inspector-General of Monuments of Upper Egypt and in 1904 he was Inspector-General of Monuments of Lower Egypt How was Howard Carter able to locate the tomb of Tutankhamun? What year was the tomb found? What was the first indication of the presence of a tomb? -Located tomb by identifying a portion of the valley of the kings that Davis had not already explored -discovered on November 4, 1922 - a step was discovered in the bedrock How did Howard Carter conduct the excavations of the tomb of Tutankhamun? Carter carefully documented and photographed each artifact in its original context What was the layout of the tomb? What was the function of each of the rooms? What types of artifacts were found in each room? -The tomb had four rooms: -Antechamber: storeroom for various grave goods(couches, food, chariots, furniture, etc) -Annex: filled with goods, extensively rifled through - Burial Chamber: mostly filled with a giant gilded shrine(artifacts were placed around the shrine) - Treasury: contained golden shrine containing canopic jars, other important goods, mummies of two stillborn children What tombs have been found in the Valley of the King’s since the discovery? How were these tombs found and what function did they serve? -KV63: found to be full of mummification supplies - KV 64: discovered as part of ground-penetrating radar survey of the area, believed to be the Tomb of Rameses VIII -KV 65: discovered during excavations in the valley, may be undisturbed Reading: Fagan, Chapter 9: Howard Carter and Tutankhamun, pp. 193-220. Bioarchaeology What is bioarchaeology? Who coined the term? What other disciplines lend their principles to bioarchaeology? bioarchaeology refers to the scientific study of human archaeological remains term coined by ASU professor Jane Buikstra includes principles of osteoarchaeology, palaeopathology, palaeodemography, genetics, etc What kind of information can be obtained through studying human bone? (health, diet, division of labor, patterns of movement, familial relationships, how a person died, sex, age, amount of heavy labor, diseases) What features of a human skeleton can help identify sex? How? Skulls - brow ridges, mastoid process Long Bones – robustness and length Pelvis – Sciatic notch, ventral arc, subpubic concavity, ischiopubic ramus What features of a human skeleton can help identify age? How? Epiphyses – degree of fusion Teeth – pre-adults vs. adults Pubic symphsis – change through time, issues? Auricular surface – change through time What examples of disease and trauma that can be identified by examination of the human skeleton were covered in class? Osteomyelitis, periostosis, Porotic hyperostosis, Rickets, osteoarthritis, caries, trepanation, migration, cannibalism How can examination of the human skeleton determine what type of labor a person undertook? •As muscles are worked heavily through time, the places where they attach to muscles ossify, and ridges form on the bones At Abu Hureyra, what skeletal traits are signs of extra and sometimes excessive strains caused by the carrying of loads? What skeletal traits are signs of the grinding of grain with querns and rubbing stones? What skeletal traits indicate a gendered division of labor? How can bioarchaeologists examine migration? Strontium isotope analysis How can cannibalism be determined through skeletal remains? Cut marks and their patterning, burning What use does DNA testing have in archaeology? Know the example of DNA testing discussed in class. Can be used to determine familial relationships, as well as descent What are some of the ethical considerations that bioarchaeologists deal with? Studying ancestors of a group of people other than your own In the Near East, the introduction of pottery during the Neolithic had what effect on the human skeleton? Reading: Molleson, T. 1994. The eloquent bones of Abu Hureyra. Scientific American vol. 217, no. 2, pp. 70-75. Domestication and the Origins of Agriculture What are some of the characteristics of the hunter-gather lifestyle?mobile population, egalitarian social system, kinship affiliations What was the climate in the Pleistocene and the Younger Dryas in the Near East? Colder and drier What is the concept of carrying capacity? How is it related to the climate? -the size of a population the landscape can support -the carrying capacity changes with the climate When did small-scale farming appear in the Levant? What is the archaeological evidence of this small-scale farming? -appeared around 9000 BC -stone tools were found that were used for harvesting of planted wild grasses What is domestication? What are some examples of domesticates? When and where did they first become domesticated (for map identification)? genetic modification of plants or animals to make them dependent on humans Emmer, Einkorn wheat, barley(Levant, 9000 BC) Sheep(western Iran, 9000 BC) Pig(Turkey and China, 9000 BC) In the Levant, domestication, agriculture, and sedentism appear during what period? Natufian period What is craft specialization? What enabled craft specialization? What did craft specialization lead to? How do we identify craft specialization archaeologically? -making of specialized material -surplus -lead to system of trading and authority over surplus What was the Secondary Products Revolution? When did it occur in the Near East? What were the effects of the Secondary Products Revolution? What are some examples of plants/animals and their secondary products? new period of domestication, beginnings of intensive agriculture occurred 5000 BC in near east animals were used for other products besides meat, facilitates greater level of production, intensive agriculture and greater trade examples ( oxen, donkey, grapes, olives, orchard fruits, cotton, horse, camel and silkworm) As agriculture became intensified, new agricultural practices developed. These included irrigation and terracing. What are these practices and how did help? irrigation: transportation of water away from rivers or other sources to fields terracing: “steps” cut into the hillside to make greater surface area for the planting of crops What were the consequences and effects of agriculture? Why does Diamond call the introduction of agriculture “The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race?” -consequences: production of surplus allows for greater population, production of crafts - Effects: brought a whole suite of problems to early farmers that were non-existent to foraging groups, health issues arose, higher level of stress on agriculuralists, agriculture changes the landscape Why do we think people settled down to farm? Population pressure due to the Younger Dryas, perhaps thought the benefits outweighed the costs Reading: Diamond, Jared. 1987. “The worst mistake in the history of the human race,” Discover, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 64-66. Origins of Writing What was happening just prior to the development of writing? –REWORD People began to settle in cities, social hierarchies become more established, craft specialization increases, and trade and exchange become more widespread What were Mesopotamian tokens? What was the function of these tokens? -Small stone, clay or bone objects that are carved into different shapes - believed to have been part of an accounting system used for the trading of grain and other foodstuffs What were bullae? What was their function and how were they related to tokens? “envelopes” of clay containing Tokens used for transactions between people, in order to assure the contents of the trasaction were kept intact What were cylinder seals and what was their function? -Pieces of stone, which contained the carving of a representational device that was unique to an individual -left impression when rolled across soft clay What were impressions? Why did they replace bullae and tokens? -When something is pressed against something else and a mark is left - they replaced tokens because eventually the tokens were pressed on the bullae to insure the integrity of the money and they just began to use the bullae with the impression on it What was the first form of writing? What is the name of the artifact that contains the first evidence of writing? How is it related to the Mesopotamian tokens? -Sumerian Pictographic was the first form of writing -pictograph - it is related to the token because it is derived directly from the shapes of tokens What is cuneiform? Where was it used? How is it different than the Sumerian pictographic writing system? What function did the writing serve? -form of writing that is written with a wedge-shaped reed stylus -used throughout Mesopotamia - written with a wedge-shaped reed stylus and is more abstract - trade documents(lists, accounting of transactions), educational documents(lexical lists, writing exercises Know the difference between a writing system and a language. A writing system is a form of language that is read and written down while language is spoken and used in writing text How did the Egyptian writing system evolve? What was the function of bone tags? What are Egyptian Hieroglyphs? What is Hieratic? it has evolved from the logographic system where symbols represent what they depict to Hieratic which was the cursive form of Hieroglyphs function of bone tags were to denote ownership of identity of the donor to help ensure place in the afterlife very elaborate and complex system of writing Hieratic is the cursive form of hieroglyphs How did the Chinese writing system evolve? What is scapulomancy and how is it related to the development of writing in China? -it evolved independently around 1500 BC - scapulomancy was when Scapula was thrown into a fine, the bone would crack, and the patterns of cracks would be interpreted into a prophecy and it is related to writing in China because the prophecies were recorded in texts What is an alphabet? What is the first documented alphabet? How did it develop? What other alphabets were discussed in class? How are they related to each other? an alphabet is all of the symbols related to the sounds in their language Proto-Sinaitic Developed into the Latin Alphabet which was a descendant of Caerean version of the Etruscan alphabet, alphabet grew to incorperate vowels and other small changes Proto-Sinaitic, Proto-Canaanite, Phoenician, Greek(“Cadmian letters”), Etruscan, Latin/ all related because they are just a continuation of previous alphabets with few minor changes How was writing related to craft specialization? Scribes were a piece of paper that writing was put on then read and Scribes were a form of craft specialization How was writing used as an instrument of control? Controlling the flow of information could help perpetuate ideologies of power in order to keep control What is the significance of writing for archaeologists? Written records provide a unique insight into the lives and minds of ancient peoples, chronologies(reconstruction of events), writing only existed in the Historical Period not at all in Prehistory What is the difference between being literate and being literary (see Lamberg-Karlovsky 66)? Reading: Lamberg-Karlovsky, C.C. 2003. “To Write or not To Write.” In Potts, T, M. Roaf & D. Stein. Culture through Objects. London: Griffith. Dead Languages, History and Archaeology What is a dead language? What are some examples? Are there native speakers of dead languages? -dead language is a language which is no longer spoken by native speakers -an example of this is Latin - Yes, people can still learn to read old languages What is decipherment? Process of determining the meaning of the symbols of a writing system How were Egyptian Hieroglyphs deciphered? What is the Rosetta Stone and what are the languages on it? Who worked on the decipherment of the Rosetta Stone? Who is considered to be the person who cracked the code? What feature of the hieroglyphic section finally led to decipherment? the language was deciphered with the extensive study of the Rosetta Stone Rosetta Stone was a stone with an inscripture of 3 different languages such as Hieroglyphs, Demotic, and ancient Greek Commission des sciences et des arts Jean-Francois Champollion The words “Ptolemy” and “Kleopatra” appeared in both texts and were spelt similarly so by comparing the overlap of some of the signs, their values could be verified How is the rebus principle related to Egyptian hieroglyphs? Rebus principle used symbols to represent sounds and Egyptian hieroglyphs also used symbols to represent meaning as each symbol represented that word for what it is What are the three major systems of writing? How are they different? What are some examples of each writing system? What is a mixed system and what are some examples? -logographic, syllabic, and alphabetic -Logographic system in which a symbol is used to represent an entire word(Chinese, Mayan hieroglyphs) -Syllabic system in which one symbol represents a syllable of a word(Linear B, Cypro-Syllabic) -alphabetic each symbol represents one sound(Latin, Arabic, Hebrew, Greek) -Mixed System mix of two different systems(Egyptian hieroglyphs, cuneiform) How was Linear B deciphered? Who worked on the decipherment of Linear B? What language is written in the Linear B script? - Ventris’ discovered that the language Cypro-Syllabic which had already been deciphered had similar signs and if some signs were given their corresponding meaning for Cypro-Syllabic, they formed Greek words -Alice Kober worked on deciphering Linear B as she noticed that certain symbols recurred in the same pattern, with the last symbol changing between a few different symbols -Cypro-Syllabic was in the Linear B text What are some examples of languages that still aren’t deciphered? Indus Valley, Proto-Elamite, Linear A/Cretan Hieroglyphs, Cypro-Minoan What are the benefits and pitfalls for archaeologists of having written records? Are written records always accurate? Know the example of the Battle of Qadesh(sp)? -through written records, archaeologists can tell more about historical events but a lot of the writing can also be untrue because people believed written text was actuality so if they didn’t want things to happen they would just change the text -no, they are not always accurate -The Battle of Oadesh was fought between the Egyptions and Hittites where both sides wrote records of their sides victory How is writing related to propoganda and the state control of power? Writing was often used to promote the power and glory of those who were able to write(ex. The ruling class) Reading: Singh, S. 2001. The decipherment of hieroglyphs. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ Archaeology in the Media How was archaeology often perceived by the general public? How did the rise of scientific archaeology alter the kinds of narratives archaeologists promoted about themselves? Real archaeologists have differing views of the most influential cinematic archaeologist, Indiana Jones? What are the critiques and praises that have been written about Indiana Jones? What are the differences between popular film portrayals of archaeology as a professions and reality? Focus on what archaeologists do, who they do it for, and how archaeologists are able to make a living. What is it about archaeology that entices filmmakers? What are the kinds of roles/depictions of archaeologists in film? (Hero, villain, victim, character in peril, secondary character, etc). How were archaeologists portrayed in early film vs. how are they portrayed in more recent films (non-hero to hero, sexless to oversexed, etc). How do films affect the relationship between archaeologists and the general public in terms of artifacts? What are some common themes/ plot devices in movies that portray archaeology (“in the past there were great technological wonders that have since been forgotten,” “” “”) How have archaeological films influenced the public perception of gender roles in archaeology? How does a character’s ethnicity affect their portrayal? The Near East is the most frequent backdrop for archaeological films. What are the stereotypes of the Near Eastern landscape in these films? What are the stereotype of the local characters? How should archaeologists’ deal with the preconceived notion of the profession? Reading: McGeough, Kevin. 2006. “Heroes, Mummies, and Treasure: Near Eastern Archaeology in the Movies.” Near Eastern Archaeology vol 69 nos. 3-4, pp. 174-185.