1 PSYC 2200 Exam 3 Spring 2011 There are 100 points possible. Please take your time. Many mistakes are made by people in a hurry. For example, please be sure that the answer you choose to fill in on the answer sheet corresponds to the answer you intended to select. Be sure that you fill in your correct e-mail address in the blanks on the answer page. Please don?t use your student ID. Use the BEST answer, not something that can be correct with effort and tortured logic. Grades will be posted ASAP on Collab Use only a number two pencil!!!!! There should be 7 pages Keep these pages -- turn in only your answer sheet Don't cheat!!!!! Sign the pledge!!!!!! 1. Variation in the ________ of a light will result in variation in the perception of ________. A) wavelength; purity of light B) saturation; brightness C) wavelength; brightness D) intensity; purity of light E) wavelength; color 2. Damage to the ventrolateral preoptic area would be expected to A) produce persistent REM sleep. B) alter male reproductive behavior. C) produce insomnia. D) impair the control of temperature regulation. E) reproduce the symptoms of narcolepsy. 3. The reason for a "blind spot" in the visual field is that A) rods are less sensitive to light than are cones. B) blood vessels collect together and enter the eye at the blind spot. C) the lens cannot focus all of the visual field onto the retina. D) retinal cells die with age and overuse, resulting in blind spots. E) there are no photoreceptors in the retina where the axons exit the eye. 4. Sleep stages 3 and 4 are also called A) REM sleep. B) high-frequency sleep. C) slow-wave sleep. D) paradoxical sleep. E) rhythmic sleep. 5. Rods are to cones as A) color vision is to night vision. B) acuity in the dark is to acuity in the day. C) excellent acuity is to poor acuity. D) fovea is to periphery. E) brightness is to purity. 2 6. All of the following are characteristics of REM sleep EXCEPT A) alternating delta and beta EEG activities. B) loss of muscle tonus. C) presence of beta wave EEG activity. D) occasional twitching. E) rapid eye movements. 7. Which of the following is an explanation for the higher acuity of the visual system at the fovea, relative to the periphery of the retina? A) A foveal ganglion cell may receive information from a single photoreceptor, whereas a peripheral ganglion cell may receive information from multiple photoreceptors. B) The fovea contains only rods which are directly connected to the ganglion cells. C) The foveal photoreceptor cells contain more photopigment per cell. D) Peripheral photoreceptors are more likely to be damaged by prolonged light exposure. E) Peripheral photoreceptors require greater activation in order to provoke a visual response. 8. The rebound phenomenon noted after deprivation of REM sleep suggests that A) there is a physiological need for stage 1 slow-wave sleep. B) the function of REM sleep is to rest the brain. C) emotional wellbeing requires slow-wave sleep. D) there is a physiological need for a certain amount of REM sleep. E) dreaming is not a function of REM sleep. 9. Visual information from the retina is carried by ________ to the ________. A) short axon fibers; optic chiasm B) ganglion cell axons; thalamic medial geniculate nucleus C) axons from bipolar cells; thalamic medial geniculate nucleus D) ganglion cell axons; thalamic dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus E) ganglion cell axons; striate cortex 10. Sound can best be thought of as A) compression of air molecules by an object like a speaker. B) changes in air pressure produced by the vibration of an object like a speaker. C) waves of acoustic energy that travel at fewer than 3 miles per hour. D) packets of energy. E) expansion of air molecules produced by a traveling object like a car. 11. Circadian rhythms are A) annual changes in behavior (such as bird migration). B) learned patterns of daily activity. C) not found in plants. D) endogenous cycles of activity over the course of a day. E) monthly cycles of reproductive activity. 12. The malleus, incus, and stapes A) are tiny bones located within the outer ear. B) are located within the middle ear. C) provide a mechanical advantage for transferring sound energy to the inner ear. D) are the formal names for the oval, round, and tympanic membranes, respectively. E) B and C are correct. 3 13. Sound waves directly induce movements of the hair cells in the cochlea via A) movement of the basilar membrane. B) movement of the scala tympani. C) movement of the malleus against the round window. D) movement of the stapes against the round window. E) contraction of the muscle fibers within the middle ear. 14. The ________ is the first relay station for gustatory information. A) chorda tympani B) glossopharyngeal C) ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus D) nucleus of the solitary tract in the medulla E) insular cortex 15. Adjacent cilia on a hair cell are joined together by A) tip links. B) myosin filaments. C) strands of actin. D) insertional plaques. E) the outer edges of the tectorial membrane. 16. Lateral interactions between adjacent photoreceptors, bipolar cells, and ganglion cells are carried out by the ________ cells. A) amacrine B) horizontal C) multipolar D) unipolar E) A and B are correct. 17. Which of the following is true of hair cells? A) Afferent axons form connections with the outer hair cells. B) Damage to the inner hair cells impairs hearing. C) Outer hair cells are required for hearing. D) Outer hair cells transmit information through the trochlear nerve. E) The outer hair cells provide 95 percent of the signals carried by the cochlear nerve. 18. Stages of sleep are best distinguished by A) changes in respiration. B) the quality and quantity of dreams. C) changes in the electrical activity of the brain. D) changes in consciousness. E) changes in motor movements. 19. Sudden angular rotation of the head through a plane is sensed by ________ within ________. A) hair cells; a semicircular canal B) hair cells; the cochlea C) dendrites; the saccule D) dendrites; the utricle E) hair cells; the utricle 4 20. The hair cells of the cochlea and those of the vestibular sacs are similar in that A) hair cells in each system is activated by a shearing force exerted on the cilia. B) each hair cell in each system contains several cilia. C) hair cell activation is accompanied by the opening of membrane ion channels. D) each ciliary membrane is depolarized by movement of the cilia. E) All of the above are correct. 21. In referring to the skin, the term "glabrous" means A) thick. B) thin. C) hairless. D) smooth. E) rough. 22. The manner in which visual information is carried from the retina to the cortex results in A) information from the temporal ganglion cells projecting to the opposite hemisphere. B) information from the nasal ganglion cells projecting to the ipsilateral hemisphere. C) information from one side of the visual field being transmitted to the opposite hemisphere. D) visual information remaining on the same side of the brain from retina to cortex. E) information from each retina directly reaching both sides of the visual cortex, without synapse in other structures. 23. Collectively, the rods and cones are known as A) photoreceptors. B) optotectors. C) the fovea. D) ganglion cells. E) vitreous humor. 24. The primary function of the Pacinian corpuscle is to detect A) rapid vibration. B) cold. C) heat. D) texture. E) damage to the skin. 25. Which of the following is true of most color-sensitive ganglion cells? A) The cells are not organized in a center-surround fashion until this information reaches the thalamus. B) The ganglion cells respond to pairs of primary colors such as red-green or blue-yellow. C) These ganglion cells receive information from certain rods in the periphery of the retina. D) These cells also code for the relative brightness of colors. E) All of the above are correct. 5 26. The gustatory (taste) system sends information to the central nervous system by way of A) The gustatory nerve (13th cranial nerve) B) The lymphatic system C) Through preganglionic, sympathetic neurons D) Multiple nerves E) all of the above 27. The complexity of a sound wave determines the psychological dimension of A) hue. B) pitch. C) loudness. D) saturation. E) timbre. 28. Sodium channels form receptors that play a key role in the perception of A) acids. B) umami. C) salts. D) sugars. E) toxic alkaloids. 29. The amount of light entering the eye is regulated by the size of the A) conjunctiva. B) lens. C) sclera. D) pupil. E) optic orbits. 30. Olfactory receptor cell soma are located in the A) turbinate bones. B) olfactory epithelium. C) cribiform plate. D) chorda tympani. E) olfactory operculum. 31. The formal name for the eardrum is the A) tectorial membrane. B) basilar membrane. C) outer membrane. D) tympanic membrane. E) pinna. 32. The key symptom of narcolepsy is A) dreaming in color. B) an attack of sleep during the day. C) anxiety and fear during the waking period. D) rapid movements of the eyes. E) the inability to fall asleep. 6 33. A microelectrode is inserted into a neuron within the primate visual system. Various stimuli are presented to the eyes and changes in firing rate are recorded from this visual system neuron. The part of the visual field to which a neuron responds is termed the A) magnocellular visual system. B) parvocellular visual system. C) striate response field. D) tuning curve. E) receptive field. 34. The transition from wakefulness to sleep is marked by the appearance of ________ waves in the sleep record. A) alpha B) delta C) gamma D) theta E) beta 35. Which of the following is true of the process of sensory transduction? A) All receptors show action potentials to external stimuli. B) The intensity of an external stimulus is related to the action potential rate of the receptor. C) Receptors convert an external energy into graded changes in receptor membrane potential. D) Most receptors hyperpolarize when stimulated with an external stimulus. E) Transduction refers to the speed at which a sensory message travels toward the brain. 36. Which of the following transmitter substances modulate wakefulness? A) histamine B) norepinephrine C) acetylcholine D) serotonin (5-HT) E) All of the above are correct. 37. Low-frequency sounds produce maximal distortion of the basilar membrane A) near the stapes. B) at the basal end of the membrane. C) farthest from the stapes. D) all over the membrane. E) at the middle of the membrane. 38. Administration of a(n) ________ would be expected to promote sleep. A) adenosine antagonist B) adenosine agonist C) hypocretin agonist D) serotonin antagonist E) norepinephrine agonist 7 39. A disease that attacks the photoreceptors of the fovea would be expected to A) impair night vision. B) disrupt color vision. C) impair eye movements. D) impair vision for fine detail. E) B and D are correct. 40. ________ is an example of a ________ . A) Light; zeitgeber B) Colder night temperature; pacemaker C) Melatonin; pacing stimulus D) Warmer day temperature; zeitgeber E) Light; chronopulse David Hill exam3
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