lymph from right arm and head enters the right lymphatic duct
rest of body drains into thoracic duct
connective tissue. contains cells and matrix
blood separates into three parts
1. plasma 2. buffy coat (white blood cells) 3. red blood cells
Percentage by volume of red blood cells
Important proteins in plasma
albumin immunoglobin clotting factors
transport fatty acids and steriods
regulate osmotic pressure of blood
proteins found in liver
bags of hemoglobin no organelles
worn out blood cells burst as they squeeze through channels in spleen, or in liver.
white blood cells organelles protect body from foreign invaders
all blood cells differentiate from same type of precursor
enter bloodstream as reticulocytes, lose rest of their organelles within 1 or 2 days.
neutrophils- neutral to dyes eosinophils- acid dyes basophils- basic dyes
live a very short time
function nonspecifically against all inefecive agents die once infection is gone
monocytes lymphocytes megakaryocytes
work against specific agents of infection
small portions of membrane bound cytoplasm torn from megakaryocytes
contain actin and myosin, residuals of the golgi and the ER, mitochondria, and are capable of making protoglandins and important enzymes.
remain mainly in bone marrow
platelets stick to endothelium and to each other forming a loose platelet plug.
process involves many factors starting with platelets and including the plasma proteins prothrombin and fibrin
coagulation occurs in three steps
1. a dozen or so coagulation factors form a complex called protrombin activator. 2. protrombin activator catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin into thrombin. 3. thrombin is enzyme that governs polymerization of plasma protein fibrinogen to fibrin threads that attach to the platelts form a tight plug.
promoted by B lymphocytes -differentiate and mature in bone marrow and the liver.
B lymphocyte makes a single antibody (immunoglobin) and displays
on its membrane.
antibody recognizes foreign particle
portion of the antigen that binds to antibody
antigenic determinant that is removed from an antigen
can only stimulate an immune response if individual has been previously exposed to full antigen.
When B lymphocyte is assisted by helper T cell it differentiates into
memory B cells
free bodies may attach their base
to mass cells
when antibody whose base is attached to mast cell, and binds to antigen, mast cell releases histamine and other chemicals.
antibodies block the
chemically active part of antigenic substances.
the first time the immune system is exposed to an antigen. it requires 20 days to reach its full potential
memory b cells proliferate and remain in body till reinfection occurs. they secondary response starts. it takes 5 days to reach its full potential.
Humoral immunity is effective against
bacteria, fungi, parasitic protozoans, viruses, and blood toxins
involve cell mediated immunity.
Mature in thymus
have antibody like protein on surface that recognizes antigens
never make free antibodies
if t-lymphocyte binds to self antigen
then T lymphocyte is destryoed
helper t cell
attacked by HIV.
suppressor t cell
play a negative feedback role in immune system.
killer t cell
bind to antigen-carrying cell and release perforin, a protein which puncture the antigen carrying cell.
can attack many cells because they do not phagocytize their victims.
are responsible for fighting some forms of cancer.
1. inflammation 2. macrophages, neutrophils engulf bacteria 3. IF fluid rushes where lymphocytes wait in nodes 4. Macrophage process and present bacterial antigens to B lymphocytes. 5. With help of helper T cells, B lymphocytes differentiate into memory and plasma 6. memory cells are for second response 7. plasma cells produce antibodies that are released into blood to attack bacteria
Single antibody is specific for
Single B lymphocyte produces only
one antibody type
Type A blood
red cell membrane has A antigens and does not have B antigens.
If erythrocytes have A antigens, the immune system does not
make A antibodies
Type O blood
has neither A nor B antigens, so makes both A and B antibodies.
Blood donor should only donate blood to an individual
that does not make antibodies against the donor blood
O blood can donate
AB blood may receive
surface proteins on red blood cells first identified in Rhesus monkeys.
1st pregnancy, mother is rh negative, and has rh positive fetus. upon exposure, mother develops an immune response against Rh positive blood.
2nd pregnancy, second that is rh positive may be attacked by antibodies of mother.
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