EXAM TWO STUDY GUIDE BIOLOGY 102 (Filled in version) Sections (so far): 1. Blood Vessels 2. Respiration 3. Immune System 4. Endocrine System Blood Vessels Arteries: carry blood via a conducting and distributing system to the body from the heart. Classification of Arteries: (this is dependent on SIZE) Elastic Arteries: part of the conducting system closest to the heart with thick walls and a large diameter. They are more elastic with a large lumen and their diameter ranges from 1.0 ? 2.5 cm. Smooth blood flow. Muscular Arteries: part of the distributing system that delivers to specific organs. There is a thick media layer more smooth muscle. The diameter ranges from 0.3- 1.0 cm. Arterioles: these determine the flow into the capillary beds. Composed of smooth muscle and the diameter ranges from 10 um ? 0.3 cm. Capillaries: these are the smallest in diameter, ranging from 8 ? 10 um and are responsible for the exchange of materials. Capillary Beds ? Identify the different parts: Sphincters: determine if blood can pass through into the capillaries. Microcirculation: blood moving from the arteriole to the venule Vascular shunt: connects the arteriole with the venule Sequence: Terminal arteriole Metarteriole- this is where true capillaries branch off Thoroughfare channel- this is where capillaries rejoin Post- capillary venule Venous: carries blood from the body back to the heart Classification of venous: (goes in reverse size order as arteries) Venules: contain little muscle and the diameter ranges from 8- 100 um. Veins: form from venules with thinner walls and less muscle. They acts as reservoirs with large lumens and low blood pressure. Venous Valves: prevent backflow, blood is mechanically moved by skeletal mucles contractors, and is composed of folds of interna. Physiology Terms: Blood Flow: volume flowing through a structure per unit time F = change in pressure/ peripheral resistance Blood Pressure: force per unit area BP = CO * PR Resistance: opposition to flow in systemic system. Source: blood viscosity Peripheral Resistance: the smaller the vessel (diameter) the more resistance PR = 1/( r^4) Systemic Blood Pressure Blood flows along a pressure gradient generated by heart pumping. The farther away from the heart, the lower the blood pressure Factors: Stretching of arteries and 2) Volume of Blood Changes with Diastole: SL valve closes, the aorta recoils, the pressure is maintained by volume decreases. Pressure = 70-80 mmHg Changes with Systole: Pressure gradient, aorta is stretched when blood enters from heart. Some Calculations: PP = DP ? SP MAP = DP * 1/3PP Capillary BP: 40 mmHg entering and becomes 20 mmHg exiting. Venous BP: stable, gradient from venules to vena cava, 20 mmHg Functional Modification Respiratory Pump: the pressure in the abdomen increases and squeezes local veins. The pressure in the chest cavity decreases and the veins expand. Blood is then moved into the heart. Muscular Pump: refer to the venous valves diagram. Factors Regulating BP: Cardiac Output Peripheral Resistance Blood volume Remember: these are all directly related, if one is affected the others are too. CO= SV * HR (SV ~ PP) Factors that enhance Cardiac Output Reduce parasympathetic control increases heart rate. Increase sympathetic activity increases contractibility of heart reduces ESV and increases SV releases EPI into blood increases HR Increase activity of respiratory and muscular pumps increase venous return increases EDV and increase SV Neural control of BP Short term Nervous control, which affects blood distribution and vessel diameter Vasomotor Center regulates blood vessel diameter vasomotor fibers, which are found primarily in arterioles, release NE, and are a vasoconstrictor Vasomotor tone: tonic vasocontriction Baroreceptors When BP rises, receptors are stretched Stretching increases signaling to vasomotor center This reduces PR reduces BP Shifts blood to venous reservoirs CO decreases and venous return decreases Sends efferent signals to medulla inhibits SNS stimulates PNS Heart rate decreases and contractibility decreases Chemical Control of BP (short term) Adrenal medulla hormone (AMH): produces NE and EPI; increases BP ANP: Reduces BP by producing aldosterone; increases water excretion ADH: increases BP: increases water absorption; vasoconstriction Angiotensis II: releases rennin when blood amount too low; vasoconstriction Aldosterone: increases water absorption; constriction; inflammatory chemical/alcohol = dilaters. Forces responsible for exchange in capillaries Hydrostatic Osmotic Calculations: NFP = change in Hydro pressure ? change in osmotic pressure At arterial end, positive value (fluid moves out) At venous end, negative value (fluid moves in) Respiration Function: supplies body with oxygenated blood and disposes of deoxygenated blood Processes: PULMONARY VENTILATION: moves air in and out of the lungs EXTERNAL RESPIRATION: gas exchanged between blood and lung chambers TRANSPORT: gas exchange between lungs and tissue cells via the cardiovascular system INTERNAL RESPIRATION: gas exchange between blood and tissue cells ANATOMY: Nose Nose Cavity Pharynx (3 type: oropharynx, nasapharynx, larynpharynx) Larynx Trachea Bronchi Lungs alveoli (site of gas exchange) Conduction system: nose and paranasal sinuses Housed in the bones of the face Warms, filters, and humidifies the air Glands: sebaceous and sweat Respiratory Mucus: pseudostratified ciliated columar; cilias to move mucus to pharynx Larynx: Provides airway; directs food and air into proper channels; is composed of nine cartilages Epiglottis: covers the glottis Glottis: laryngeal opening Trachea: ranges from the end of the larynx to the mediastinum Divides into two bronchi Hyaline cartilage for structural support Bronchial Tube Primary bronchi: enter the lungs and subdivide into the secondary bronchi Secondary bronchi: three on right, two on left; each supplies into one lung lobe Lung lobe: branches into tertiary bronchi Tertiary bronchi: divide into terminal bronchi; 23 orders in total NOTE: as the tubes get smaller, the hyaline cartilage rings are replaced by irregular plates of cartilage Tertiary bronchi terminate into clusters of alveoli: alveolar sacs Alveoli: Site of gas exchange; surrounded by elastic fibers; pulmonary cappilaries extend over surface of alveoli Alveolar wall: composed of type one (simple squamous) and type two (secretes surfacant) Position of Lung: each lung suspended in own cavity diaphragm under the lungs attached to rib cage Pleura: double layer serosa covering Parietal: covers the exterior Visceral: covers the internal The space between is fluid filled Blood Supply: (two circulations) Pulmonary: delivers deoxygenated blood from the heart and delivers oxygenated blood to the heart Bronchial: provides systemic blood to lung tissue Mechanics of breathing: Inspiration: active; done by diaphragm and external intercostal muscles Expiration: passive Intrapulmonary pressure: relative to atmospheric pressure; changes with phases of breathing; when less than one (atm pressure), pressure gradient brings air into the lung Intrapleural pressure: always less than one so that lung does not collapse Active Inspiration: -Depends on decreasing pressure in lungs -Intrapulmonary volume increases -Intrapulmonary pressure decreases Force Inspiration: Includes diaphragm, external intercostal muscles and accessory muscles Accessory muscles: Scalenes and sternocleiodomastoid of neck; pectoralis; erector spinae Passive Expiration: Ribs descend and lungs recoil Intrapulmonary volume decreases Force Expiration: abdominal muscles contract Pulmonary Ventilation: Airway resistance (diameters of tubes) Alveolar surface tension Lung compliance: expandability, blocked respiratory passages, production of surfactant. Respiratory Volume Types Tidal: what you breathe in Inspiratory Reserve: forcibly inspired Expiratory Reserve: forcibly expired Residual Volumes: minimum amount of air in lungs Respiratory Capacities Inspiratory Capacity: sum of tidal and inspiratory reserve volumes Functional Residual Capacity (FRC): sum of residual and expiratory reserve volumes Vital capacity (VC): total amount of exchangeable air; does not include residual volume Total lung capacity (TLC): all lung volumes Oxygenated Blood Transport: Bound to hemoglobin (primary) Dissolved in plasma NOTE: after initial oxygen molecule binds, infinity for other oxygens increases Carbon Dioxide Transport: Dissolved in plasma Bound to hemoglobin Bicarbonate ion in plasma (primary) Control of Respiration Medulla: DRG (pacesetting mechanism); VRG (forced expiration) Pons: rate and depth of breathing Immune Function Immune function: protects body from infective agents Nonspecific: Does not distinguish between infective agents First line of defense Physical barrier (skin and mucuous membranes) Chemical barrier (acidic, bacterial flora, antimicrobial proteins) Phagocytic cells: eat foreign material Neutrophils: arrives first; destroyed during response Monocytes: enlarge and develop into macrophages Macrophages: wander or permanently reside in connective tissue or organs Eosinophils: fight parasitic worms Natural Kill Cells: target own body cells if abnormal or infected Inflammation: response to tissue damage Vasodilation: increases blood supply; vessels become more permeable and fluids can move into surrounding tissue Chemical signals: initial response Histamine: released by injured basophils and mast cells; causes vasodilation Prostaglandins: increases blood flow to injured tissue Chemotaxis: migration of phagocytic cells Antimicrobial proteins Complement system: interacts with other defense mechanisms Interferons: produced by infected cell, which gets destroyed. Once received in neighboring cells it turns off DNA transcription to slow down virus. Specific: Responds specifically to particular infective agents; response in future is more rapid and robust Ability to recognize and eliminated particular microorganisms and foreign material Each lymphocyte responds to only one antigen (diversity in lymphocytes) Memory: recognizes previously encountered antigen Primary memory response: new clones of effector Secondary memory response: memory cells Types of Lymphocytes B Cells: form and mature in bone marrow T cells: form in bone marrow, mature in thyroid Antigen: foreign substance that elicits lymphocytic response; present on surface Antibody: antigen-binding immunoglobin produced by B cells Antigen receptor: on plasma membrane of lymphocytes recognizes and distinguishes antigens Types of Immune Response: Primary immune response: first exposure to antigen; B cells give rise to effector cells which secrete antibodies Secondary immune response: encounter to a previously encountered antigen; more antibodies Self/Non-self recognition: immune system distinguished between body cells and foreign cells Humoral: bacteria/viruses present in body fluids T dependent (memory cells) and T independent (NO memory cells) Cell-mediated Immune Response: infected cell initiates cellular response Terms Activated helper T cells: after antigen detection, lymphocytes differentiate into these and secrete cytokines that stimulate other lymphocytes Memory helper T cells: after antigen detection, lymphocytes differentiate into these. Antigen-presenting cells (APC): cells that take up antigens NOTE B cells differentiated and produce antibodies and memory cells T-dependent antigens: cooperative responses with macrophages, helper T cells and B cells T-independent antigens: triggers humoral response without aforementioned cells Antibodies: IgM; IgG; IgA; IgD; IgE Effector Mechanisms Neutralization: blocks viral attachment sites by coating the toxin Opsonization: enhances macrophage attachment Agglunation: neutralizes and opsonizes toxins Precipitation: cross-link soluble antigen molecules Immunity Passive Immunity: transfer of antibodies from one individual to another in order to allow time for body to develop its own antibodies Active Immunity: naturally follows recovery from infection; this can be from vaccines Endocrine System Endocrine: ductless; secrete hormones Exocrine: have ducts; nonhormonal products Hormones: chemical substances secreted by cells into extracellular fluids that regulate metabolic functions of other cells Amino-acid based (G protein-linked receptor activation) Steroid (Direct gene activation) Second Messenger systems: Hormone binds to plasma membrane receptor G protein signals effector to produce and intracellular message Second messenger mediates cellular response to hormone Direct gene activation: Steroids (since they are lipids) pass through membranes Hormones bind to intracellular receptor (chaperone) Activated complex passes through nucleus and binds to DNA sequence, turning on the gene Target Cell Specificity: Mediated protein receptors (localized) Factors include hormonal levels, number of receptors, and receptor affinity Hormonal Activity: Half-life: measure of hormonal persistence in blood stream Onset of effect is dependent on hormone type Short duration Hormone secretion is triggered in response to a stimulus Further hormonal release is inhibited Humoral: endocrine glands release hormones in direct response to changing levels of ions and nutrients Neural: nerve fibers stimulate hormonal response Hormonal: glands release hormones due to other hormones Pituitary: Controlled by hypothalamus Connected by infundibulum Two major lobes (anterior and posterior) Highly Vascular Posterior and Hypothalmus Maintains direct neural connection (hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract) Produces oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone Anterior and Hypothalmus No direct connection Hypophyseal portal veins- vascular connection Releasing/inhibiting hormones Produces 6 hormones Tropic hormones: control the production of hormones TSH; ACTH; FSH; LH Other hormones: PRL and GH Anterior Hormones Growth Hormone: stimulates somatic cells to grow and divide, promotes metabolism TSH: Tropic; stimulates normal growth and activity of thyroid, feedback inhibition, GHIH inhibits; Hypothalmus TRH TSH TH ACTH: stimulates adrenal cortex to release corticosteroid hormones; offsets stress. FSH: gamete production LH: with males, produces testosterone, with females, matures follicle and egg breaks from follicle creating corpus lutenum. PRL: prolactin; stimulates milk production. Serotinin and dopamine. Levels parallel estrogen. Posterior Hormones Oxytocin: stimulates smooth muscle contraction childbirth. Triggers milk ejection. ADH: little water available, prevents urine production, kidney reabsorbs water; vasocontriction. Thyroid: Iodine containing hormones T4 and T3 T4 converts to T3 Increase in metabolism by stimulating glucose oxidation Rising levels of thryoxine inhibits TSH release Calcitonin: reduces high levels of calcium by inducing calcium intake Follicles: layer of secretory cells that produce thyroglobin Parathyroid: Chief cells: secrete PTH PTH: controls calcium equilibrium by stimulating osteoclast activity, enhancing reabsorption by kidney, and increases calcium absorption by intestine, vitamin D becomes active form Adrenal: Controlled by medulla and cortex Responds to stress Adrenal cortex: Mineralcorticoids: produce aldosterone Glucocorticoids: influence metabolims in response to stress Adrenal Medulla Short term stress Secretes EPI and NE ? elevates BP and HR SNS mediated Pancreas: Exocrine and endocrine Islets of Langerhans Alpha Cells: glucogons Beta cells: Insulin Synthesis and storage of glycogen Pineal: secretes melatonin: regulates SCN which regulates circadian rhythm Thymus: decreases in size with age; location of Tcell maturation; includes Thymopoietins and Thymosins.
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