A? ? 1? Exam 2 Psych 1000, Section 4. Dr. Julianne Ludlam Instructions 1. For all questions, choose the best answer. 2. Questions are worth 1 point each. 3. KEEP THIS FORM. HAND IN THE SCANNABLE ANSWER SHEET. 4. Answers will be posted on the course Blackboard site this afternoon. 1. Shakespeare's Pizza is your favorite restaurant, and lately you've noticed that every time you think about stopping there for a pizza after classes, you start to salivate. In this incidence of classical conditioning, thinking about Shakespeare's pizza is the _________; your salivation is the _________. A) Unconditioned stimulus; Unconditioned response B) Conditioned stimulus; Conditioned response C) Conditioned stimulus; Unconditioned response D) Unconditioned stimulus; Conditioned response 2. James Olds (1956) discovered that rats would ignore food, water, and other life-sustaining necessities for hours if they were able to control stimulation of certain parts of the brain. He called these areas of the brain: A) receptors. B) pleasure centers. C) reinforcers. D) addiction centers. 3. If you are in a good mood when you are studying for a test, you will remember the material better on the test day if you: A) are in a good mood that day. B) study using elaborative encoding. C) take the exam in a new classroom. D) prepare for the exam using visual images. 4. People experience very different degrees of pain, even when they have similar injuries. Two factors contribute to our experience of pain: the actual bodily sensation as well as our emotional, subjective perceptions. How can we explain the existence of these two different factors? A) People are tricked by their perceptions of pain. B) Pain is complex, because there are two types of pain transmission fibers for sharp or dull pains. C) People are faking; there are not really differing experiences of pain. D) There are two distinct neural pathways for pain: to the somatosensory cortex and to the emotional centers of the brain. A? ? 2? 5. Which of the following sequences lists the structures from the human ear to the brain in the order in which sound waves travel through them from the environment? A) eardrum, thalamus, cochlea, auditory nerve, auditory cortex B) eardrum, auditory nerve, cochlea, auditory cortex C) eardrum, cochlea, auditory nerve, auditory cortex D) eardrum, cochlea, auditory nerve, thalamus, auditory cortex 6. From an evolutionary perspective, why is feeling pain adaptive? A) It helps with reproduction. B) It indicates damage (or potential damage) to tissue. C) Feeling pain demonstrates social dominance. D) Pain is important in the body's auto-immune system. 7. Staring too long at one color (as in the Lilac Chaser Illusion) fatigues the cones that respond to that color, producing an image of the opposite color. This form of sensory adaptation is called a: A) visual-form agnosia. B) trichromatic color representation. C) color afterimage. D) color mixing. 8. When Taylor stepped on a piece of broken glass at the beach, she initially felt a sudden stinging pain, which was transmitted by: A) B-alpha fibers. B) D fibers. C) C fibers. D) A-delta fibers. 9. The ?blind spot? is so called because it: A) has cones but no rods. B) has rods but no cones. C) has neither rods nor cones. D) is found in the periphery of the eye. 10. When a neutral stimulus evokes a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally evokes a response, the result is an example of which of the following phenomena? A) classical conditioning B) semantic conditioning C) episodic conditioning D) paired conditioning A? ? 3? 11. Combining small pieces of information into larger clusters in order to improve memory for that information is known as: A) rehearsal. B) chunking. C) elaborative encoding. D) visual encoding. 12. Clive Wearing, a former composer and choir director, suffered damage to his hippocampi, temporal, and frontal lobes because of a rare infection. Although he has severe anterograde and retrograde amnesia, he retains the ability to play the piano. This is because he has retained his _________ memory, which is stored in the cerebellum. A) episodic B) flashbulb C) procedural D) semantic 13. The neurons in the pleasure centers of the brain, especially those in the nucleus accumbens, secrete _________, a neurotransmitter usually associated with positive emotions. A) serotonin B) epinephrine C) norepinephrine D) dopamine 14. People respond differently when asked to respond to stimuli. Some wait until they are absolutely sure that they can detect a stimulus, while others are less cautious. Our response to a stimulus depends both on our sensitivity to the stimulus, and on our own response criterion. This theory is referred to as ____________. A) the just noticeable difference theory B) Weber's law C) the absolute threshold theory D) signal detection theory 15. Kelly is at a local bar having a drink. A young man starts flirting with her and approaches her. Kelly decides to tell him her number. He repeats the series of digits in his head over and over again until he has a chance to write it down. This process or repeating information is known as: A) visual encoding. B) retrieval. C) rehearsal. D) blocking. A? ? 4? 16. If you forget to take out the trash for two weeks, it will probably stink. After a few minutes of being around it, you don't notice the smell. This is an example of: A) signal detection. B) accommodation. C) Weber's law. D) sensory adaptation. 17. Parvati is a competitive gymnast who has made it to the final round of the Olympic trials. She is intensely motivated to perform at her absolute peak, and becomes extremely hyper and over-excited when preparing. Given your knowledge of the effects of arousal on performance, you might advise her that she should ____________, because ____________. A) calm down a bit; very high arousal can hurt performance. B) calm down a lot; low arousal levels result in the best performance. C) stay intensely motivated and excited; very high arousal will help performance. D) stay intensely motivated and excited; it will increase her focus. 18. Papillae, the bumps on the tongue, each contain hundreds of _________, the organ of taste transduction. A) glomeruli B) ORNs C) taste buds D) umamis 19. The idea that behaviors followed by a reward tend to be repeated and those that are not rewarded are less likely to be repeated is known as: A) Pavlov's law of law of classical conditioning. B) Thorndike's law of effect. C) Garcia's theory of evolutionary conditioning. D) Tolman's theory of latent learning. 20. In our vision system, the axons of the retinal ganglion cells join together at the base of the retina to form the: A) basal ganglion. B) rods. C) cones. D) optic nerve. 21. When you put money in the candy machine, you expect to be reinforced on a: A) variable ratio schedule. B) fixed interval schedule. C) continuous reinforcement schedule. D) intermittent reinforcement schedule. A? ? 5? 22. There are two types of explicit memory, _________ memory, which is for facts and knowledge, and _________ memory for personally experienced events. A) implicit; explicit B) explicit; implicit C) semantic; episodic D) procedural; priming 23. Hernando and Fiona have both been placed in a new advanced math class. They both love math and are finding the enriched work fascinating. In order to increase his effort in the class, Hernando?s parents give him $5 for every A that he receives on a test. Fiona?s parents do not reward her for good grades. Who is likely to do better in the class and why? A) Fiona, because her intrinsic motivation is low. B) Hernando, because the extrinsic motivation will add to his intrinsic motivation. C) Hernando, because his intrinsic motivation will be increased by rewards. D) Fiona, because Hernando's intrinsic motivation will be lessened by rewards. 24. When learning a new word, like ?amygdala,? Angie will remember it best if she: A) thinks about what the word means. B) thinks of another word that rhymes with it. C) pictures how the word looks. D) writes the word in large block letters. 25. A schema held for an entire group of people can be thought of as a: A) node. B) stereotype. C) frame. D) misattribution 26. The difference threshold, or the just noticeable difference (JND), is: A) decreasing sensitivity to a stimulus over time. B) the minimal change in a stimulus that can just barely be detected. C) the minimal intensity needed to just barely detect a stimulus. D) sensitivity to a stimulus in the presence of noise. 27. Sam gets a free pretzel using his Pretzel Smorgasbord card with every tenth pretzel he buys. This arrangement is an example of a(n) _________ schedule. A) variable interval B) fixed interval C) fixed ratio D) variable ratio A? ? 6? 28. The Rescorla-Wagner model predicts that conditioning will be easier when: A) the stimulus is an unfamiliar, surprising event. B) the stimulus is a familiar, usual event. C) the response is clear. D) the response is unpredictable. 29. Annabeth is almost an hour late to meet Keith for dinner. At the entrance to the restaurant, she scans the room to see where he is sitting. Her ____________ enables her to recognize Keith's face among the many other faces in the restaurant and rush to the table. A) amygdala B) somatosensory cortex C) motor cortex D) fusiform gyrus 30. In memory, the brain structure that is believed to act like a linking system, moving incoming information out to the storage sites and thereby consolidating memories, is the: A) frontal lobe. B) pituitary gland. C) hippocampus. D) amygdala. 31. Behaviorism was incredibly popular and appealing in its time. One appealing principle involved the idea that characteristics like race and sex did not matter. According to John Watson, all that mattered was: A) Your individual biology. B) What you learned and how you were treated. C) Your attitudes and emotions. D) Your internal thought process. 32. Dena reads the paper every day because she feels a need to keep current with world events. Jaya reads the paper every day so that her friends and colleagues will be impressed by how well-informed she is. Dena reads the paper because of ____________ motivation; Jaya reads the paper because of ____________ motivation. A) extrinsic; intrinsic B) intrinsic; extrinsic C) achievement; affiliation D) affiliation; achievement A? ? 7? 33. In the sense of hearing, transduction occurs on the basilar membrane, which lines the floor of the _______ in the inner ear. A) ossicles B) eustachian tube C) cochlea D) auditory transducer 34. The process of converting physical signals from the environment into neural signals sent to the central nervous system is called: A) transduction. B) perception. C) sensation. D) synesthesia. 35. A type of learning in which the consequences of an organism's behavior determine whether or not that behavior will be repeated in the future is called: A) habituation. B) emotional conditioning. C) operant conditioning. D) classical conditioning. 36. Which of the following phenomena are examples of ways in which we can be wrong about our memories and experiences? A) change blindness B) memory misattribution C) memory bias D) all of the above are examples of how we can be wrong about our experiences. 37. Extrasensory Perception (ESP) has little research to support it. However, its popularity is a testament to the idea that human beings often: A) know the future B) have abilities to contact the dead C) believe anything they are told D) attempt to interpret or make meaning out of disparate information 38. When children observed the adult models being rewarded for being aggressive toward the Bobo doll, the children _________. This is an example of _______________. A) were even more aggressive to the Bobo doll; vicarious learning. B) were less aggressive to the Bobo doll; vicarious learning. C) ignored the Bobo doll altogether; classical conditioning. D) did not change their aggressiveness toward the Bobo doll; operant conditioning. A? ? 8? 39. After transduction occurs, what is the pathway to the brain for the sense of smell? A) olfactory bulb > thalamus > amygdala/hippocampus/cortex B) olfactory nerve > olfactory bulb > amygdala/hippocamups/cortex C) olfactory nerve > thalamus > olfactory bulb > amygdala/hippocampus/cortex D) olfactory nerve > thalamus > olfactory bulb 40. The tendency to incorporate misleading information from outside sources into personal recall of events is called: A) false recognition. B) suggestibility. C) retroactive interference. D) source memory. 41. Sarah says she can vividly remember the day her baby brother was born. She proceeds to tell you all about it, in great detail, declaring that it was the most memorable day of her life. This is an example of _________ memory. A) procedural B) implicit C) iconic D) explicit 42. In which of the following cases will the most accurate facial recognition occur? A) a white man recognizing another white man's face B) a black man recognizing a white man's face C) a white man recognizing a black man's face D) an Asian man recognizing a white man's face 43. Slot machines pay off on schedules that are determined by the random number generator that controls the play of the machine. Slot machines are a real world example of a _________ schedule. A) variable interval B) fixed interval C) fixed ratio D) variable ratio A? ? 9? 44. You are taking a biology class. During lecture you listen, take notes, and think about how the information is related to you, which are all examples of _________ information into memory. When you read the textbook and your notes and rehearse the information from class, you are working on _________. During a test, you must remember the information, which is called _________. A) storage; retrieval; encoding B) encoding; retrieval; storage C) storage; encoding; retrieval D) encoding; storage; retrieval 45. In the eye, the receptors that detect color and operate well in daylight are called: A) cones. B) rods. C) retinal ganglion cells. D) area V1 neurons. 46. Classical conditioning is the study of a rather ______ learning process, whereas operant conditioning studies learning that is more _________. A) emotional; unemotional B) passive; active C) difficult; easy D) voluntary; involuntary 47. The memory enhancement that occurs when the external situations during encoding and recall match is called ____________ memory; the memory enhancement that occurs when the internal states during encoding and recall match is called ____________ memory. A) semantic; episodic B) episodic; semantic C) state-dependent; context-dependent D) context-dependent; state-dependent 48. Which is the correct sequence for the visual pathway from the eye to the brain? A) optic nerve; lateral geniculate nucleus; optic chiasm; primary visual cortex B) optic chiasm; optic nerve; thalamus; primary visual cortex C) optic nerve; optic chiasm; thalamus; primary visual cortex D) optic nerve; primary visual cortex; optic chiasm; thalamus 49. Memory storage is composed of sensory memory, short-term memory, and: A) working memory. B) long-term memory. C) potentiated memory. D) retrieval. A? ? 10? 50. Even though a friend may change hair style and color, we can both notice the differences and recognize our friend because of: A) visual perception. B) visual reliability. C) distributed representation. D) perceptual constancy. 51. Transduction in the auditory system occurs via the specialized auditory receptor neurons that are embedded in the basilar membrane. These auditory receptor neurons are called: A) hair cells. B) ossicles. C) semicircular canals. D) vibrator receptors. 52. In vision, where does transduction occur? A) On the retina, in the rods and cones B) On the retina, in the blind spot C) In the visual cortex, in the visual neurons D) In the optic chiasm, where the nerves cross 53. Perceiving only what is relevant to you is called: A) perceptual sensitivity. B) monocular cuing. C) misattribution. D) selective attention. 54. Sudanese refugees who have come to United States to live have had trouble remembering the appropriate behaviors to use in certain situations, such as when and where to approach strangers for help. At times, they have been charged with trespassing and disturbing the peace for repeatedly trying to talk to people they do not know. One interpretation of their difficulties in remembering to behave in certain ways is that they do not hold the same cultural ________ as do individuals raised in Western societies. A) nodes B) organization C) schemas D) attention A? ? 11? 55. Halley is talking to one of the caterers setting up for her sister's wedding. While she is answering her cell phone a different member of the catering staff takes over. When Halley turns back to the conversation she completely fails to notice that she is now talking to a different person. Halley is experiencing: A) divided attention B) change blindness C) serial processing D) bias 56. When Jackson was stung by a bee, a friend told him to rub the affected area to ease the pain. His friend's suggestion is based on: A) the somatosensory cortex. B) the gate control theory. C) gustatory perception. D) the referred pain theory. 57. Actively relating new information to knowledge already in memory is the definition of _________ encoding. A) visual B) meaning C) elaborative D) mnemonics 58. In his bizarre experiment with Little Albert, one of John Watson's goals was to show that: A) humans, unlike other animals, are not susceptible to classic conditioning. B) fear can be learned by means of classical conditioning. C) conditioning can produce only behavioral responses, not emotional ones. D) one's environment is not responsible for behavior. 59. On long trips children often beg and nag parents to stop for ice cream. If Dad finally pulls in to a Dairy Queen and buys a cone for everyone, the ice cream serves as a(n) _________ for Dad and a(n) _________ for the children. A) positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer B) negative reinforcer; positive reinforcer C) reward; operant shaper D) habituator; reward A? ? 12? 60. Your friend's mother was always baking ginger-flavored cookies whenever you were at their house. You loved those cookies, and would eat several each time you visited. One day, you noticed that you started to salivate as you walked up the front steps to the house, before you smelled the cookies. The reason for this is that entering the house has become a(n): A) unconditioned response. B) unconditioned stimulus. C) conditioned response. D) conditioned stimulus. 61. At the core of behaviorism are three radical views. Which of the following is NOT one of the early, basic principles of behaviorist theory? A) We are born with innate tendencies that limit our abilities to learn. B) Everything about you (who you are, what you know) is the result of learning through experience. C) Psychological science can only study observable, measurable phenomena. D) All species (humans and animals) are basically the same in terms of the ability to learn. 62. If you want to reinforce a behavior so that it persists for a very long time, how often should you reinforce that behavior? A) every time -- continuously B) never C) not every time -- intermittently D) none of the above 63. The case of H.M. is a documented case of a patient whose speech skills and intelligence were unaffected by the removal of parts of his temporal lobe but who could not form new long-term memories. Which disorder did H.M. have? A) normal forgetting B) retrograde amnesia C) prograde amnesia D) anterograde amnesia 64. Information can be kept for hours, days, weeks, or years in the: A) retrieval terminal. B) hippocampus. C) remembrance database. D) long-term memory store. A? ? 13? 65. Several years after 9/11/01, Susie was asked to recall where she was when she heard about the attack on the World Trade Center. Susie claimed to have been watching the news in her high school's auditorium. When she was asked whether or not she saw the first plane hit the tower, she said that she did in fact see this event. What Susie didn't realize was that there is no footage of the first plane hitting the tower. Susie's answer is an example of: A) flashbulb memory. B) schemas. C) elaboration. D) suggestibility. 66. For the sense of smell, where does transduction occur? A) in the odorants B) in the amygdala C) in the olfactory bulb D) in the olfactory epithelium 67. Playing the hot-or-cold game, where you direct someone to move around the room toward a goal known only to you by telling the person whether he or she is getting warmer or cooler is an example of which behavioral process? A) extinction B) fixed ratio schedules of reinforcement C) generalization D) shaping 68. Long-term memory can be broken up into two broad types, memory that requires conscious recall, referred to as _________ memory, and memory that does not require conscious recall, or _________ memory. A) implicit; explicit B) explicit; implicit C) semantic; episodic D) procedural; priming 69. You are reading the words on this exam. In Gestalt terms, the written words on the page are perceived as _________; the white of the page itself is perceived as _________. A) near; far B) shape-based; size-based C) images; context D) figure; ground A? ? 14? 70. When you hold your pencil, the touch receptors in your hand project sensory signals up through your spinal cord and brainstem and ultimately to ____________. This is an example of your haptic sense. A) the visual cortex. B) the somatosensory cortex. C) the motor cortex. D) the auditory cortex. LUDLAM Microsoft Word - Exam 2a KEY 1000-4 Fall 2010.docx
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