15:31 Exam 1: Summary Top of Form You have answered all 80 questions. Point Value: 2.5 1. What does the concept of inborn biases mean? A. Babies who are born into families with higher socioeconomic status have a head start on developing their full potential. B. Babies are born with built-in tendencies to respond to stimulation or experience in certain ways. C. From birth, children are more comfortable with members of their own culture, individuals who have similar language, customs, and behaviors, than members of other cultures. D. Development is based upon genetically controlled, systematic physical change. E. From birth, children's personalities are predetermined. Point Value: 2.5 2. Which of the following is a correct statement about the events leading up to conception? A. After ovulation, the ovum travels down the uterus to the fallopian tube. B. Ovulation occurs at the beginning of a menstrual period. C. After ejaculation, sperm travel the following path: the woman's vagina, cervix, uterus, and fallopian tube. D. Conception normally takes place in the uterus. E. Ordinarily, a woman produces two ova per month, one from each of her ovaries. Point Value: 2.5 3. ________ is a condition that can cause a baby to grow too rapidly and result in premature labor or an infant that is too large for a vaginal birth. A. Gestational diabetes B. Hypothyroidism C. High blood pressure D. Ectopic pregnancy E. Toxemia Point Value: 2.5 4. Why are birth medications such as analgesics and sedatives administered during the labor and childbirth process? A. to render the mother unconscious and unaware of the pain of labor and birth B. to block the mother's labor pains and the sensation of having the infant move through the cervix and vagina C. to slow labor in case of complications D. to reduce pain and anxiety E. to speed the birth process Point Value: 2.5 5. A new medicine for headaches is in clinical trials. The patients who are receiving this new drug are: A. the control group. B. the placebo group. C. neutral group. D. the experimental group. E. independent group. Point Value: 2.5 6. Organogenesis is: A. the process by which an embryo's sex organs (uterus, ovaries, penis, testes) are sufficiently formed to allow sex determination. B. the way the placenta, amnion, and umbilical cord begin to function. C. the origin of cell differentiation. D. the process by which the basic structures of the embryo's organs, organ systems, and body parts are completed. E. when the germinal stage ends and the next stage of prenatal development begins. Point Value: 2.5 7. Harriet was born with a tendency to obesity, and most of her immediate family is overweight. Harriet's genetic predisposition for weight is her ________. A. monotrait B. sex-linked inheritance C. polygenic trait D. dominant trait E. genotype Point Value: 2.5 8. Five minutes after birth, Devon's Apgar score was 10. What does this suggest about Devon? A. The score indicated that he was in critical condition, possibly in respiratory or cardiac distress, and needed immediate resuscitation and care. B. He was in no immediate danger, but observation and monitoring were warranted. C. An Apgar score of 10 at five minutes after birth is a diagnosis of physiological problems that require treatment. D. He may require time in an incubator. E. The score indicated that he was a fit and healthy baby. Point Value: 2.5 9. When Delores made failed her psychology exam, she shrugged and said, "I don't really care. This course just an elective anyway." This is an example of the defense mechanism known as ________. A. denial B. rationalization C. projection D. sublimation E. displacement Point Value: 2.5 10. Which of the following is not a key feature of an experimental study? A. controls for cohort effects B. dependent variable C. subjects in a control group D. an independent variable E. subjects in an experimental group Point Value: 2.5 11. One problem associated with a longitudinal study is called the practice effect, which means: A. that participants grow tired of repeated analysis, resulting in a diminished effort. B. participation causes some individuals to be less likely to seek professional help in the future. C. that participants take the same test over and over, distorting the value of the results. D. participants expect an effect from the experiment, so they experience one. E. that over time, participants grow tired of the project and make themselves less available. Point Value: 2.5 12. Which of the following is not a commonly used prenatal diagnostic strategy? A. ultrasonography B. chorionic villus sampling C. Punnet square D. alpha-fetoprotein test E. amniocentesis Point Value: 2.5 13. Erikson believed that a self-absorbed, nongenerative adult who was not concerned with establishing and guiding a new generation would be at risk for ________. A. stagnation B. shame C. isolation D. mistrust E. interiority Point Value: 2.5 14. Some early researchers kept detailed records of their own children's early development; these were called ________. A. evolutionary records B. storiographies C. infant timelines D. family biographies E. baby biographies Point Value: 2.5 15. Which of the following is true with regard to prenatal infection with HIV? A. Transmission of HIV to a fetus is less likely when a pregnant woman is HIV positive, compared to a higher likelihood when she is experiencing symptoms of AIDS. B. The HIV virus does not cross the placenta. C. Most pregnant women who are HIV positive or who have AIDS will give birth to infants who are HIV positive. D. A fetus can contract the HIV virus through the placenta, but not during delivery. E. Nearly 75% of infants born to HIV-infected mothers also become infected with the virus. Point Value: 2.5 16. Although Salil comes from a family of large people, she is not overweight because she has always carefully controlled her diet and maintained a strict fitness program. Salil's appearance runs counter to her ________. A. monotype B. biological preparedness C. symbiosis D. phenotype E. genotype Point Value: 2.5 17. India went into labor prematurely, how far along must she be with her pregnancy before she can realistically hope for the fetus to be viable, according to most experts? A. 24 weeks B. 34 weeks C. 20 weeks D. 12 weeks E. 36 weeks Point Value: 2.5 18. Michael, age 16, has recently gained a considerable amount of weight, but has not grown any taller. Developmentalists would suggest that there is a problem in the ________ domain. A. physical B. cognitive C. emotional D. cultural E. social Point Value: 2.5 19. ________ is to Skinner as ________ is to Bandura. A. Intrinsic reinforcement; scheme B. Reinforcement; observational learning C. Libido; assimilation D. Accommodation; acculturation E. Unconditional stimulus; working memory Point Value: 2.5 20. Which of the following is the best example of a cross-sectional research study? A. Dr. Huang assessed the eye-hand coordination of the second, fourth, and sixth graders of Maple Leaf Elementary School in September, 2001. B. A number of graduate students in developmental psychology studied the playground interactions of two classes of fourth graders by secretly videotaping the playground activities from the third-floor window of an adjacent building. C. Each year the five-year-olds of Washington, D.C. are given number and letter proficiency exams before they begin kindergarten. D. Dr. Sanchez assessed the eye-hand coordination of the second, fourth, and sixth graders of Maple Leaf Elementary School in December, 2001, and the same children will be tested again in 2003, 2005, and 2007. E. Each year at the beginning of the school year, the five children of the Jones family visit their family doctor to have physical exams. Point Value: 2.5 21. Each culture has its own ________ that set parameters for normal life experiences, such as schooling, marriage and retirement. A. ageism B. biological clock C. cohort bias D. age norms E. biases Point Value: 2.5 22. Dr. Gardner wanted to learn more about the culture of Cherokee people living on a reservation, so he actually moved onto a reservation and lived among the people for two years. This type of research is called ________. A. social psychology B. ethnography C. a cross-sectional study D. a case study E. parapsychology Point Value: 2.5 23. Phyllip has red hair, which comes from a recessive gene. This must mean that Phyllip received the gene from ________. A. his mother B. both parents C. one or both parents D. an in vitro medical procedure E. his father Point Value: 2.5 24. The longer the lecture film lasts, the more students fall asleep. This is called: A. ANOVA. B. a spurious relationship. C. a negative correlation. D. multivariate analysis. E. a positive correlation. Point Value: 2.5 25. A researcher who wants to study how radiation affects a developing human fetus might use a/an ________ research design. A. case study B. quasi-experimental C. experimental D. naturalistic observation E. sequential Point Value: 2.5 26. At what point does the fetal period begin? A. after the dendritic arbor forms around the umbilical cord B. immediately after the sex of the child can be determined C. when the process of organogenesis is complete D. when implantation is complete E. when the gametes divide Point Value: 2.5 27. Developmental psychologists use the term sensitive period to mean ________. A. the period of time during which developmental norms for physical development are reached or achieved B. the time when the tension between nature and nurture is resolved in an organism's development C. a specific period in development when an organism is particularly responsive to specific forms of experience or particularly influenced by their absence D. when individuals are more emotionally vulnerable, such as being in love or lonely E. a time of psychological fragility, usually due to some type of loss such as the death of a spouse, termination of employment, deterioration due to aging, etc. Point Value: 2.5 28. Carolyn is thinking of her children and what they are to become. She wants to see her children succeed and raise healthy families of their own. Carolyn spends more and more time thinking about how best to help her children be good people who contribute to society. Which of Erikson's stages would Carolyn most likely be experiencing? A. generativity vs stagnation B. integrity vs despair C. intimacy vs isolation D. industry vs inferiority E. identity vs role confusion Point Value: 2.5 29. Which of these best illustrates the principles of social cognitive theory? A. Shelby misses her curfew by one hour and is grounded by her parents for week, yet she continues to miss curfew. B. As a result of the role conflict between her parental responsibilities and her need for personal development, Irina decides to drop out of college for a semester. C. Shea sees her doctor for recurring headaches. D. When Marla responds angrily to a request from her daughter Bess, Bess' sister Treva decides she will wait a day or two before asking for a new stereo. E. The local ice cream shop gives coupons for free ice cream to children with perfect school attendance, and last month three hundred children were rewarded. Point Value: 2.5 30. Piaget's ________ stage of cognitive development involves a child's ability to manipulate ideas, concrete objects or events. This includes abstract ideas and hypothetical situations. A. formal operations B. accommodation C. equilibration D. concrete operations E. information processing Point Value: 2.5 31. Which theorist attempted to discover how human thought processes develop and improve? A. Uri Bronfenbrenner B. Jean Piaget C. Sigmund Freud D. Albert Bandura E. B. F. Skinner Point Value: 2.5 32. The ideas of the English philosopher John Locke would suggest that the basis for human development is ________. A. based on stimulus-response factors B. the human material, or "blank slate," of an individual which is affected by external, environmental influences C. the attainment of socially and culturally derived norms D. the struggle between an individual's original sin nature and the Holy Spirit E. an individual's effort to achieve his or her inborn potential Point Value: 2.5 33. Researchers designed an experiment to study the effects of a professor's sense of humor on enrollment numbers. In this study, the independent variable is ________. A. students considering attending college B. admissions records C. number of students who enroll D. the college professor's sense of humor E. the college professor Point Value: 2.5 34. It is in the ________ stage of labor that the mother pushes and delivery begins. A. first B. second C. third D. last E. active Point Value: 2.5 35. The nucleus of the typical human cell contains ________ of chromosomes. A. 23 pairs B. 23 pairs and an extra pair of sex-determining chromosomes C. 46 pairs D. 48 E. 12 pairs Point Value: 2.5 36. Freud's model of the personality includes ________. A. id, ego and identity B. id ego and superego C. superego, ego and pre-ego D. formal operation E. consciousness, preconsciousness and reality Point Value: 2.5 37. An important trend in the study of human development involves incorporating many theoretical perspectives in order to better explain development. This is called: A. multiculturalism. B. eclecticism. C. the theoretical applications model. D. a cross-modal approach. E. the stages of change model. Point Value: 2.5 38. Niko plans to go to a good college. He seems unconcerned about competitive admissions policies; he believes that if he studies hard, he can get in wherever he wants. Bandura would call that belief ________. A. a positive self image B. self-efficacy C. delayed gratification D. a defense mechanism E. self-fulfilling prophecy Point Value: 2.5 39. The three broad categories that are used to classify changes over the lifespan are called: A. evolutionary stages. B. domains of change models. C. psychosocial domains. D. developmental stages. E. domains of development. Point Value: 2.5 40. The flattening out of the cervix is called: A. panning. B. latency. C. dilation. D. effacement. E. breeching. Point Value: 2.5 41. Piaget defined assimilation to involve: A. changing the scheme as a result of acquiring new information. B. using a scheme to make sense of an event or experience. C. using an internal model of experience. D. being shaped by the environment. E. balancing schemes to fit an environment. Point Value: 2.5 42. Which view of lifespan, according to your text, does the concept of inborn biases seem to directly refute? A. blank slate B. internal modeling C. innate goodness D. original sin E. humanistic Point Value: 2.5 43. Sets of statements that propose general principles to explain development are known as ________. A. theories B. cross-sectional designs C. constructs D. sequential designs E. models Point Value: 2.5 44. Piaget believed that in the process of ________, children use both assimilation and accommodation to create schemes that fit the reality of their environments. A. a defense mechanism B. equilibration C. calibration D. scaffolding E. nativism Point Value: 2.5 45. Neo-Piagetian theorists combine Piaget's ideas about cognition in children with: A. Erikson's developmental stages. B. Bandura's ideas about learning. C. humanistic developmental theories. D. development through the psychosexual stages E. information processing theory. Point Value: 2.5 46. According to Freud's theory of psychosexual development, children learn appropriate sex role behaviors from their same-sex parents through a process called ________. A. fixation B. identification C. displacement D. projection E. reflection Point Value: 2.5 47. Developmental psychology is the defined as the scientific study of age related changes in behavior and ________. A. emotional stability B. genetic and biological influences C. mental processes D. maturity and stability E. social and cultural norms Point Value: 2.5 48. Which type of research design is intended to avoid the shortcomings of both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies by combining features of both? A. sequential design B. cross-correlational design C. cross-longitudinal design D. correlational study E. longitudinal case study Point Value: 2.5 49. Marcus and Maria were born only two minutes apart. They look just alike, with their curly hair and brown eyes. Marcus and Maria are ________. A. identical twins B. conjoined twins C. polygenetic twins D. monozygotic twins E. dizygotic twins Point Value: 2.5 50. In Bronfrenbrenner's theory, macrosystem refers to the ________ context. A. immediate B. cultural C. intellectual D. socio-economic E. educational Point Value: 2.5 51. Which of the following most closely represents philosopher John Locke's ideas about children's development? A. "A child is a lump of clay waiting to be shaped and molded." B. "Your child is innately good and bears within herself the potential to become a moral, productive human being." C. "We must eliminate your child's sinful nature through spiritual rebirth." D. "Your child's development is within the norms for children of his age." E. "Children are to be seen and not heard." Point Value: 2.5 52. When does a developing embryo first respond to light? A. around 36 weeks B. around 30 weeks C. around 20 weeks D. around 12 weeks E. around 14 weeks Point Value: 2.5 53. If the criterion of "ability to generate predictions that can be tested" is used to evaluate the following theories of human development, all the following theories, except ________, would receive a favorable evaluation. A. Bandura's social learning theory B. Freud's theory of psychosexual stages of development C. Vygotsky's socio-cultural theory D. Pavlov's classical conditioning E. Piaget's theory of cognitive development Point Value: 2.5 54. Which of the following is the best example of an "off-time" event that could have negative effects upon an individual's development? A. being divorced at the age of 25 B. experiencing a life-threatening illness at the age of 60 C. the deaths of elderly parents D. the death of one's spouse at the age of 30 E. the birth of a first child at age 24 Point Value: 2.5 55. The aspect of our personality that demands to be satisfied in physically pleasurable ways is the ________. A. libido of the id B. reality principle of the superego C. moral guardian of the superego D. executive control of the ego E. defense mechanism of the psyche Point Value: 2.5 56. A psychologist who compares responsiveness to authority figures of groups of 20-, 30-, 40-, and 50-year-olds finds that as people get older they become more compliant with authority. It is possible that age is responsible for this effect, but another important explanation might be ________. A. cohort effect B. ethnographic flaw C. cross-sectional effect D. longitudinal attrition E. law of contiguity Point Value: 2.5 57. Many individuals who have sex chromosome anomalies have: A. unusual sexual development (puberty) that occurs either very early or very late. B. extremely high levels of intelligence. C. learning difficulties or some level of mental retardation. D. problems controlling their weight. E. facial anomalies or deformities. Point Value: 2.5 58. Of the following, which is a true statement about the influence of heroin and methadone upon prenatal and infant development? A. Infants born to heroin-addicted women are genetically predisposed to be adult addicts. B. Few babies born to heroin- or methadone-addicted women are born addicted to the drugs, too. C. Heroin or methadone use can cause miscarriage, premature labor, and death of the infant. D. The quality of the home environment is a is irrelevant in the development of infants who were prenatally exposed to heroin or methadone. E. Withdrawal is a concern with heroin, but not methadone. Point Value: 2.5 59. Twenty-two pairs of chromosomes in humans called ________. A. heterozygous B. dominant C. multiple loci D. polygenic E. autosomes Point Value: 2.5 60. The central issues of the nature-nurture controversy are ________. A. the social clock versus the biological clock B. biological processes and experiential factors C. change triggered by social processes or change caused by cultural influences D. environmental continuity and psychological comfort E. inborn biases and genetic predispositions Point Value: 2.5 61. In Bronfenbrenner's theory, the developmental context that holds the social belief that good health is a necessary asset to children's development is the ________. A. mesosystem B. biological system C. cultural philosophy D. microsystem E. macrosystem Point Value: 2.5 62. In Piaget's theory of cognitive development, the first stage is: A. concrete operations. B. oral. C. equilibration. D. sensorimotor. E. preoperations. Point Value: 2.5 63. In classical conditioning, if the sour taste of lemon juice automatically causes your mouth to pucker, the lemon juice is the ________ and the pucker of lips and tongue is the ________. A. conditional stimulus; conditioned response B. unconditional stimulus; unconditioned response C. punishment; conditioned response D. elicitor; unconditioned response E. conditional stimulus; unconditioned response Point Value: 2.5 64. The pediatrician known for advocating an "even-handed" approach to child-rearing that is based on an understanding of children's inborn needs is: A. John Watson. B. Sigmund Freud. C. T. Berry Brazelton. D. Benjamin Spock. E. Alfred Adler. Point Value: 2.5 65. Predictions that can be tested in an effort to explain human development are known as ________. A. experiments B. theories C. models D. hypotheses E. sequential elements Point Value: 2.5 66. Miguel is expected to clean his room and to empty all trash in the house. When Miguel forgets his chores, he is grounded. His parents tell him that his failure to do his chores has resulted in his being grounded for a week, in order to improve his memory. Being grounded is ________. A. negative reinforcement B. positive reinforcement C. extinguisher D. punishment E. intrinsic reinforcement Point Value: 2.5 67. Gerald Patterson's research on the origins of delinquency illustrates that ________. A. children must be successfully conditioned for prosocial/altruistic behavior or delinquent, aggressive behavior will result B. parent-child relationships and child developmental outcomes are independent of and unaffected by any factors other than those of the immediate family environment C. parents who use poor disciplinary techniques are likely to have noncompliant children, and an established pattern of noncompliance can lead to rejection by peers and eventual delinquency D. delinquent or highly aggressive behavior is genetically predetermined and parental efforts will have no effect Point Value: 2.5 68. Skylar has brown eyes, thin lips, and curly brown hair and dimples. Which of these traits is polygenic? A. brown eyes B. curly hair C. dimples D. brown hair E. thin lips Point Value: 2.5 69. When researchers have examined the relationship between maternal emotions and prenatal development, the most consistent finding has been that ________. A. fetuses of severely distressed mothers tend to grow more slowly B. maternal emotions have a contradictory effect on infants. C. there is no link between maternal emotions and the development of the infant D. infants whose mothers were anxious or depressed are more likely to be anxious or depressed as adults E. stressful psychological states, such as anxiety or depression, lead to spontaneous abortion or fetal death Point Value: 2.5 70. Behavior is more likely to reoccur if: A. it is extinct. B. it has been isolated. C. there is intrinsic reinforcement. D. it has been punished. E. it has been reinforced. Point Value: 2.5 71. Most sex-linked disorders are caused by: A. autosomal deficiencies. B. recessive genes. C. maternal alcoholism. D. FAS. E. links to maternal migraine disorders. Point Value: 2.5 72. Which of the following is likely to produce the most negative outcome, based on the vulnerability & resilience model? A. a highly vulnerable child in a supportive environment B. a highly intelligent child in an unsupportive environment C. a child of poor intelligence in a supportive environment D. a child with few vulnerabilities in an unsupportive environment E. a highly vulnerable child in an unsupportive environment Point Value: 2.5 73. Which of the following is an accurate statement about sex differences in prenatal development? A. Males are more advanced in all aspects of prenatal development, particularly development of the skeleton. B. Females are more vulnerable to prenatal problems and have a higher rate of spontaneous abortions. C. Females are typically longer and weigh more at birth than males. D. More females than males are conceived: approximately 120-150 female embryos to 100 male embryos. E. Males are more vulnerable to prenatal problems and have higher rates of spontaneous abortions. Point Value: 2.5 74. ________ theories are concerned with developmental aspects of matters such as memory and logic. A. Learning B. Cognitive C. Psychodamic D. Behavioral E. Social Point Value: 2.5 75. Not long after Gloria found out she was pregnant, she began having pain. WHen she went to her doctor, she was told that the zygote had implanted in her fallopian tube rather than in her uterus. What type of pregnancy is this? A. a spontaneous pregnancy B. a proximodistal pregnancy C. an ectopic pregnancy D. cephalocaudal pregnancy E. an interstitial pregnancy Point Value: 2.5 76. Which of the following is a true statement about correlations? A. A correlation of +1.00 provides clear evidence that one variable has a causative effect upon the other. B. A correlation of +.80 is stronger than a correlation of -.80. C. Correlations can range from -1.00 to +1.00 and describe the strength of a relationship between two variables. D. A correlation of zero indicates a strong relationship between two variables. E. A correlation of -1.00 indicates a weak relationship between two variables. Point Value: 2.5 77. According to Freud's model of personality, which of the following best demonstrates the functioning of the id? A. giving money at church because you feel bad about stealing a CD B. "do unto others as you would have them do unto you" C. planning to seduce a sexual partner D. stealing a CD because you really want it E. restraining your desire to have a hot fudge sundae Point Value: 2.5 78. As Piaget used the term, scheme means: A. the meaning a child ascribes to an experience. B. a child's mischievous plan to outwit her parents. C. cognitive structures that guide behaviors and actions. D. the process of taking in new information and revising existing categories in order to effectively deal with similar information in the future. Point Value: 2.5 79. ________ is credited with introducing the term operant conditioning. A. Sigmund Freud B. Abraham Maslow C. Erik Erikson D. Albert Bandura E. B.F. Skinner Point Value: 2.5 80. Juanita's father died when she was just a baby, but her family insists that she not only looks like him, she acts like him as well. This makes a case for: A. innate goodness. B. nurture. C. ecological genetics. D. environment. E. nature. Summary Page Bottom of Form Help
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