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Multiple short nerve fibers, branching extensions at the cell body receive messages from other neurons. Carry info to the cell body.
area of axon close to soma, allows Na+ to enter cell, where AP begins.
helps speed the transmission of electrical signals down the axon, allowing much faster communication from brain to muscles.
Contains the Nucleus & metabolic center of the cell.
Where the information received from thousands of other neurons is collected and integrated, then impulses are transmitted along the axon.
antagonistic to ACh and inhibits further exocytosis and binding of ACh in synapse.
An enzyme that breaks down ACH. Makes sure extra neurons don't continue to fire when not needed. (ex. football lineman jumping the line of scrimmage has too much ACH, not enough ACHE to stop it.)
epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine; regulate arousal and feelings/emotion and motivate behavior.
Similar to NT's family.
Fight-or-flight hormone produced in the adrenal glands that prepares the body to respond to emergencies.
Neurotransmitter that when released causes an adrenaline rush that seems to take over your whole body.
A neurotransmitter whose abnormal activity is linked to depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and eating disorders.
Lack of: sad and anxious moods, food cravings, and aggressive behavior.
small brain area critical for attention and habit formation that is affected by drugs that have addictions because they stimulate dopamine receptors here.
Brains Pleasure center.
Debunked idea brain functions occur in specialized locations in the brain- practice of assessing personality traits and mental abilities by measuring bumps on the head.
Franz Joseph Gall.
Gall and followers believed that different behavioral traits could be related to different skull features/
Study of the cranium. Different spots of the brain are for different thighs. Marriage, music, etc.
The Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental Disorsder fifth edition Manual used to diagnosis disorders.
Written by psychiatrists. Symptom oriented. No description of cause. Myth of mental illness, absent of physical evidence, written in 60's.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation
Sends a magnetic pulse to the brain
• two symmetrical left & right halves of the brain
• control the opposite side of the body
• the dominance of one hemisphere of the brain in
• Left Side- associated with language and logic
• Right Side- associated with spatial & pattern sense
and simple language (one or two word
stimulates skeletal muscle contractions and under conscious control (under your control)
The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and muscles of the internal organs. -body needs to do opposite thing when its preparing for action vs recharging.
The system of nerves carrying information to and from the internal organs and glands.
Gonads: Gonadal Hormones influence adult sexual behavior (influence secondary sex characteristics; female breast development, male facial hair, etc. )
males :testes, Females: ovaries.
Androgen such as testosterone-more prevalent in males. Estrogens, such as estradiol, more prevalent in females.
Study: Conducted by Thomas Bouchard at the Univ. of Minn. Identical twins are likely to be similar no matter where they are raised.
The brain's special capacity for change. Through experience, drugs, or injury.
What allows us to learn.
Brains need nourishment
are social organs
need to feel safe
Arnold Buss and Robert Plomin
-Sociability: eagerness or not to interact with people & their environment
describes the euphoric pain continuum
1. Learn the mood swing: experience that drinking shifts mood to euphoria. then wears off.. Social drinking, drinking for the now. Person agrees to pay the cost. Positive mood swing.
2. Seek the mood swing: learn that when one feels depressed alcohol will alter mood.. Heavier "social drinking". Learning to trust the alcohol. Swing becomes more emotional. Builds tolerance. Quickly leads to stage 3.
3. Harmful Dependence: experience negative events (DWI, job loss, health) and unwilling to stop. Loss of control, rationalization. Becomes alcohol-centered. Relationships decline.
4. Drinking to feel normal: drinking to avoid withdrawal & numb emotion and pain. Downward spiral, trying to regain original state, constant intoxication, chronic depression, state-dependent memory.
Theory stating that emotion results from physiological states triggered by stimuli in the environment.
Feel sorry because we cry
Afraid because we tremble
angry because we strike
emotions bring about bodily responses and vice versa to prepare us for certain situations. tied together, emotions are adaptive to navigate our environment.
blood temp, heart rate, pupil dilation, perspiration, breathing rate etc.
the strategies people use to influence their own emotional experience.
Humor, thought suppression and rumination, distraction
- eyes and mouth convey emotional information- faces appear in contexts that provide what emotion person ks experiencing
-facial expressions are universal, therefore biologically based.
focused on the uniqueness of human beings and their capacity for choice, growth, and psychological health.
Born with an actualizing tendency. (guitar player playing at nokia theatre, pitcher playing for the Yankees.)
is defined by congruence of the real and ideal self.
congruence=(Sane and similar)
Also: An Individuals overall and specific positive and negative self-evaluation. (Increases during middle school)
Low-self-esteem brings on failure which then reinforces low-self-esteem. )cycle of failure)
High-self-esteem-does the opposite, breeds success.
construct new knowledge when they engage in active self-discovery.
What is going on on the outside should = what is going on on the inside.
The study of the origin or cause of some psychological disease/illness
Fundamental Causes- socioeconomic status, social inequality, race, gender, community, neighborhood, stress, access to social support
Proximate Risk Factors- diet, exercise, use of tobacco and alcohol, and stress
mental disorders w/ mood disturbance as their predominant feature
recurrent, unwanted thoughts/impulses/images
Psychologist Aaron Beck:
People who experience depression, perceive themselves, their situations, and the future negatively. These perceptions influence each other and contribute to the disorder.
Take all threats seriously.
Let them know you care.
Bipolar 1 Disorder
manic episode is a distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood lasting at least one week
Paranoid, Antisocial personality, & Borderline
a group of psychiatric conditions in which a person's long-term (chronic) behaviors, emotions, and thoughts are very different from their culture's expectations and cause serious problems with relationships and work
Two or more personality states (host).
Most go unnoticed.
Could be due to changes in mood, thoughts, or muscle tension.
Treatment for disorders where a therapist combines techniques,
Gradually reduces psychotic symptoms, including hyperactivity, mental confusion, hallucinations, and delusions.
Typical neuroleptics, atypical neuroleptics, and partial dopamine agonists.
1st ever chlorpromazine.
They decrease activity at dopamine synapses, sometimes producing unfortunate side-effects such as symptoms of Parkinson’s disease and tardive dyskinisea (tick like movements) clozapine fewer side effects: Thorazine, Mellaril, Haldol. Clozapine, an atypical neuroleptic, can cause a potentially fatal reduction in white blood cells
-during episodes of mania, pt is treated w/ mood-stabalizing medication
-treatment w/ these drugs decrease extreme range of mood experienced by pt.
-treatment for bipolar depression
-stabalizes mood, continued use helps prevent manic episodes
-usually prescibed to treat bipolar 1 disorder
-the dose must be controlled carefully because at higher doses its toxic
-its mechanism is still unknown, but may be related to ablility to block the synthesis of arachidonic acid (which is normally produced in the brain during inflammation)
Psychoanalysis uses this to bring unconscious material to the consciousness
Free Association=client starts thinking about a particular symptom or problem and then reports everything that comes to mind--a word, a phrase, a visual image
Transference=clients transfer onto the therapist the behaviours and feeling they originally established towards their father, mother, or another important person in their lives
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