Study Guide: Exam One The first exam in the course will be on Friday, October 7, 2011 The exam will cover the following: Chapter 15: Global Connections and the Remaking of Europe: only from the Reformation (pp. 397-414) Chapter 16: New Challenges for Africa and the Islamic World In addition, the following readings in The Human Record have been discussed in class: the Letters of King Afonso to King John of Portugal, Olaudah Equiano?s Autbiography, Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq?s impressions of the court of Suleyman the Magnificent and a Carmelite Friar?s Visit to the court of Shah Abbas. Class notes for these discussions will be helpful in preparing for the exam. There have been other assigned readings in The Human Record, but only readings discussed in class are likely to appear on the exam. Some questions to consider for Chapter 15: 1. What conditions in sixteenth century Germany allowed Martin Luther?s Protestant movement to succeed? - Questioning of Catholic Church?s theology, indulgences, Printing press created 2. What was the larger empire of which northern Germany was a part? - Holy Roman Empire 3. What were some of Luther?s ideas that opposed those of the Roman Catholic Church? For which of these was he excommunicated? - Over essential belief: All Christians equal, priests are not a special class, Sacraments 7 ? 3, justification by faith 4.What Swiss city became the capital of the Protestant movement in Europe? - Geneva, Switzerland 5. Who developed Predestinarian theology? What behavior was the Doctrine of Outward Signs meant to counter? - John Calvin ? Calvinism - ?? 6. Why was Protestantism often associated with greater political liberty in the minds of early modern Europeans? - Protestantism associated with private judgment, free thought 7. How did the Roman Catholic Church respond to the Protestant Movement during the Counter-Reformation? - Creation of new priest order, Jesuits ?missionary order, Capuchins 8. In an absolutist state, from where does a ruler derive their right to rule? In a constitutionalist state? - Absolutist: comes from Devine Right (God chooses ruler) - Constitutional Monarchy: Contract with people, people have natural rights and agree to be ruled by the Monarch 9. What are some of the powers the British parliament acquired through the Glorious Revolution in 1688 and the English Bill of Rights? - The right of private judgment ? people chose leader - Power to raise standing armies, parliaments elections, and debates free of monarchical interference 10. How did Louis XIV seek to make France a more perfect absolutist state? Who was expelled through the revocation of the Edict of Nantes? - Created a royal council, composed of those loyal to Louis - Expelled Protestants that were living in France 11. Why did the institution of serfdom exist in Russia? - Shortage of labor in Russia 12. Why was Peter the Great interested initially in westernization? - To improve his military, build navy 13. How did Peter the Great conceive of his role as monarch? - Peter was Absolutist: Assumes he can change Russian society, order people to change fashion, shave beards (some resistance) Some questions to consider for Chapter 16: 1. What was the Sahel? - An optimal trading, and kingdom formation location in the lower part of North Africa 2. What was the basis for kingdom formation in Africa? - To control the trade of West Africa 3. What are some of the key differences between state formation on the Sahel and sate formation on the Swahili coast? - Swahili coast bordered the ocean, brought in trade by sea. Sahel inland, controlled by trade outposts 4. How did Sunni Ali, the ruler of Songhay, control trade routes? Why did he convert to Islam? - 5. What development stimulated Portuguese interest in the Atlantic Slave Trade? - Began to expand their presence in the Atlantic ocean, slave demand grew 6. What was the Triangle Trade and who (or what) was transported in each of its ?legs?? - Trade between 4 continents. Europe, Africa, South Am, North Am. Slaves, textiles, firearms, sugar, rum, molasses 7. Why did slavery exist in Africa before the rise of the Atlantic Slave Trade? - War between different African states. War captives became slaves 8. What was an African definition of slavery? - Those that have been expelled from their own societies 9. What were some of the effects of the Atlantic Slave Trade upon Africa? - Created powerful kingdoms on west coast of Africa 10. What influences contributed to the rise of anti-slavery sentiment in Europe? - Enlightenment, is it acceptable to enslave humans? Critical enlightenment thinking - The Zong incident, 133 slaves killed, insurance claim, owners of ship won 11. Why was outlawing the slave trade considered easier than outlawing slavery? - Millions of slaves. Gov could not take peoples property from them 12. What characteristics did the Islamic empires of the early modern period share? - All Muslim leaders, diverse populations, religiously diverse 13. What empire did the Ottomans supplant in 1453? - The Byzantines 14. What titles/actions did Ottoman Sultans take after the conquest of the Middle East? - ?Servant of Two Sanctuaries? ? Claimed to have restored Caliphate, belnd of political and religious power 15. How did the Ottoman conquest of Egypt alter its relations with Europe? - Calls for Christian Unity to unite against Ottomans 16. With which Mediterranean powers did the Ottomans come into contact? - Knights of Rhodes, Venetians, Spanish Habsburgs 17.How did the Ottoman Empire accommodate religious minorities? - Non-Muslims not required to convert, trading communities established - Millets ? Autonomous religious community 18. With whom did the Ottoman Empire share an imperial rivalry? - Habsburg Empire 19. What is a theocratic state? - Ruler perceived as God ? Law administered by religious order 20. What roles did the Safavid Shahs after Ismail assume? - Divine Right of Kings - Representative of the Madhi - Perfect spiritual director of Zahadiyya order 21. How did the Battle of Chaldiran affect the Safavid Empire? - Loss of land, Shah Ismail?s first military defeat, End of Safavid divine leader 22. What are the differences between a Sunni and Shiite Muslim? - Sunnis revere the three caliphs: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman - Shiites do not acknowledge these caliphs 23. Where did Shah Abbas expand the Safavid Empire? - Isfahan 24. What explanations have historians offered for the decline of the Safavid Empire? - Ottoman decline lead to Safavid military decline. No need to defend themselves
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