9/21 CREATEDATE 9/14/10 10:13 AM Study Guide In Class 210910 Study Guide 470 InClass 210910 These will show up TWICE on the test: emphasizing from other chapters: 1. Individuals can describe their own experiences and make sense of these experiences directly without recourse to concepts such as ego, drive and reinforcement and things such as neuron, gene and species (Rollo May). A TRUE 2. ?Human beings are always capable of change and development.? (Rollo May) A TRUE we are all capable of CHANGING (CH. 12 SG also) 3. ?Beauty is harmony, as May explains later in the book (My Quest for Beauty), and harmony within himself, oneness with his own identity, with his fellows, and with nature (Eigenwelt, Mitwelt, and Umwelt) were to be theoretical concepts that would occupy most of May?s later professional life, May?s discovery of the beauty and peace that lay around him was his salvation.? (CH. 12 SG also) appreciation of beauty and ascetics important in our culture 4. Mark & Judy Hector have lived on the Holston River in Jefferson County since 1974. B FALSE 5. The central theme (question) of Freedom by Jonathan Franzen (2010) is ?How much freedom can human beings bear?? (Der Spiegel) 6. ?Most people generally are psychologically healthy, even though at times they may have adjustments to make.? (Maslow) (Ch. 13 SG also) 7. Examples of possible cases of self-actualized figures: Walt Whitman, Martin Buber and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. (On Ch. 13 SG also) 8. ?Maslow introduced the notion of the Jonah complex. In this syndrome, a person, like the prophet Jonah in the Bible, avoids the deeper pursuits of which he or she is capable.? (Ch. 13 SG also) OBEDIENCE 9. ?Rogers? proposition about the saliency of understanding the existential phenomenological reality of another person, to understand what is ?beneath the mask,? is critical to his theory of personality.? (CH. 13 SG also) 10. ?The essence of the directive counselor?s effort is information gathering and dispensing. The flow of the communication between counselor and client tends to be one way:?? (Ch. 13 Sg also) information coming into the counselor, and counselor telling client? do this__? to fix your problem. 11. ?In 1924, Rogers set out to study for the ministry at Union Theological Seminary in New York.? (Ch. 13 SG also) Christian counseling A 12. ?Unconditional positive regard means that the counselor warmly accepts the client. It is unconditional.? (Ch. 13 SG also) definition of unconditional positive regard (good affect on you of this occurs) A 13. ??like behaviorism, social cognitive theory largely relies on laboratory research and the results of experiments.? (CH. 15 SG also) Rogers and May NOT INTERESTED in lab research B 14. ?Bandura?s research has demonstrated that a wide range of learning is possible through modeling and observational learning.? (Ch. 15 SG also) A 15. ?Self-efficacy: A person?s expectancy that he or she will perform successfully in a given task or behavior, and meet the challenge competently.? (CH. 15 SG also) DEFINITION Bandura?s research; mountain of this research A 16. ?One of the important mechanisms of natural selection is sexual selection, which involves both competition for mates and mate selection. Sexual selection is a major factor determining the degree to which an organism passes its genes on to the next generation.? (Wilson SG also) this is a BIG deal A 17. ?? the use of evolutionary psychology varies considerably from the experimental method, in which researchers predict the outcome of an experiment according to their hypotheses.? (Wilson SG also) B On Five-Factor Powerpoint: 18. The Five-Factor Model: is based on the statistical procedure of factor analysis. Definition B 19. ?The past 25 years have witnessed an explosion of research on the Big Five. Indeed, the Big Five taxonomy has achieved a greater degree of consensus than any other trait taxonomy in the history of personality trait psychology. It has also generated some controversy.? (Larsen and Bass) A 20. The Five-Factor Model: ( C-A-N-O-E Extraversion (Surgency) ( I don?t find it easy to take charge of a situation Agreeableness (wanting to get along with each other; negotiation Conscientiousness( punctuality; high GPA Emotional stability (Neuroticism) --< mood wings; UNSTABLE Openness-intellect ( I enjoy trying new foods; vivid dreams; culture, intellect; disagreement on this factor D 21. ?Risky sexual behaviors, such as having many sex partners and not using condoms, are best predicted by high Extraversion, high Neuroticism, low Conscientiousness, and low Agreeableness.? TRUE 22. Who said, "Man is condemned to be free.?? Jean-Paul Sartre Study Guide for "Lars and the Real Girl" Lars and the Real Girl Study Guide (prepared by Mark A. Hector) 1. At what time of year does Lars and the Real Girl begin? WINTER 2. Is Lars gay? NO 3. How old is Lars? 27 4. Does Lars come to dinner? NO 5. Who made the blanket? Lar?s Mother 6. Who delivers the huge box? UPS guy 7. Was Bianca a missionary? YES 8. From what company does Bianca come? Real Doll 9. Who sits on Bianca?s lap? A Kid 10. What did Margo steal? Action Figure 11. Does Bianca go to church? Yes 12. Does the doctor ever get lonely? Yes 13. Does Lars like to be hugged? No 14. Is Bianca flexible? Yes 15. Are Lars? parents alive? No 16. Where does Lars live? In a garage 17. Where is Bianca?s schedule kept? On the fridge 18. Who usually puts Bianca to bed? Gus 19. Gus: ?You grow up when you decide to do right ? even when it hurts.? 20. What did Lars do to the bear? CPR: brings him back to life 21. What do Lars and Margo do on their date? Bowling 22. Who said that Bianca is dying? Lars 23. What do people do when tragedy strikes? Come over and sit 24. Where do Bianca, Lars, Karen and Gus go? The Lake 25. What color carnation does Lars wear? Pink 26. What does Lars ask Margo to do at the end? Take a walk Study Guide "Beneath" Chapter 12 (May) Chapter 12 Rollo May Study Guide 1. ?Rollo May has focused on broad, historically enduring, and deeply philosophical issues central to human experience.? 2. ?An individual?s experience of the world --- the physical world, the world of thoughts and ideas, and the interpersonal world --- can be described directly, without the use of abstract concepts that refer to interpersonal processes or entities (such as repression, the id, the superego or drive).? 3. ?Anxiety is more than a form of psychopathology. One form of anxiety, existential anxiety, involves an individual?s confrontation with the possibility of nonbeing, the possibility of being engulfed by a meaningless life.? 4. ?Human beings are always capable of change and development.? (on 9/21 SG) 5. ?Rollo May described himself as having been an angry adolescent and rebellious in school. During his days at Michigan State College, May irked the school authorities with a student literature magazine he stated and, at the suggestion of a friend, transferred to Oberlin College, a small liberal arts college in Ohio.? 6. In what country did Rollo May teach in a gymnasium and study art and painting? (NEED TO LOOK UP) 7. ?Contrasted with other May drawings and paintings in the same book from other times in his life, the poppy drawing shows clear signs of the profundity of his distress and the depth of his depression at that time.? 8. ?Beauty is harmony, as May explains later in the book (My Quest for Beauty), and harmony within himself, oneness with his own identity, with his fellows, and with nature (Eigenwelt, Mitwelt, and Umwelt) were to be theoretical concepts that would occupy most of May?s later professional life, May?s discovery of the beauty and peace that lay around him was his salvation.? (on 9/21 SG) 9. ?The idea of this approach (existential phenomenological psychology) was to ?get back to the experience? itself.? 10. ?The existential philosophical tradition can be traced to thinkers such as the Russian novelist Fyodor Dostoyevsky, the Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard, and the French thinker Jean-Paul Sartre.? 11. What is the term for the study of being and reality? ONTOLOGY 12. ?Dasein (an essential quality of human life) can be translated literally as ?being? (sein) and ?there? (da) ?? 13. ?Dasein indicates that humans are beings who exist in relation to a specific time and place and in relation to specific meanings. Humans are actively involved in forming the meanings lived out in their existence ?? 14. What are the three modes of the world? Umwelt Mitwelt Eigenwelt 15. ?The unconscious, ? , is not a place, not a reservoir, not an internal structure. It is, rather, the process of the whole person in the acts of wishing, fearing, knowing, and choosing not to know.? 16. ? ?Mrs. Hutchens? is a woman in her thirties, who presents herself as sophisticated, in control, and poised. But in her eyes, May detected ?something of the terror of a frightened animal or lost child.? She was referred for psychotherapy by her neurologist because of an hysterical tenseness of the larynx so severe that she could speak only in a hoarse whisper.? 17. ?May administered a Rorschach projective inkblot examination (on Mrs. Hutchens): ?I have been given the hypothesis from her Rorschach that she has felt all her life, ?If I say what I really feel, I?ll be rejected; under these conditions it is better not to talk at all.??? 18. ?Mrs. Hutchens can be understood only by grasping the world as she sees it and lives it.? 19. ?May defines self-affirmation as the ?courage to be,? relying on the concepts of Paul Tillich, a theologian who influenced him greatly ?? 20. ?Participation in Other Beings: All existing persons have the need and possibility of going out from their centeredness to participate in other beings.? 21. ?As May uses the term, awareness means alertness or vigilance. The person is wary of external threats and dangers.? 22. ?Only a human can be self-conscious. Self-consciousness permits the person to transcend the immediate, concrete situation, to live in terms of the possible, and to use abstractions ?? 23. ?From the existential point of view, human beings are unique in their capacity not only to be aware of self but also in their realization that the self will ultimately come to an end.? 24. ?Anxiety is the experience of the threat of imminent nonbeing.? 25. ?Angst is not adequately translated into English by the word anxiety, for angst carries the connotations of ?anguish? and ?dread.?? 26. ?May distinguishes between ontological anxiety and fear:?? 27. ?May suggested that he learned more from the river than from his school years because the river was a ?clean, deep, demonic, and beautiful friend? ? As a boy, Rollo found peace at the river, away from the sooty, noisy, industrial Detroit area in which he lived.? 28. ?May observed, ? there are those patients? who confront the fact of their illness. They reflect on the meaning of their lives and try to understand what was wrong with their way of living before their illness. These patients use the illness as a means to new self-knowledge and self-discipline.? 29. ?For the person who evidences Agapé or who cares, things matter, people matter. There is a sense of relatedness between the person who cares and the object of care.? 30. ?According to May, people have learned to anesthetize their deeper emotions in order to achieve better sexual performance. May sees sex as being used as a test of competence, and asserts that people often give up their identity in the search for intimacy.? 31. ?May pictures humans neither as saints nor as sinners. He has consistently taken the position that humans are both good and evil.? 32. ?Intentionality is a bridge between subject and object, between knower and known. It refers to the inextricable connection between our awareness and objects of awareness, the idea that there is no act of consciousness without an object of consciousness. One meaning of this concept is that our consciousness does not exist independent of the meanings and meaningful world we experience. Intentionality, therefore, is the person?s ongoing and inevitable application of meaning to objects and people in his or her world, and to the experience of the world itself.? 33. ?Freedom is defined as the capacity to make choices.? 34. ?Bruno Bettelheim was imprisoned in a Nazi concentration camp during World War II. Bettelheim had no freedom of action whatsoever, but he could choose his attitude toward his captors.? 35. ?During the years since May?s death, there has been a continuing interest in existential phenomenological psychology. At least one doctoral program, at Duquesne University, is committed to this approach. It is also emphasized at the Saybrook Institute and by some scholars scattered throughout the United States and Europe.? 36. ??the past decade has shown an increase in the acceptance of the value of qualitative psychological research. Much of this research is in the phenomenological tradition of direct inquiry of subjects concerning their experiences. Such research might involve eliciting subjects? own accounts or narratives.? SG "Beneath" Chapter 13 (Maslow & Rogers) 1. These are potentialities, not final actualizations. 2. ?Most people generally are psychologically healthy, even though at times they may have adjustments to make.? (9/21 SG also) 3. Innocence, according to Maslow, refers to the healthy personality?s capacity to live without pretense, to be selflessly focused on a creative goal. Creative, innocent, and healthy people are able to devote themselves completely to whatever task is at hand.? 4. ? Conversational probing is intensive interviewing of a subject after satisfactory rapport is established: ?This meant mostly a frank, trusting, friendly relationship, resembling somewhat the transference of the psychoanalysts??? 5. ?High dominance-feeling empirically involves good self-confidence, self-assurance, high evaluation of the self, feelings of general capability or superiority, and lack of shyness, timidity, self-consciousness or embarrassment?.? 6. ?In addition to the traits Maslow listed as characteristics of high-dominance individuals, he also found evidence they were unconventional, less religious, extroverted, and, surprisingly, more hypnotizable than low dominance subjects?? 7. ?If a subject was high in dominance-feeling it was unlikely that she was anxious, jealous, or neurotic.? 8. ?When one considers the findings of Maslow today, they very much seem to be a reflection of American culture in the early 1940s rather than the discovery of enduring psychological characteristics.? 9. ?In short, high-dominance women seek a good lover; middle- and low-dominance women are more interested in a good husband and father.? 10. ?Thus Maslow initiated the study of what he considered the ?best? that human nature has to offer, the most ?saintly,? the wisest, most actualized human personality.? 11. ?? [self-actualization] may be loosely described as the full use and exploitation of talents, capacities, potentialities, etc. Such people seem to be fulfilling themselves and to be doing the best that they are capable of doing, reminding us of Nietzsche?s exhortation, ?Become what thou art!?? 12. Examples of self-actualized subjects: Abraham Lincoln and Thomas Jefferson 13. Examples of ?highly probable? self-actualized figures: Albert Einstein, Eleanor Roosevelt, Jane Addams and William James 14. Examples of possible cases of self-actualized figures: Walt Whitman, Martin Buber and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (on 9/21 SG also) 15. ?Central in Maslow?s life history was the clash between feelings of childhood isolation, inferiority, and powerlessness and yearnings for intellectual superiority and eminence ?? 16. ?Self-actualizers, consequently, are functioning in response to higher needs, needs for the classic ?Goods? of the well-lived life. Beauty, Truth, Justice, and many other capitalized virtues are the very essence of the self-actualizer?s existence.? 17. ?Ineffability: ?The subject of [a mystical experience] immediately says that it defies expression, that no adequate report of its content can be given in words. It follows from this its quality must be directly experienced; it cannot be imparted or transferred to others.?? 18. ?Peak experiences are spontaneous, subjectively positive emotional experiences that occur without conscious intention, planning, or will. Individual accounts of peak experiences and optimal states of functioning are reported as effortless, fluid, natural, playful, egoless, and automatically taking place.? 19. ?Peak experiences are described as nonhabitual and effortless; being ?in the flow,? ?natural,? ?just happening,? and synchronous in multi-modal sensory-perceptual channels ?? 20. ?Peak experiences are universally reported in emotionally positive ways, a fact of great relevance to the transformation of psychic states. Individuals report states of heightened (positive) tension or extreme relaxation and peacefulness.? 21. ?Maslow introduced the notion of the Jonah complex. In this syndrome, a person, like the prophet Jonah in the Bible, avoids the deeper pursuits of which he or she is capable.? (9/21 SG also) 22. ?The self-actualizing person has learned to be awe-inspired, to marvel at the beauty, mystery and infinite complexity of life, to include an appreciation of the cosmic and the spiritual as well as the material.? 23. Some B-Values are: Truth, Goodness, Beauty, Justice and Meaningfulness. 24. ?It is my (uncertain) impression that any B-Value is fully and adequately defined by the total of the other B-Values.? 25. ?The work of Maslow and Rogers, and many others, has been called the third force of psychology to emphasize its stature as a viable viewpoint that is distinctive from both psychoanalysis and behaviorism.? 26. ?Rogers? proposition about the saliency of understanding the existential phenomenological reality of another person, to understand what is ?beneath the mask,? is critical to his theory of personality.? (9/21 SG also) 27. ?The essence of the directive counselor?s effort is information gathering and dispensing. The flow of the communication between counselor and client tends to be one way:?? (9/21 SG also) 28. ?The nondirective counselor tried to respond to the troubled person by helping him or her to clarify his or her feelings:?? 29. ? ??it is the client who knows what hurts, what directions to go, what problems are crucial, what experiences have been deeply buried? ? Thus Rogers slowly came to the viewpoint that authoritative, directive, and diagnostically oriented psychological service was far less important than allowing the client to speak freely, feel freely, and think freely.? 30. ?In Rogers? view, the primary, indeed essential, ingredient of the well-lived life is, simply, freedom to be, to choose, and to act.? 31. ?In 1924, Rogers set out to study for the ministry at Union Theological Seminary in New York.? (9/21 SG also) 32. ?Reflection of feelings was not merely to be used to help the client attain insight and clarification of his or her emotions, but also to communicate the counselor?s understanding of the client?s inner world.? 33. ?Unconditional positive regard means that the counselor warmly accepts the client. It is unconditional.? (9/21 SG also) 34. ?? Rogers views the psychologically maladjusted personality as one who is defensively rigidified, constricted in his or her experiencing of self, and conflicted in his or her willingness to ?own? his or her feelings.? 35. ?Rogers? concept of the fully functioning person is similar to Maslow?s notion of the self-actualized (SA) personality.? 36. ?The fully functioning person has the capacity to experience life in an existential fashion? He or she lives each moment of life more spontaneously, enjoying the exuberance and the joy of seeing life as one new moment following another.? 37. ?The infant gradually acquires a knowledge of relevant conditions of worth. That is, the infant ?understands,? however dimly at first, that only under certain conditions is he or she positively esteemed by others, by self in response to others, and most important, by his or her parents. The infant realizes that certain behaviors are the conditions of worth that provide acceptance or provoke rejection.? 38. ?Rogers opened the process of psychotherapy to research, and under his leadership, a whole program of empirically based research on the therapeutic process, the characteristics of the helping relationship, and the characteristics of the helping person was done. Studies of empathy, warmth, directiveness versus nondirectiveness, pre- and postmeasures of personality, and even attempts to use client-centered therapy to aid schizophrenic people have been researched.? 39. ?Rogers? theory, with its clinical emphasis, is more idiographic and Maslow?s approach, with its emphasis on general constructs, is more nomothetic.? SG "Beneath" Chapter 15 (Bandura) 1. ??like behaviorism, social cognitive theory largely relies on laboratory research and the results of experiments.? (9/21 SG also) 2. ?Bandura endeavored to study some phenomena having to do with daily behavior as well as clinically relevant behavior with empirical methods and to explain those phenomena with concepts and language drawn from the psychology of learning and cognition.? 3. ?The body of research literature connected with Bandura?s approach is now so vast that it would require a substantial handbook merely to survey it.? 4. ?In short, people learn by watching other people, and by encoding all kinds of information in symbolic form.? 5. ?Bandura?s research has demonstrated that a wide range of learning is possible through modeling and observational learning.? (9/21/ SG also ) 6. ?Observing another person reinforced can affect the behavior of the observer. Being so affected by such reinforcement that is not part of one?s own direct experience is termed vicarious reinforcement.? 7. ?Bandura calls his complex interactional viewpoint triadic reciprocal determinism,?? What are the three elements? 8. ?In his development of the concept of self-efficacy, Bandura approaches questions that have to do with achievement, effort, goal-setting, and success and failure in daily life.? 9. What sport is deeply ingrained in the Canadian human nature? 10. ?There is no benefit in anticipating consequences when most things that happen in your world are unpredictable or unreliable.? 11. ?Bandura emphasizes that all competency learning is possible only through the reciprocal interaction of the child and his or her environment, particularly interchanges with others.? 12. ?What typifies Bandura?s approach is his consistent reliance on an active agent conception of personality functioning and his predilection for testing what are sometimes commonsense predictions with empirical data.? 13. ?The strategies Bandura is describing (Selective Activation of Self-controls) are largely conscious --- unlike most of the psychoanalytic defense mechanisms. In formulating these strategies, Bandura focuses on the interaction of person and situation, not the control of internal impulses, as in Freud?s defense mechanisms.? 14. ?Euphemistic labeling: What something is called substantially affects the meaning we place upon it. Convoluted verbiage is a wonderful mask for unethical conduct.? 15. ?Attribution of blame: If a person can justify mistreatment of another by saying that the person ?deserved it? or was ?just asking for it,? then self-controls can be disengaged. This strategy is sometimes called ?blaming the victim.?? 16. ?The defense of repression, in Bandura?s theory, is therefore not an automatic response to anxiety. It is an avoidance response to the aversive thoughts that accompany the anxiety.? 17. ?? repressed thoughts are treated like any other behavior that lies inert until the appropriate stimulus activates it.? 18. ?? social cognitive theory draws from the behavioristic, the cognitive, and the psychodynamic formulations those elements supported by research and susceptible to laboratory testing.? 19. ?Bandura argues that fortuitous events are not foreseeable, but, once having occurred, personal factors, talents, and personal meanings then enter into the causal chain to shape behavior.? 20. ?Bandura?s model is intimately tied to laboratory and field research; it is highly refutable, capable of generating new research ideas in many areas of life, and has been widely tested.? 21. ?There is a genuine balance of the nomothetic and the idiographic in Bandura?s model.? 22. ?Thus reinforcement is more a matter of information and performance enhancement than it is automatic response strengthening.? 23. ?Agentic: A term indicating a proactive rather than a reactive approach to life. Such an approach involves active problem solving, planning, action, and, at times, innovation.? 24. ?Self-efficacy: A person?s expectancy that he or she will perform successfully in a given task or behavior, and meet the challenge competently.? (9/21 SG also) 25. ?Social cognitive theory: Bandura?s theory, in which cognitive processes and self-reflection are viewed as central to human behavior; people are seen as planning and predicting the consequences of their behaviors with an interpersonal context.? SG "Beneath" (The Big Five) 1. ?A purely factor analysis approach to personality has led to five major personality traits or factors.? 2. ?This approach, ? , did not focus on trying to understand the physiological underpinnings of the factor, but simply on factoring the terms people use to describe personality.? 3. ?The Big Five model ? is largely derived from terms used to describe the general population rather than those who manifest great psychopathology.? 4. Raymond Cattell began the factor analytic approach to personality. He originally determined that there were 16 underlying traits.? 5. ?These traits (The Big Five) are conceptualized as lying on bipolar dimensions with persons at one end of the dimension exhibiting high degrees of the trait and persons at the other end exhibiting low degrees of the trait (or its opposite).? 6. What are The Big Five? 7. What are The Big Five? 8. ?? factor analysis has certain limitations and weaknesses. For one thing, a surprising degree of creativity and subjectivity enters into organizing and naming clusters of correlations as factors.? 9. Eysenck believes ?the most productive research begins from and is guided deductively by a theory that makes predictions that can be tested.? 10. The Big Five evolved ? ?inductively collating and synthesizing sometimes unrelated measurements until they more or less coalesced into meaningful dimensions. SG "Beneath" (The Big Five) 1. ?A purely factor analysis approach to personality has led to five major personality traits or factors.? 2. ?This approach, ? , did not focus on trying to understand the physiological underpinnings of the factor, but simply on factoring the terms people use to describe personality.? 3. ?The Big Five model ? is largely derived from terms used to describe the general population rather than those who manifest great psychopathology.? 4. Raymond Cattell began the factor analytic approach to personality. He originally determined that there were 16 underlying traits.? 5. ?These traits (The Big Five) are conceptualized as lying on bipolar dimensions with persons at one end of the dimension exhibiting high degrees of the trait and persons at the other end exhibiting low degrees of the trait (or its opposite).? 6. What are The Big Five? (9/21 SG also) Extraversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Emotional stability (Neuroticism) Openness-intellect 7. ?? factor analysis has certain limitations and weaknesses. For one thing, a surprising degree of creativity and subjectivity enters into organizing and naming clusters of correlations as factors.? 8. Eysenck believes ?the most productive research begins from and is guided deductively by a theory that makes predictions that can be tested.? 9. The Big Five evolved ? ?inductively collating and synthesizing sometimes unrelated measurements until they more or less coalesced into meaningful dimensions. SG "Beneath" (Wilson) 1. ?The process of natural selection discovered by Charles Darwin applies not only to the physical features of organisms but also to the development of instincts, or proclivities to behave in certain ways in certain circumstances.? 2. ?Many of our current patterns of behavior, thinking, and emotion thus exist because of their adaptive significance in our evolutionary history.? 3. ?One of the important mechanisms of natural selection is sexual selection, which involves both competition for mates and mate selection. Sexual selection is a major factor determining the degree to which an organism passes its genes on to the next generation.? (9/21 SG also) 4. ?Hands-on experience at the critical time, not systematic knowledge, is what counts in the making of a naturalist. Better to be an untutored savage for a while, not to know the names or anatomical detail. Better to spend long stretches of time just searching and longing.? 5. ?During this summer, while fishing, young Wilson pulled a small fish out of the water too fast. It flew into his face and one of its spines pierced the pupil of his right eye. He became blind in that eye as a result. His vision in his left eye was 20/10, which meant that it was more acute at close range than that of most people. In addition, he was handicapped as a naturalist by hereditary partial deafness, which made it hard for him to hear birdsongs or identify frogs by their sounds ? .? 6. ?His (Edward O. Wilson) mother offered to support him in medical school, but Edward?s mind and heart were already set on becoming an entomologist. He first went to the University of Tennessee but transferred to the Harvard program, which attracted him in large part because it possessed the world?s largest ant collection and had a distinguished reputation in the field of myrmecology --- the study of ants ? .? 7. Fixed action patterns are, ?? sequences of movements programmed in the brain by heredity, which unfold through the life of an animal in response to particular signals in the natural environment ?? 8. ?Darwin sailed to the Galapagos as a young man, Wilson traveled to the Amazon, the South Pacific, and the Florida Keys.? 9. ?Regarding Darwin?s theory, it is fascinating to note that he had knowledge neither of genes nor of DNA. ? His theory of evolution was based on thousand of observations, but it did not grow out of experimental laboratory research.? 10. ?Hamilton?s principle was kin selection, an inherent and inherited predisposition to act altruistically for relatives (kin and kinfolk). 11. ?In such cases, the activities of these ants, that do not reproduce themselves, engage in activities that enhance the survivability of the colony and, specifically the survivability of genes in the queen or males, genes which are identical to many genes in the soldier or worker ants.? 12. ?The term altruism, as used in ordinary discourse, usually refers to behavior that is guided by an altruistic intent. From the point of view of modern evolutionary theory, altruism refers to behavior or activity that may occur with or without any conscious altruistic intent.? 13. ?Sociobiology: A New Synthesis and On Human Nature were controversial books because they persuasively challenged prevailing environmental theories in psychology and the social sciences with new insights.? 14. ?The issue now for psychologists is to sort out the degree to which inherited behavioral proclivities play a role in our behavior and to what extent we are free to change.? 15. ?Today much altruistic behavior is seen as a biological proclivity based on the idea of inclusive fitness and kin selection.? 16. ?Working with a raccoon for a bank display, the Brelands tried to shape the animal to pick up coins one at a time and drop them into a container for positive reinforcement. Shaping worked well in getting the raccoon to pick up two coins, but he seemed not to be able to let go of them, despite the fact that reinforcement was available only when both coins had been dropped in the ?bank.? ?Now the raccoon really had problems (and so did we). Not only could he not let go of the coins, but he spent seconds, even minutes, rubbing them together (in a most miserly fashion), and dipping them into the container.? ?The recalcitrant raccoon was merely behaving instinctually, ?washing? and rubbing clean his food --- or anything else that found its way into his paws.? 17. ?Learned behavior drifts toward instinctive behavior.? 18. ? ?the environment of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA).? This is the presumed environment in which our ancestors lived for about seven million years. The switch to agriculture as a source of food is thought to have occurred only in the last 10,000 years. Our early ancestors were hunter-gatherers and the selective pressures of their difficult environments for millions of years have shaped much of our genetically determined behavior.? 19. ?In today?s society, with its processed foods and its plentiful food supply, the proclivity to eat sugary foods and fatty meats has contributed to obesity, illness, and death. Eating sugary foods and fatty meats are risk factors for a number of life-threatening diseases (from arterial blockages) and diabetes.? 20. ?Helping kin who share your genes and can pass them on to future generations is hard-core altruism. Helping others in cooperative ventures in which you will likely benefit also is soft-core altruism.? 21. ?In the area of physical characteristics, a person who uses tools frequently may develop calluses. The development of calluses is a facultative adaptation, a genetic potential that is expressed only with use.? 22. ?A false assumption is that we have been optimally designed by evolution.? 23. ?In Voltaire?s classic book Candide, Dr. Pangloss referred to the present world as the best possible world and was such an optimist that no matter what happened, he thought it was for the best. The counterpart of Panglossism in evolutionary theory is that there must be an adaptive reason for everything, even the red color of blood. The fact is that many existing qualities and traits may have no particular adaptive significance.? 24. ?Evolutionary psychologists cannot proceed with human evolution in a laboratory setting. They are constrained to study only the effects of evolution, and those effects are already present.? 25. ?? the use of evolutionary psychology varies considerably from the experimental method, in which researchers predict the outcome of an experiment according to their hypotheses.? (9/21 Sg also) 26. ?In the field of evolutionary psychology, it is almost never possible to conduct an experiment in real time. Instead, what one has to do is to explore currently existing evidence that might be either consistent or inconsistent with the hypothesized outcomes.? 27. ?Michael Wiederman (1993) actually looked at advertisements in personal sections of newspapers and found that American men were almost four times as likely as women to indicate that they were looking for a physically attractive partner.? 28. ?Whereas men, in general, put their highest valuations on attractive women as sexual partners, the most important criterion for women is financial status and potential.? 29. ?The question of refutability is an inherent problem for evolutionary psychology. One cannot conduct an experiment about events that have already happened.? 30. ?Selfish gene theory: A gene-focused theory of evolution proposed by Dawkins: the idea that the organism is a means of perpetuating the survival of genes. The gene is not actually selfish, but evolution proceeds as if the gene were trying to perpetuate itself.?
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