PSY 256: Winter 2011 EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE This study guide is to be used to help you prepare for the third exam. For each of the topics below, you are responsible for all material presented in the textbook and in lecture. Some of the entries may only have been discussed in lecture. Others may only appear in the book. Most were discussed in both. If there is a topic in the book that does not appear on the study guide, it will NOT be on the third exam. Chapter 11: Emerging Adulthood: Body, Mind, and Social World 1. Define Emerging Adulthood. Describe what changes have taken place in our society that have inspired scholars to rethink when adolescence ends. Emerging Adulthood: [18-25yr] now widely thought of as a separate developmental stage (aka young adulthood or youth) Societal Changes that inspire the new stage: later marriage and parenthood (5+ years later than from 1950, on average) more education (most study past high school) financial dependence (many receive parental support) vocational uncertainty (few have jobs they intend to keep until retirement) All this allows a new freedom, ?a substantial amount of exploration and instability that are two of the characteristics of emerging adulthood.? 2. Know the characteristics of Emerging Adulthood. Consider the transition to adulthood in American culture vs. other cultures and how these differences relate to the values of individualism vs. collectivism (as discussed in lecture). Emerging Adulthood is age of: identity exploration instability self-focus feeling in between possibilities American Style legally an adult at 18; characterized by individualism Other Cultures: could be a specific event (ex: join military, be able to take care of parents, etc.) Individualism: accepting responsibility for oneself; making independent decisions; becoming financially independent some say emerging adulthood is specifically an american phenomenon 3. Describe the trends in cohabitation and family connections in emerging adulthood. Cohabitation = living with a significant other (romantic partner, not just a friend) 2000 Census: 5.5 million cohabiting; up from 500,000 in 1970 (HUGE increase in cohabitation) 600,000 cohabitations are gay/lesbian couples ***SEE SLIDE*** relationships are more equal than in marriage; mixed findings on whether cohabiters more likely to divorce; some evidence that cohabiters less happy and committed in marriage. Chapter 12: Adulthood: Body and Mind 1. Describe physical changes during the aging process (pp. 420-421). Senescence: a gradual physical decline that is related to aging during which the body becomes less strong and efficient visible changes appear long before old age Collagen (connective tissue of body) decreases by about 1% each year, starting in early adulthood. Results in thinner, less flexible, more wrinkled. Especially face (exposure to sun, rain, heat, cold, pollution). By 60, all faces are wrinkled, some more than others. Hair: turns gray, thins Fat: ?Middle-age spread? appears in stomach. Pockets of fat settle on abdomen, upper arms, buttocks, chin. Muscles: weaken. Not just because of disuse, but also because the number of muscle fibers diminishes with age. Height: by late middle age, people get shorter. People lose about an inch of height by age 65. cushioning between spinal disks becomes compressed. Changes can occur more slowly in people who exercise wisely and regularly Eyes: peripheral vision narrows faster than frontal vision, color vision shifts from vivid to faded more quickly than does black and white, nearsightedness increases gradually beginning in one's 20s, by middle age, start to get farsighted (lens of eye is less elastic, and cornea flattens) Hearing: hearing most acute around [6-10yr], not until [60yr] is presbycusis diagnosed. Usually done with a whisper test (asked to repeat something whispered to them by an unseen person who is 3 feet away); almost all emerging adults pass this test, 2/3 by age 50, only ½ of those over 60 Presbycusis: a loss of hearing that is associated with senescence and that usually does not become apparent until after [60yr] 2. Know about infertility issues: causes and assisted reproductive technology. Infertility Causes: Male: 30% Female: 30% Unexplained: 25% Combined: 10% Other: 5% Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Artificial Insemination (Intrauterine Insemination): success = 10% Ovum Transfer (Zygote Intra-fallopian Transfer): can involve a donor egg, fertilized egg transferred to fallopian tube. Success = 25% In Vitro Fertilization (IVF): fertilized egg transferred to uterus. Success = 20% Surrogate Motherhood: can involve egg and sperm from infertile couple, can involve egg from surrogate 3. Describe the significance of activity (or inactivity) in adulthood (p. 429). Regular exercise activity at every stage of life protects against serious illness, even if have undesirable habits Exercise: reduces blood pressure; strengthens heart and lungs; makes depression, osteoporosis, heart disease, arthritis, some cancers less likely Inactivity: correlates with almost every unhealthy condition (incl: heart disease, diabetes) People who are more fit are likely to resist disease and to feel healthier as they age rates of exercise decrease with age (marriage, parenthood, career responsibilities) to prevent decline in exercise: Friendship: people exercise more if their friends do Communities: exercise-friendly communities reduce their residents' obesity, hypertension, depression 4. Know the four distinct measures of health: mortality, morbidity, disability, and vitality (pp. 430-431). Mortality: death. As a measure of health, mortality usually refers to the number of deaths each year per 1,000 members of a given population Morbidity: disease. As a measure of health, morbidity refers to the rate of diseases of all kinds?physical and emotional, acute (sudden), chronic (on-going), and fatal?in a given population Disability: long-term difficulty in performing normal activities of daily life because of some physical, emotional, or mental condition Vitality: a measure of health that refers to how healthy and energetic?physically, emotionally, and socially?an individual actually feels 5. Know variations in Health. Briefly summarize the reasons why women live longer than men. Gender: mortality for women = lower than men (approx. 5yrs longer). Could be biological, extra X-chromosome or extra estrogen could protect women from some illnesses. Could be cultural: women have more friends and are more likely to take care of themselves. But women show superficial signs of aging quicker (vitality could be reduced as a result). Women have higher rates of depression. Every chronic disease except heart disease, women have higher morbidity. Poorer people don't live as long. Cultures that place higher importance on health live longer. 6. Describe what we know about research on age and intelligence. Explain how research methodology affects the conclusions we draw about changes in cognitive abilities. Used to think there was something called intelligence and that some people are smarter than others because they have more of it General Intelligence (g): a construct based on the idea that intelligence is one basic trait that involves all cognitive abilities, which people possessing varying amounts can only be measured indirectly (not directly) from various abilities. Cross-Sectional Research: (army and new england villages): intelligence rises in childhood, peaks in adolescence, and then gradually declines. Longitudinal Research: many people tested had their intelligence increase even after mid-twenties. (contradicts previous research because of cohort effect). Cross-Sequential Research: longitudinal research may show an increase in IQ partly because who remain to be retested are those who get higher scores. Seattle Longitudinal Study: the first cross-sequential study of adult intelligence. K. Warner Shaie began this study in 1956; the most recent testing was conducted in 2005 people improve in most mental abilities during adulthood most adults at some time between [40-60yr] reach their highest intellectual ability; those who show substantial decline are probably ill in some way 7. Know the difference between crystallized and fluid intelligence. Crystallized Intelligence: those types of intellectual activity that reflect accumulated learning. (ex: vocabulary and general information). accumulated information and verbal skills Fluid Intelligence: those types of basic intelligence that make learning of all sorts quick and thorough, (ex:abilities such as working memory, abstract thought, and speed of thinking). ability to reason abstractly Crystallized Intelligence remains about the same throughout aging, but fluid declines. Can be slowed down with mental games. 8. Describe Sternberg?s three forms of intelligence (p. 441). Analytic Intelligence: valuable in high school/college. Used to remember and analyze various ideas Creative Intelligence: allows people to find ?a better match to one's skills, values, or desires.? emerging adults enjoy creativity, but after [25yr] it declines as young adults are expected to settle down. Historically, creative adults have been scorned, ignored, or even killed. Practical Intelligence: useful as people age and need to manage their daily lives 9. Understand the Selective Optimization with Compensation theory (p. 443) Selective Optimization with Compensation: the theory, developed by Paul and Margaret Baltes, that people try to maintain a balance in their lives by looking for the best way to compensate for physical and cognitive losses and to become more proficient in activities they can already do well/want to do will in. 10. Describe what research tells us about expertise and age. Selective Expert: someone who is notably more skilled and knowledgable than the average person about whichever activities are personally meaningful some extraordinary talents are inborn lengthy practice (some say 10yrs) is needed to develop and maintain expertise Experts do better than novices in slow-to-fast music identification. Younger do better than older in fast-to-slow music identification (experts still better than novices though) but speed is one part of fluid intelligence Chapter 13: Adulthood: Psychosocial Development 1. Summarize Erikson?s stages of adulthood (see pp. 456; 473-474; see also Chapt. 14 p. 523-524; Chapt. 15 p. 530). Identity Vs. Role Diffusion: Although the identity crisis was originally set for adolescence, erikson realized that identity concerns could be lifelong. Identity combines values and traditions from childhood with the current social context. Since contexts keep evolving, many adults reassess all 4 types of identity (sexual/gender, vocational/work, religious/spiritual, and political/ethnic) Intimacy Vs. Isolation: adults seek intimacy?a close, reciprocal connection w/ another human being. Intimacy is mutual, not self-absorbed, which means that adults need to devote time and energy to one another. This process begins in emerging adulthood and continues lifelong. Isolation is especially likely when divorce or death disrupts established intimate relationships. Generativity Vs. Stagnation: Adults need to care for the next generation, either by raising their own children or by mentoring, teaching, and helping younger people. Erikson?s first description of this stage focused on parenthood, but later he included other ways to achieve generativity. Adults extend the legacy of their culture and generation with ongoing care, creativity, and sacrifice. Integrity Vs. Despair: when Erikson himself was in his 70s, he decided that integrity, with the goal of combating prejudice and helping all humanity, was too important to be left to the elderly. He also thought that each person?s entire life could be directed toward connection a personal journey with the historical and cultural purpose of human society, the ultimate achievement of integrity. 2. Describe personality throughout adulthood (pp. 459-463). The Big five (opennesss, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, & neuroticism) remain somewhat stable throughout life. Some studies say the average person experience an increase in agreeableness and conscientiousness increase slightly while extroversion, openness, and neuroticism decreases. May be vulnerable to culture. Continuity in personality. Ecological nice ?how personality shapes lives?-the particular lifestyle and social context that adults settle into because it is compatible with their individual personality needs and interests. Before 30, many adults marry, divorce, quit jobs, move, explore hidden aspects of personality After 30, make fewer changes. Their personality doesn?t change any further till old age. 30-50 more stable, not midlife crisis. Personality trumps experience (ppl who experience things that might make them overjoyed like winning the lottery or might make them depressed like losing a leg, revert back to level of happiness they had before) Men tend to express aggression and take more risks (higher extroversion and openness), woman are nurturing and cautious (higher conscientiousness and agreeableness). Or do they think they should act this way? Gender convergence-over the course of adulthood, the two sexes become more alike 3. Know what is meant by social clock. Social Clock is a developmental timetable based not on maturation but on social norms, which set the stages of life and the behaviors considered appropriate to each of them. For example, ?middle age? begins when a culture believes it does, rather than at a certain age in all cultures. 4. Discuss love and marriage and its significance in adulthood. Marriage: the emotional and legal commitment of two people to share emotional and physical intimacy, various tasks, and economic resources. Adults thrive if another person is committed to their well-being. Married people are a little happier, healthier and richer. -Some say modern life has destroyed marriage (cohort effects) Empty nest-the time in the lives of parents when their children have left the family home to pursue their own lives.-improves a marriage 5. Know the Stages of the Family Life Cycle and changes in interpersonal relations at these stages as discussed in lecture. Leaving home (Emerging Adulthood) New couple (Honeymoon Period)- 1st five years. When most divorces happen. When most couples decide to have first child. Interpersonal: most passion and intimacy, most volatile and conflict-filled years Family w/children Family w/adolescents Family at midlife (Launching Period) Family in later life 6. Know how work affects family including trends in women?s work and it?s affect on children (as discussed in lecture). See also Chapt. 8 pp. 281-290. children (as discussed in lecture). See also Chapt. 8 pp. 281-290. -if the mother enjoys her work (and situation, and there isn't a conflict with work), then the kids have higher self-esteem, more positive family and peer relationships, better school grades, spend more time with fathers, than with mothers who doesn't enjoy job. -No difference between not working and mother who enjoys work -If work places heavy demand on mom, children at risk for ineffective parenting. -Even when both parents are working, moms still do most of the parenting Work-Family Spillover, Affects depending on ?Absorptiveness? of work Time and Timing Rewards and Resources Imparting World Views Emotional Climate 1. extent to which job makes demands on the family (parent has to travel) 2. impact of work hours and scheduling on family (can't be there for certain events) 3. income, status and benefits that come from working 4. work as a socializer (role model to children, role referencing?) 5. social-psychological dimensions of work (stress at work ? stressed at home, feel good at work ? feel good at home) 7. Know the 3 types of father involvement (as discussed in lecture). Accessibility: emotional availability Responsibility: making doctor appointment, arranging for babysitter. Interaction Function: feeding, bathing Parallel: not really actively interacting Transistional: taking kids from one state to another Play: most of dad interaction 8. Know the trends in divorce in the U. S. And and 9. Know what is meant by the ?sandwich generation.? The sandwich generation is the generation of middle-aged people who are supposedly ?squeezed? by the needs of the younger and older members of their families. In reality, some adults do feel pressured by these obligations, but most are not burdened by them, either because they enjoy fulfilling them or because they choose to take on only some of them or none of them. Chapter 14: Late Adulthood: Body and Mind 1. Discuss the concepts of ageism and why it occurs. Evaluate some common myths concerning elderly Americans and the significance of these myths to the elderly. Ageism: prejudice toward older people Why: society respects and admires youthfulness age segregation (old people don't hang out with young people) old people have been young; young people have not been old lack of exposure, left only to stereotypes of the generations 2. Describe health and sickness in the aging process (pp. 502-508). Primary Aging: the universal and irreversible physical changes that occur to all living creatures as they grow older. Secondary Aging: the specific physical illnesses or conditions that become more common with aging but result from poor health habits, genetic vulnerability, and other influences that vary from person to person. Cardiovascular Disease (CVD): illness that involves the heart and circulatory system (considered secondary aging; more risk-related than age-related) by [90yr] almost everyone has at least one of: CVD, diabetes, or dementia. Nutrition: as we age we need less food, so variety in healthy foods is important. Some medication can affect nutrition needs. (generally the people who eat well, also do other things like exercise that improve health odds). Exercise: more important in old age than earlier, but less old people work out (there are less classes, range of motion is decreased, decreased energy). Regular exercise is a proven way to compress morbidity. Drug Use: most people stop abusing drugs before middle age, active drugs addicts rarely survive to old age. Addiction to alcohol or legally prescribed drugs can start in late adulthood. But some people are just ageist about it. 3. Describe the current demographic trends involving life expectancy and the life span. Describe the factors influencing longevity. Life span has been rising Women have consistently longer lives than men. Genetics, exercise, nutrition, drug use, personality, outlook. 4. Describe information processing, attention and memory in late adulthood. Information Processing: 4 steps: (1)input/sensing, (2)storage/memory (3)programming/control processes (4)output Input (Sensing): sensory input = reduced ? impaired cognition. However most older people don't think they are impaired. Inability to notice subtle differences (input not processing differences). Brain automatically fills in missed sights/sounds: vital information may be distorted or lost without the person realizing it. Problem is likely both: in the brain (info not process correctly) and directly in the senses (input never reaches the brain). Storage (Memory): if older people suspect their memories are fading, anxiety itself impairs memory; more apparent among those with more education. Semantic memory remains ok, but episodic memory declines. Source amnesia is common. Working Memory: reduced; take longer to perceive and process experienced sensations. Vocabulary recognition is final ability to show decline because speed is not a factor, but tests in which speed is a factor, there is decline. Slower brain cannot handle too much at once; less adept at multitasking. However, when taken the time to concentrate, working memory seems good as ever. Ecological Validity: the idea that memory should be measured as people actually experience it, not as laboratory tests assess it. Older adults are better in morning, younger in afternoon (can't test them at same time). Old people rely on routines, so can remember some things better than younger. Programming (Control Processes): older adults impaired in controlled cognitive processes. Control Processes: the part of the information-processing system that consists of methods for regulating the analysis and flow of information. Useful control processes include memory and retrieval strategies, selective attention, and rules or strategies for problem solving. Usually depend on prefrontal cortex which shrinks with age. Younger adults more able to gather and consider relevant info. ? elderly stick to preconceived ideas. Use deductive reasoning (prior knowledge, and familiarity rather than new info. Not wrong, but limited). ?I know it, I just can't remember it.? = accurate. More tip-of-the-tongue forgetfulness, but can have extensive vocabularies. Retrieval strategies might be more helpful to the old than to the young. Cognitive Output: measure of 5 mental abilities (verbal meaning, spatial orientation, inductive reasoning, number ability, word fluency) declined beginning at about [60yr]. 2 important modifiers of the generality: health, training. Health: health is a better predictor of cognition than age. Training: training helps specific abilities and cognition overall. You can, it seems, teach an old dog new tricks 5. Describe what we know about Alzheimer's disease, including its causes/risk factors. Alzheimer Disease (AD): the most common cause of dementia, characterized by gradual deterioration of memory and personality and marked by the formation of plaques of beta-amyloid protein and tangles of tau protein in the brain. (aka: senile dementia of the Alzheimer type SDAT) is partly genetic. Unusual to develop in middle age, but if do, it is directly genetic. But people with no known genetic risk may develop AD, and some predisposed to don't. Stages: start: forgetfulness is far greater than the normal age-related slowness (likely to forget names, places, become disoriented easily). Personality may change as well. Symptoms get worse annually; eventually memory loss is dangerous. Final stages: need full-time care, short simple sentences to no longer speaking, stare blankly into space. At the end identity and personality are gone. Death comes 10-15 years after first signs appear. 6. Describe the stages of dementia. Understand the variations in types. Dementia: irreversible loss of intellectual functioning caused by organic brain damage or disease. Dementia becomes more common with age, but it is abnormal and pathological even in the very old. Different from mild cognitive impairment (just can't do some cognitive things as well as they used to). Alzheimer Disease Vascular Dementia (VaD): a form of dementia characterized by sporadic, and progressive, loss of intellectual functioning caused by repeated infarcts, or temporary obstructions of blood vessels, which prevent sufficient blood from reaching the brain. (aka Multi-Infarct Dementia) Frontal Lobe Dementia: a form of dementia characterized by personality changes caused by deterioration of the frontal lobes and the amygdala (aka Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration). Can cause human compassion and self-awareness to fade in a person who seems otherwise normal. Usually begins before [60yr.] and the person dies within 5 yrs. Many other dementias begin with impaired motor control, not impaired thinking: (ex: Parkinson Disease) Parkinson Disease: rigidity or tremor of the muscles as the neurons that produce dopamine degenerate, affecting movement long before cognition Lewy Body Dementia: round deposits of protein (Lewy bodies) in the neurons. (lewy bodies present in parkinson disease, but in this one they are more spread out). Motor movements and cognition are impacted, though less severe than parkinson or alzheimer. Main symptom is loss of inhibition. Less common but can occur before [65yr.]. Some causes of adult dementia: Huntington Disease, multiple sclerosis, severe head injury, and the last stages of syphilis, AIDS, and mad cow disease. 7. Describe the different biological theories of aging as discussed in lecture. Heredity Theory: there is a gene for aging (something that ?turns on? at a certain age to trigger aging) Cellular Clock Theory: there is a finite number of times that cells can divide (70-80 times) Free-Radical Theory: accumulation of by-products (free radicals) from metabolic processes that interfere with function Mutation Theory: the rate of genetic mutation increases with age (could be, in part, due to exposure to many different things: sun, pollution, heat, etc.) Autoimmunity Theory: over time our natural defenses against infections attack normal cells (the body attacks itself). This is a promising theory because, if true, and if it's curable, then aging can be slowed down or perhaps reversed. Hormonal Stress Theory: our aging hormonal system lowers our ability to handle stress (old people's stress levels remain higher longer in response to stressful stimuli compared to younger people) (when one's significant other dies, the other one usually dies soon after: body can't take the stress of bereavement) Longevity Assurance: evolution favored us with better genes than other species. (this doesn't really explain aging, but it does offer some ideas as to why we live as long as we do: we got the best genes from the gene pool) Chapter 15: Late Adulthood: Psychosocial Development 1. Know the following stratification (social) theories of adjustment to aging: a) disengagement theory b) activity theory c) socioemotional selectivity theory (discussed in lecture) a) Disengagement Theory: inevitable withdrawal from society to cope with own mortality b) Activity Theory: maintaining an active lifestyle produces healthy living c) Socio-emotional Selectivity Theory: the elderly maximize their positive emotional experiences (and minimize emotional risks) be decreasing peripheral social contacts and increasing close social contacts also, certain personality traits remain the same over time (how you're personality is now, affects how you age/deal with aging?) The BIG FIVE Personality traits: 1) extraversion: sociability 2) agreeableness: trusting, helpful 3) conscientiousness: careful 4) emotional stability: calm or anxious? 5) openness: exploration or conformity? 2. Describe how people cope with retirement. Work provides social support, status, and boosts self-esteem. Also provides an income. Also, productivity, effectiveness, and independence. The generalization that work is important for well-being is based on surveys of adults of both sexes and every age. Retirees not always happy. Planning is often inadequate. Financial problems, especially if costs are calculated based on past expenses volunteering offers some of advantages of paid employment (generativity, social connections, better health, less depression, also help in providing education, and other social services). Healthy elders are likely to be volunteers, as well as vice versa. Advantages are clearest when volunteering occurs in moderation (2 hrs a week, not several organizations). Caring for their own homes. Both sexes do more housework after retirement (yard work, redecorate, build shelves, rearrange furniture, gardening). Complexity of hobbies and home-repair activities correlates with lower rates of dementia (correlation not causation). Aging in Place: remaining in the same home and community in later life, adjusting but not leaving when health fades. If have to move, prefer to stay close by. Naturally Occurring Retirement Community (NORC): a neighborhood or apartment complex whose population is mostly retired people who moved to the location as younger adults and never left aging in place does not mean that seniors need to be left alone; it means that care should come to them continuing education: most elderly are motivated primarily by a desire for personal or social improvement (mastering a hobby, managing income, exploring their roots, understanding their grandchildren). Strong intellectual curiosity, desire for deeper understanding (differs from youngers who just want skills useful for job). In some places elderly education is encouraged. Older adults are less likely to attend religious services than are the middle-aged, but faith (praying and other religious practices). Faith encourages healthier lifestyle, attendance at services fosters social relationships, belief in a divine plan decreases stress by fostering reinterpretation of past problems, by reducing fear of death. Probably influences rate of depression and suicide. Psychological health depends on feeling that they are part of a long, continuous line of spiritual traditions. Political Activism: more older people write letters to elected representatives, vote, and identify with a political party. More likely to keep up with the news. Many older people are passionate about the well-being of future generations who are not their direct descendants. 3. Describe the relationships between older adults and younger generations. Longer years of ?shared lives? across generations. Beanpole family: multiple generations but only a few members in each one (the average couple now has fewer children). Intergenerational relationships become more important when most grandparents have only 1-2 grandchildren. Often relationships are positive, they can sometimes be stressed: older adults don't stop parenting because their children are grown. The closest nonromantic relationship is the parent-child one Filial Responsibility: the obligation of adult children to care for their aging parents. Sometimes parents need things and children sacrifice to give them. Someitmes the need is emotional and that's harder to give. Also some parents may resent some hep that kids give. Good relationship with successful grown children enhances parent's well being, especially when both generations do what the other generation expects. Conflict is more likely in emotionally close relationships rather than distant ones, especially when either generation becomes dependent on the other (mother-daughter relationships) assistance arises from need and from ability to provide. Frequency of contact is related to geographic proximity, not affection. Love is influenced by the interaction remembered from childhood. Sons feel stronger obligation; daughters feel stronger affection. When children born in N. America become old they prefer to live apart from their adult children, but nearby. Makes grandparent-grandchild relationship more voluntary. Types of grandparents: Remote Grandparents: emotionally distant, demand honor, respect and obedience and expect to get help whenever needed. Companionate Grandparents: entertain and ?spoil? their grandchildren, esp. in ways or for reasons that the parents would not. Involved Grandparents: active in day-to-day lives of grandchildren Surrogate Parents: raise their grandchildren, usually because parents are unable or unwilling to do so. Epilogue: Death and Dying 1. Describe death throughout the life span, including how individuals at different stages of their life view death and dying. Death in Childhood: [3-5yr]: death is reverisble and not universal, compare it to sleeping (bad idea because can make them afraid to sleep), and think that they can escape it. [5-7yr]: begin to grasp that death is final Death in Adolescence:[11+yr]: express abstract concepts about death (?the meaning of life?) Death in Adulthood: death is no longer romanticized, it must be avoided, or at least postponed. Anxiety about death increases from late teens to mid-twenties, then gradually declines as we approach old age. Do not readily accept the death of others, even when those others are ready to die. Terror Management Theory (TMT): the idea that people adopt cultural values and moral principles in order to cope with their fear of death. This system beliefs protects individuals from anxiety about their mortality and bolsters their self-esteem, so they react harshly when other people go against any of the moral principles involved. Death in Late Adulthood: anxiety decreases and hope rises. Life-threatening illnesses decrease satisfaction less among the elderly. Some older people are quite happy when they know their remaining time is short. Less TMT symptoms. They tie up loose ends that younger people are less willing to do. Family has more importance as time grows short. 2. Describe the views of death in major religions. People who think they are close to death are more likely to believe in life after death (could explain why the old in US are more religious. Could explain why people in nations with more deaths among the young tend to be more devout). Virtually every one of the hundreds of world religions provides rites and customs to honor the dead and comfort the living. Specifics differ. Hinduism: person should die on the floor surrounded by family who neither eat nor wash until the funeral pyre is extinguished some Christian: funerals include food, drink, music, dancing. many Muslim: dead person is bathed by the next of kin Navajo: no one touches the dead person not everyone in each of these religions observes every custom. In all religions/cultures, death is regarded as a passage, not an endpoint. Religion provides hope at death. Many elderly people seek to return to their religious roots. Many want to by buried or have ashes at hometown (this desire may increase the longer one is away from birthplace. 3. Know the five stages dying persons pass through as described by Kubler-Ross. 1) DENIAL (?I'm not really dying?) 2) ANGER (?I blame my doctors, or my family, or God for my death?) 3) BARGAINING (?I will be good from now on if I can live?) 4) DEPRESSION (?I don't really care about anything; nothing matters anymore?) 5) ACCEPTANCE (?I accept my death as a part of life.?) 4. Define euthanasia. Describe the different types. Euthanasia: the act of killing someone painlessly (especially someone suffering from an incurable illness) Passive Euthanasia: a situation in which a seriously ill person is allowed to die naturally, through the cessation of medical intervention Active Euthanasia: a situation in which someone takes action to bring about another person's death, with the intention of ending that person's suffering Physician-Assisted Suicide: a form of active euthanasia in which a doctor provides the means for someone to end his or her own life 5. Describe the purpose of living wills. Living Will: a document that indicates what kinds of medical intervention an individual wants or does not want if he or she becomes incapable of expressing those wishes Health Care Proxy: a person chosen by another person to make medical decisions if the second person becomes unable to do so purpose is to have one's wishes expressed at a time when that person cannot express them him/herself. 6. Understand grief, mourning and bereavement. Grief: the powerful sorrow that an individual feels at the death of another Bereavement: the sense of loss following a death Mourning: the ceremonies and behaviors that a religion or culture prescribes for people to employ in expressing their bereavement after a death
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