Non-human primates, extinct hominids, all types of living humans
What does socio-cultural anthropology entail?
The study of human society and culture, customs and laws
What does Archaeology entail?
Just like cultural anthropology, only the subjects are dead. Relies upon artifacts, not people
What does linguistics entail?
Historical/Evolutionary relations of language through time soci0-lingustics=how culture/society shapes language and vise versa
What is a holistic perspective?
The sum total of a society is much more than just the sum of its parts
What is an integrated perspective?
everything connects to everything else
What does it mean to be culturally relative?
If you want to understand why a group does something you cannot judge it from your perspective, but be neutral.
What were the ideas of Morgan?
methodical and systematic. Believed that ALL societies, past or present, started off at the same place.
What is social darwinism and who created the concept?
the survival of the fittest. SOCIAL SELECTION. Created by HERBERT SPENCER, who thought Europe was the height of social evolution
What is Historical particularism and what groundbreaking idea did it spark?
Franz Boas. Everyone is different. Places value on differences in history and environment. Starts ETHNOGRAPHY
What is diffusionism and who created it?
The idea that good ideas will spread among people. V. Gordon Childe created the idea
What is cultural ecology and who created it?
the idea of environmental adaptation. The creator was Julian Steward
What is Functionalism(as related to anthropology)?
The basis of everything is survival. There is a social structure and everyone has a part. It is a BIOLOGICAL view of the world. Creators were Malinowski and Radcliffe-Brown
What is structuralism?
A worldview is there, and that worldview is reflected in society. Society is a MENTAL STRUCTURE. CREATOR CLAUDE LEVI STRAUSS taking practical things and relating them to abstract mental constructs regarding the world
What is an EMIC perspective?
What is an ETIC perspective?
What is APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY?
using anthropological knowledge to address real human problems. Can be bad when people use it in advertising and marketing.
What is the sociological imagination?
the idea of personal troubles and public issues. Marriage issues are personal trouble, but the trend of divorce in our society is a public issue
What is mutual constitution?
We shape our society while it shapes us.
What is determinism?
our actions are made by our society.
What are social facts?
exerts constraint (consequence) general over society. exists independently of society
what is a social value?
something important in order to be morally and socially correct...chivalry or respect
what is a social norm?
situational behaviors. when you violate norms, there is PUNISHMENT. Social institutions are set up in order to enforce these these core values
what is the difference between an ascribed and achieved status?
If it is ascribed, you are born into it, if you earned it, it is achieved.
What is structural functionalism?
social structure has a function. . Idea is biological. Concept of sociology as a SCIENCE of society.
What is a positivist point of view?
believe in objectivity. repeatable/verifiable. quantifiable reality. universal truths.
What are the two types of function?
Latent- a less obvious function Manifest- the most obvious function
What is a conflict perspective?
the structures of society are fundamentally oppressive.
What is marxism?
the economic base is the ONLY THING that matters. An economic base will turn into a superstructure. Education is a means to create competent docile workers. Religion is the "Opiate of the masses" to keep them happy in their low status
What is a false consciousness?
everyone wants to be the "riser" the one who goes from low to high status
What is symbolic interactionism?
social institutions and facts do not exist without the daily actions of society. MAX WEBER -antipositivist- we can understand a society like we understand a piece of art symbols are agreed upon and lived by. all of human behavior is about behavior combined with symbology.
what is "anomie"?
a certain disconnectedness with society. ISOLATION AND SEPARATION.
what is the idea of correlation vs. causation?
Just because two things are related doesnt mean one is the cause of the other.
Why don't animals have language technically?
because they lack openness and displacement. They cannot talk in the ABSTRACT
What is the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis?
how the way we talk about things effects the danger, the reaction that we perceive. the idea of the Full vs/ Empty gas tank and if you should smoke near it
What is proxemics?
The art of body language.
What is heteronormativity?
the idea that the man/woman relationship is the NORM
What is historical particularism?
people have different cultures because they have different histories.
What are the NINE traits of a culture?
learned, shared, symbolic, integrated, complex, material, less than ideal, adaptive and able to CHANGE.
How many years ago did humans and apes split genetically?
how long ago did we see the first material signs of culture?
Why do humans have big brains? What are drawbacks?
4x the size of a chimpanzee 1/4 of our energy goes to the brain especially risky in childbirth
What are the benefits of big brains?
ecological intelligence. Predator avoidance. Development of complex culture. CUNNING TO SURVIVE
What are the two types of chimpanzee?
Common and Bonobo
What percentage of DNA do chimps have in common with us?
What does the chimp culture look like?
Male hierarchy. Ascribed and achieved statuses.
how are conflicts resolved in bonobo culture?
through sex. ORGIES
What is anthropomorphizing?
attributing human motivations to the actions of non human things
What is a bureaucracy?
a system of specialized interchangeable parts in a hierarchy
What attributes to enculturation of a child?
media, direct teaching, indirect teaching, peer to peer, education systems, religion
What is reflexive action?
the one thats doing the action is acting upon themselves
What is the looking glass self?
our concept of self is a reflection of how people act towards us and what they see in us
What is symbolic interactionism?
proxemics, facial expression, there is not society absent of two people (dyad) society is daily created by our actions and symbols.
What is semantic inversion?
taking a symbol and flipping it 180 degrees and making it cool. like hipster glasses. stupid hipsters.
What is the difference between sex and gender?
sex is biological, gender is a choice
What is a total institution?
an attempt at resocialization. cut off from society. 1.isolation 2. rationalization 3. hierarchy
what is deviance?
behavior, attitudes and attributes that VIOLATE SOCIAL NORMS
why do people commit deviant acts?
1. differential association-others held it in high regard 2. strain theory-had to 3. Cost Benefit analysis-if the benefits outweigh the cost
What is defined as deviant id for the benefit of the...
What is the modern american norm regarding marriage?
that we do it for LOVE.
what is the idea that we are "too damn sexy"?
unlike chimp females that are only reproductive for a short amount of time, we are all the time.
What is the nuclear family?
mom,dad and kids.
what is an affinial family?
people related only by marital bonds
Want to see the other 66 Flashcards in EXAM!!!!?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!